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UMASS/AMHERST ^ 

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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN 

POMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 



TOLEDO, OHIO 

1921 



L 




UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



SB 

354 

A47 

V.38 

1921 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Thirty-Eighth Convention 



OF THE 



American 
Pomolo^ical Society 



ORGANIZED 1848 



TOLEDO, OHIO 

December 7, 8 and 9, 1921 



Columbus, Ohio: 

The F. J. Heer Printing Co. 

1922 



201029 



JLIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 

MAasACHifsnrS 



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PROCLAMATION " 

(IF THE THIRTN -KICHTII CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN POMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

VVe hereby proclaim that the American Pomological Society 
is to hold its thirty-eighth convention in the city' of Toledo, Ohio, 
on the days and evenings of December 7th, 8th and 9th, being 
Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, in connection with the Na- 
tional Farmers' Exposition. In pursuance of the time-honored 
declaration of the constitution, the conclave is called for "the ad- 
vancement of the science of pomology." To this end we cordial- 
ly invite all friends of fruit-growing to attend the convention 
and to take part in the discussions, and request that horticultural 
societies, organizations and firms send delegates. 

VVe solicit specimens of good fruits, fresh and preserved, 
for the exhibition tables, as also manufactured fruit products, 
machines, devices, apparatus, materials, nursery stock, and 
whatever else may contribute to the attractiveness and educa- 
tional value of the general display. It is the desire to make the 
convention, both in its speaking program and its exhibition, a 
worthy expression of the best development of pomology in the 
United States and Canada. 

It is expected that the program will outline the large for- 
ward movements in organization, transportation, marketing, 
governmental oversight, and the prospects of the fruit industry, 
as well as to consider problems of production and the valuable 
knowledge of species and varieties. It is purposed not to dupli- 
cate the work of state and provincial horticultural societies, but 
to give the meetings a national and international character. The 
convention should be a clearing-house for the problems of both 
the commercial grower and the amateur. 

The student fruit-judging contests and the participation of 
collegiate members from the colleges of agriculture should be 
attractive features. 

The American Pomological Society stands for an educa- 
tional ])olicy and program, and we ask the cordial cooperation of 

(3) 



the fruit-loving public as a renewal of fellowship and a con- 
tribution to the public good. 

L. H. Bailey, President. 

R. B. Cruickshank, Secretary-Treasurer. 

October 25, 1921. 



THIRTY-EIGHTH CONVENTION AMERICAN POMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY 

Toledo, Ohio, December 7, 8, 9, 1921. 

The Thirty-eighth session of the American Pomological 
Society was held in Toledo, Ohio, December 7, 8, and 9, 192 1. 
The first meeting was called to order at eleven-twenty a. m., 
December 7. in the Moose Hall, by the President, Dr. L. H. 
Bailey. 

The President: Ladies and Gentlemen: The meeting 
will come to order. I presume at subsequent sessions we shall 
have a larger attendance as persons begin to come in. 

You have the program before you. You know that the pro- 
ceedings this morning are largely formal, having to do with the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer and the Address of the Presi- 
dent. The first in order is the Presidential Address. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

Dr. L. H. Bailey, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I welcome you to the thirty-eighth 
convention of the American Pomological Society. This I do with 
reverence for the past and confidence in the future. The Society 
is in its seventy-fourth year. The conventions have been bien- 
nial, until this one and its predecessor. Movements are now too 
rapid to await a biennium. 

The program is before you. Some of you are surprised that 
the first business session opens with reports from the different 
States. This is in some sense a reversion to the older plan of 
the Society, whereby the convention developed at once into an 
experience meeting. In the early years, the convention consisted 
of two parts, — the reports of the fruit committees and the open 
discussions. In those days, pomologists did not come together 

(5) 



"to hear papers." They told each other what they had learned 
in the two years, for the custom had not then developed of ask- 
ing government for aid, of demanding redress of grievances, and 
of laying great plans for the securing of rights and the further- 
ance of trade. 

For more than half a century this Society occupied a dis- 
tinct field quite its own, concerned largely with amateur interests 
and the varieties of fruits because, at first, there were practically 
no other interests. Its work was associated with production. 
But the great State horticultural societies came into existence ; 
large commercial interests developed ; distribution and marketing 
took precedence, in public discussions, over production ; the scien- 
tific undertakings received great stimulus and the investigators 
made an association of their own. The old Society came into 
difficulty, and almost before anyone was aware it found itself 
without a field of effective operation. There have now been 
some years of prospecting. We think we now have a program, 
and we know the field is clear. There is nothing in the genius 
or even in the history of the Society to prevent it from occupy- 
ing a large ])lace in the stirring processes of the twentieth cen- 
tury. 

YESTERDAY 

In a peculiar sense the Society now stands between yesterday 
and tomorrow. It emerges from its long and honorable past into 
a future of a somswhat diflferent direction. First, then, may we 
take a retrospect. Let us sit calmly for a few moments and 
try to reconstruct in our minds the temper of one of the early 
conventions. By the time of the fifth meeting, held in Boston 
in 1854, the Society had gained its headway and its character 
was known. It .was a delegate convention. The proceedings 
of this convention are in my hand. Be attentive while I read. 

"The morning session was opened, at ten o'clock, by the 
President, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, of Massachusetts, who 
.took the chair, and called the Society to order. The Secre- 
tary, H. W. S. Cleveland, of New Jersey, was present, and 
took his seat. The delegates were then requested to hand 
in their credentials to the Secretary for examination. 

"Col. Henry Little, of Maine, moved that when the dele- 
gations from the dift'erent States, should have presented their 



credentials, the President proceed to appoint a committee, 
consisting of one gentleman from each State, to nominate a 
list of officers for the next biennial term; and the motion 
was unanimously adopted. The President said there were 
other delegates in the city ; but as the time was passing, it 
might be expedient to proceed at once to business. He then 
requested those present to answer to their names, as the list 
of delegates was called in congressional order. The gentle- 
men present responded." 

The delegates were : seven from Maine ; thirty-nine from 
Massachusetts; nineteen from Connecticut; twenty-six .'rom New 
York ; twelve from Pennsylvania ; eight from New j ersey ; two 
from Maryland ; one from Ohio ; two from Illinois ; one from 
Iowa; one from Missouri; three from Florida; and one from 
District of Columbia, — 122. It is a mistake to suppose that in 
the old days the attendance at the conventions was large. I 
think the attendance was fair to good, but it was of superior 
quality and influence. The memberships in 1854-6 were 114. 
of which 26 were from Massachusetts, 23 New York, 23 Penn-- 
sylvania, 10 New Jersey, 15 Connecticut. 5 Ohio. 4 Maryland, 
3 Maine, 2 each from Virginia, Florida and Illinois, one from 
each of several States including one member as far west as 
Davenport, Iowa. There was none from Canada. In 1867 the 
membership, as published in the proceedings, was 308; in 1885 it 
was 322; in 1895 the number was 347;~these figures include both 
life and biennial members. 

"After the calling of the list of delegates, an invitation 
was extended to all persons present, and feeling an interest 
in the objects of the association, to take part in its delibera- 
tions. 

"Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, the President, gave notice 
that he should hold a Levee, on the evening of the next day, 
Thursday, at eight o'clock, at the Revere House ; and ex- 
tended a hearty invitation to all the memlrers and delegates 
of the Society, to be present on that occasion. 

"The President then rose and delivered the following 
address." 



8 

The President's address was the dignified, hopeful and ar- 
tistic statement that was always received from Marshall P. 
Wilder. In this day we should call him "a gentleman of the old 
school." We now speak of our fellows as men, persons, dele- 
gates and associates. The particular points emphasized in that 
address were the methods to be invoked for "the production 
from seed of new varieties of fruits adapted to particular local- 
ities, or to general cultivation"; the "arts of cultivation"; a dis- 
cussion of "appropriate fertilizers for fruit-trees"; mention of 
the difficult subject of "summer pruning" ; the necessity of re- 
garding "the affinities between different varieties in the arts of 
multiplication" ; the maladies of trees ; "the preservation and 
ripening of fruit." He admonished the delegates that "eternal 
vigilance is an indispensable condition of success." The conclu- 
sion of this worthy address was the following paragraph : 

"Gentlemen, Go on. Prosecute the work you have so 
honorably commenced. Sow the seeds of your best fruits, — 
raise new varieties, — ply the arts of judicious cultivation, — 
study the laws of nature, and extend your researches and 
labors, till our beloved land shall be adorned with orchards, 
vineyards and gardens; and man shall realize the poet's idea 
of Paradise regained !" 

The President's address was received "with enthusiastic ap- 
plause." The President appointed twelve persons to serve as the 
nominating committee. A committee was then appointed by the 
President "to report business for the convention." Then "The 
President invited all editors and reporters of papers to take seats 
at the board, and requested gentlemen having list of fruits, which 
they might have contributed, to pass them into the Secretary's 
hands, and they would then be disposed of by the Committee on 
Fruits." 

The convention then proceeded to hear and discuss the re- 
ports of delegates representing the different states as to the con- 
dition of pomology, particularly in respect to the varieties of 
fruits. About one-half of the report of 258 pages is made up 
of a record of this part of the proceedings. The second half 
of the report comprises a miscellaneous discussion, which turned 
to a considerable extent on the kinds -and varieties of fruits. 



It will be seen that this convention turned mostly on the 
subject of the production of fruits. Judging- from the character 
of the experience which is recorded, it must have been a fraternal 
and entertaining series of meetings. The reason why production 
was the theme of the convention was because the commercial side 
of fruit-growing had not then come into existence. The market- 
ing of fruit was a local and personal practice, and did not need 
to be discussed before a convention. Remember that in that 
time there was no great fruit-growing West and practically no 
subtropical pomology. Railroads were few. If there had been 
marketing problems at that time, the Society undoubtedly would 
have attacked them. 

In the proceedings of the nth session held at St. Louis in 
September, 1867, the Society was addressed by M. L. Dunlap of 
Champaign, Illinois, on the subject of "Packing and marketing 
fruit." In subsequent reports the commercial subjects associated 
with pomology are given increasing attention. 

TOMORROW 

We now come to a time, nearing the end of the first quarter 
of the twentieth century, when the delightful subjects associated 
with the kinds and varieties of fruit are readily and effectively 
handled by State, Provincial and local societies. The produc- 
tion of fruit is largely a series of geographical questions, and the 
methods employed in one part of the country may not be ap- 
plicable to remoter parts. The national fruit-growing subjects 
are rather those that have to do with policies and programs. 
How to organize and to effectualize the forces of society for the 
furtherance and protection of fruit-growing are problems for a 
national and international society to consider. The different 
State and Provincial societies represent political divisions of the 
continent. All of them, however, must consider large questions 
of policy associated with transportation, distribution, selling, mar- 
keting, storage, quarantine, packages, and many legislative mat- 
ters that touch the fruit-growing industry. It would add much 
to their effectiveness without detracting anything from their in- 
itiative and integrity if they could act through a body of con- 
tinental scope, including both the United States and Canada. 
This is the large field of the American Pomological Society. 



10 

Some of its friends have felt that the Society should not be 
"commercialized." We need, however, to understand what we 
mean by this word. I would not have the Society commercialized 
in the sense of becoming a trade organization ; it should not en- 
gage in buying and selling nor become an agency of distribution; 
it should not be a pooling company or a fruit-growers' exchange. 
However, it may very properly cover all the educational and in- 
formational subjects associated with the commerce in fruits as 
well as those associated with the breeding and production of 
fruits. The Secretary's office should be prepared to give in- 
formation on the fruit crops of other countries, and of North 
America, the prospects of the export trade, the laws and regula- 
tions touching the handling and the movement of fruits, and all 
other subjects that will aid the fruit-grower in the better con- 
duct of his business. At the same time, the Secretary's office 
may give any information it is able to collect that will help per- 
sons better to understand and to grow fruits, whether these 
growers are commercial men or amateurs on village lots. All 
new findings of experiment stations, conclusions as to new 
varieties, new apparatus, methods and practices, opinions of per- 
sons competent to advise, may be distributed freely to the mem- 
bership. Although the Society may cover commercial fruit- 
growing in this wa}', it must never lose sight of the amateur 
and the small planter, for it is on this body of non-occupational 
fruit-lovers that a successful and growing commercial fruit- 
growing must rest. The American Pomological Society, there- 
fore, may stimulate all planting of fruits independently of the 
size of those plantings. Tt must encourage the growing of single 
trees and plants as well as of large orchards, for the interest of 
fruit-growing holds together from one end to the other. 

If these statements are sound, then it follows that the cen- 
tral service of the American Pomological Society is not in its 
conventions and exhibitions, however important they may be, but 
in the Secretary's office. I am convinced that the Society may 
exercise a very large usefulness and make a great impression on 
the country without any conventions whatever. Such a frequent 
periodical issuance of helpful information from the Secretary's, 
office as I have in mind, aided by supporting officers and by the 
membership, is competent to interest a vast number of people. 
The return for the membership will lie in a useful, attractive. 



II 

well-bound annual report promptly delivered, in circular letters 
frequently issued, in the member's privilege of being able to write 
a central ofRce for information, in the exchange of sample fruits 
and of cions, and in the support that a good organized body may 
give to all worthy needs and purposes of fruit-growers. The 
Society should be prepared to exert its influence promptly when 
questions of public policy touching fruit-growing are pending. 

To this end, the Socfety invites membership from all per- 
sons who are interested in fruits, whether they grow the fruit- 
trees in suburban lots or whether they have large commercial 
areas, and also those who grow the trees, who manufacture ap- 
pliances and supplies used by fruit-growers, from traders in 
fruits, and all others interested in the subject. Local ?'.nd state 
horticultural societies are invited to affiliate and to take part by 
means of delegates, as are also institutions and business organiza- 
tions. 

The active personal membership is in two parts, --the regu- 
lar adult members, and the collegiate members. Tb; collegiate 
membership is a departure, and the organization of it is not yet 
perfected. I trust that we may now complete the plans for it. 
These members in the colleges should have full standing, receiv- 
ing the annual reports and all the literature. They should hold 
chapter meetings, with suggestions, so far as possible, from the 
secretary's office. They should be led to expect a talk or lecture 
once each year by some officer or member of the parent society 
if their local organization is active and effectual. 

The Society should cover the field ; and as the field is in- 
creasingly commercial and legislative, so must the Society attack 
these economical and legal questions if it is to represent North 
American pomology. It shall represent and cover this field by 
means of education and stimulation rather than by buying and 
selling. What. then, are its agencies? 

1. A sustained Secretary's office, giving its entire time to 
the wo-rk of the Society. 

2. Conventions and exhibitions, held annually in dififerent 
parts of the country. 

3 . The annual report and yearbook, containing the proceed- 
ings of the conventions and also much collected matter 
of timely interest to fruit-growers. 



12 

4- Monthly or twice-monthly letter or bulletin from the 
Secretary's office to the membership, keeping the mem- 
bership informed on new fruits, new methods, insects 
and diseases, new movements, the state of the fruit 
crops, the projected and pending legislation, the markets, 
and whatever else the Secretary may be able to assemble 
that may be of current value. 

5. The re-issue each year of the fruit catalogue. 

6. The giving of medals and awards for meritorious fruits, 
worthy inventions, and notable contributions to the 
science and practice of pomology. 

7. The distribution, under proper safeguards, of cions, cut- 
tings, and samples of fruits to the membership. 

8. Eventually, a permanent home for the Society, with 
land, buildings and library. 

THE PROGRAM 

This is a day of programs. You have a schedule for three 
days. This includes the careful inspection of the exhibitions. 
These three days will set many things in motion for the coming 
year. I have a few other propositions to recommend for your 
consideration. 

1. That you commend the untiring labors of the Secretary 
and ask for a continuation of these efforts in making the Society 
known and in obtaining memberships. 

2. That you set forth a regular activity to increase the con- 
sumption of fruits and their products. This shall be accom- 
plished by all proper means of publicity, including regular adver- 
tising when we have the funds. In particular, ask every college 
of agriculture and experiment station to issue at least one bulletin 
in 1922 on the food and health value of fruits. The many de- 
partments of home economics can help greatly. Ask, also, all 
public health and sanitation and welfare bodies to issue such 
publications or leaflets. 

3. That a definite program be set afoot to encourage the 
home planting of fruits. The fruit-garden seems now to be 
little known in the old sense ; or if it exists, it is likely to be no 
more than a plantation of berries. But to collect and to grow 
varieties of the different fruits is as joyful an enterprise as to 
grow a collection of roses, peonies or irises. It is said that the 



13 

home orchard is going out. This may not be a misfortune if 
the home orchard is merely a small commercial plantation, form- 
ing an unimportant and uneconomical adjunct to a farm enter- 
prise, and competing with what may be called professional or- 
chards. But it is a tremendous misfortune if it means that 
fruit-growing is to be in the hands of only a few large area 
growers and that the people are to be deprived of the vast spir- 
itual resource of growing choice fruits and to be divorced from 
personal knowledge of them. Our concern, as public men and 
women, is quite as much to multiply the resources and satisfac- 
tions of the lives of the people as to swell the volume of trade. 
Home-making is the major concern of society. A fruit-garden 
as a part of every home, in which it is possible to rear one. should 
be a cardinal objective of this Society. 

Publications to this end may be prepared ; and definite co- 
operation with State and local societies should be undertaken 
with the view to have this subject entered on all the programs 
of 1922. 

4. That the Secretary's office issue a printed or mimeo- 
graph letter or bulletin at least six times a year, devoted to the 
purposes of the Society and distributed to the membership. 

5. That the first bulletin be a record of the resolutions and 
programs adopted by this Convention for the furtherance of the 
activities of the Societ}^ 

6. That the code of nomenclature be published as another 
bulletin, having been edited for the purpose, together with the 
names of current varieties made to conform to it. 

I recommend that two new principles be incorporated in the 
code, — the principle of alternative names, and the principle of 
fifty years of accepted usage. 

By the principle of alternatives the Society makes legal the 
use of two names for the same variety, when these names are 
thoroughly established in popular usage. Thus, both Newtown 
and Albemarle may be allowed and perhaps also both Duchess 
and Oldenburgh. This is only making the rules practical, for 
the Society cannot expect the people in the Albemarle region to 
say "Newtown." This means that the name Albermarle may be 
raised from synonomy and given good standing. 

By the principle of a half-century established usage in times 
past, a name remains standard, even though it does not conform 



14 

to the code. Thus, Rhode Island Greening and Esopus Spitzen- 
burgh and Roxbury Russet, are untouched. Again we are only 
making the rules practical, for the Society cannot expect the 
people to forget childhood and Downing and say Rhode Island, 
Esopus and Roxbury. 

To carry out these recommendations I suggest a committee 
of three to prepare the nomenclature bulletin. 

7. That the Society establish a regular official size of page 
and style of binding for the Report and Annual. 

There has never been an official size and format. :\t one 
time the proceedings were published in quarto. Hereafter the 
volume should be bound and a regular design of cover should 
be adopted. For this result a small committee should be con- 
stituted. 

8. That we now make up our minds just what we want to 
do with the collegiate membership idea, and that we issue a bul- 
letin on the subject. 

9. That the Society delegate certain of its members to act 
as advisors to the Secretary in the working out of the activities 
entrusted to his care. There should be one advisor, for example, 
in the publicity-for-consumption enterprise, one in publicity-for- 
planting, one in marketing, one in co-operation, one in affiliation 
and so on. These advisors should not constitute a committee or 
organized body. 

10. That we here -and now raise a supplementary fund, 
above the usual income of the Society, to put through the new 
work. Are there twenty persons and firms ready to contribute 
fifty dollars each? The contribution could be charged to the 
advertising appropriation oi the firm. Or are there ten persons 
and firms who will contribute fifty dollars and twenty who will 
contribute twenty-five dollars? Or are there one hundred who 
will give ten dollars? 

Aside from these suggestions let me call attention to certain 
resolutions adopted at the Columbus meeting, on the recom- 
mendation of the Lake Committee, and which have not yet been 
carried out so far as I know. They are printed on page 112 of 
the last Report. There are five of these resolutions needing at- 
tention : on the conduct of fruit shows ; statement on condition 
of commercial fruit-growing in United States and Canada ; en- 
couraging of students' judging competitions ; the offering of prizes 



i'5 

in plate apples; inquiry into cost of producing apples. Atten- 
tion should also be called to the excellent suggestions contained 
in the Report of Professor Lake, retiring Secretary, printed on 
page 115. 

The Convention is now before you. I trust it will be satis- 
factory to you, and inspiring. I hope we shall set our faces 
toward the future, taking a long look. We cannot stand still. 
To make no progress is to admit defeat. The officers cannot 
carry the work alone. There must be a large and helpful mem- 
bership. The members must give as well as receive. We must 
be a working company. 

Let us keep constantly before us the three larger purposes 
of the Society. These purposes are : to encourage the produc- 
tion of more and better fruit; to increase the consumption of 
fruit ; to enable everyone to have greater joy and reward in the 
knowledge and the growing of fruits. 



Charles E. Greening (Monroe, Michigan): 1 move that 
we adopt the recommendations of the President's Address.. 

The President: May I make a suggestion — that inas- 
much as you want to take these recommendations up in detail, 
the motion be changed and that a committee be appointed to 
consider them, the motion being that a committee be appointed 
to dissect the President's Address. 

(This change was accepted, the motion seconded and 
unanimously carried). 

Charles E. Greening : I move that the President appoint 
a committee of three for this purpose. 

The President : It would be better to have them named 
from the floor. 

H. P. Gould ( Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. 
C.) : I move to amend the motion and that the Secretary appoint 
this committee. 

(The amendment was accepted, the amended motion sec- 
onded and unanimously carried.) 

The President: The appointments will be made later in 
the session. 

I do not know how many of the people here are members 
of the American Pomological Societv, but at all of these sessions 



i6 

we want those who are not to make themselves known to the 
secretary — the handsome young man sitting over there. His 
name is Cruickshank — and he will take everything you have for 
the American Pomological Society. 

We shall now have the report of the Secretary-Treasurer, 
Mr. R. B. Cruickshank. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER 

This report is presented in full realization that the secretary 
has not been able to accomplish during the year any great part 
of the program laid out for his office at the last meeting. Cir- 
cumstances explained below and the impossibility of devoting to 
the work of the Society more than a small fraction of the time 
which it requires have interfered and kept tangible results below 
expectations. 

Finances — One of the purposes of the partial reorganiza- 
tion at the last meeting, was to interest financially in the So- 
ciety those industries allied to the business of fruit growing. 
The report in this connection is not as satisfactory as was hoped 
a year ago. A meeting of the executive committee was called in 
Chicago in January. At this time, plans were laid to approach 
members of these industries through the several persons on the 
executive committee, to begin a widespread campaign for mem- 
bership through the farm papers and through the literature 
issued by such allied interests as were in sympathy by means of 
membership application coupons. The business men on the 
committee were confident that a large sum for underwriting the 
expense of an extensive program could be raised and that a 
greatly increased membership of national distribution and pro- 
l)ortions could be ol^tained. 

However, before this work could be gotten underway, a 
conference of fruitgrowers was called for April in Chicago by 
the American Farm Bureau Federation. There immediately 
arose a question as to what this gathering would decide to do. 
and for fear there might be a conflict of action, it was felt ad- 
visable and necessary to allow our plans to rest until after that 
conference. 



17 

The executive committee met again the evening before and 
on the (lay of the fruitgrowers' conference. It appeared then 
that the new program of the American Pomological Society 
might in large measure be a duplication of v/hat was proposed 
in the resohitions adopted by the conference, and to show its 
interest in the movement, one of our members seconded the mo- 
tion for the appointment of a general fruit committee of 21 by 
the American Farm Bureau Federation. Efiforts to raise money 
through large subscriptions were again postponed. 

Meanwhile President Bailey had returned to the United 
States and another executive committee meeting was called and 
held in Toledo, July 26. Dr. Bailey was of the opinion that re- 
gardless of the probable program which might evolve from the 
American Farm Bureau Fruit Committee of 21. there was still 
a large field of useful endeavor for the American Pomological 
Society and that it could be placed in a position to give generous 
service to the fruit industry without interfering with or duplicat- 
ing the work of any other organization. 

With the loss then of eight months of valuable time, definite 
work began. Firms were written by both Mr. Stark and the sec- 
retary, asking not for actual donations, but for subscriptions 
which would be repaid if desired whenever the Society found 
itself in position to do so. The responses w-ere sympathetic, but 
in almost every case we were reminded of the present business 
depression, of the necessity for complete financial retrenchment 
and of the utter impossibility at the present time to help out. 

The exact results of the canvass are these. Stark Brothers 
Nurseries and Orchards Company of Louisiana, Mo., and The 
Hardie Manufacturing Company of Hudson, Mich., each gave 
$100.00, The Niagara Sprayer Company of Middleport, New 
York, gave $50.00 and the Package Sales Corporation of South 
Bend, Indiana, gave $200.00. None indicating a desire for re- 
turn of same. Many other concerns left themselves open to be 
approached again later, upon return of better business condi- 
tions. In addition, $1700.00 have been promised as a contribu- 
tion to a given working fund. Representatives of two business 
enterprises thought their firms would be willino^ to donate a small 
percentage of their profits towards the maintenance of a going 
9 



organization. The American Fruitgrower offered a full page in 
each issue for items concerning the Society. 

It appears that there are many allied businesses in the coun- 
try which see value in a strong, constantly functioning national 
or international organization to the fruitgrower and of course in- 
directly to themselves, and that they are ready under improved 
business circumstances and upon a reasonable state of readiness 
on the part of the American Pomological Society to underwrite 
it sufficiently to establish and equip a permanent office, without 
dictation by themselves. If but a little money has been collected, 
the past four months' effort seems to show that there is good 
promise of necessary funds. 

The complete financial report is herewith appended. The 
money received has been spent. It was spent with the idea of 
making it do the most to put the Society in position to progress. 

Membership — The roll of the Society now consists of 131 
Life members, 297 Annual members, 36 Collegiate members, 2 
Society members and 64 Institutional members, a total of 527. 
This is approximately what it was last year and, therefore, no 
increase is shown. 

The same circumstances which necessitated postponement 
of the financial campaign acted similarly against a big member- 
ship effort until late in the year. However, during the past few 
months, many of the State Horticultural Society members have 
been canvassed with the result that since August i, 200 of the 
297 annual memberships have been received. This would seem 
to mean that members can be obtained if they are insistently 
followed through a whole year and with a program of service 
to the individual and to the industry. 

During the past year, approximately 12,000 pieces of mail 
have gone out from the office of the secretary. Much of this 
has been an attempt to acquaint growers with the work and 
proposed work of the Society. In addition, news items have ap- 
peared in agricultural and horticultural papers to the extent of 
over a million copies. 

This widespread advertising is certain to exert a pulling 
force and gradually to increase the membership if properly fol- 
lowed up. The circulation manager of a national fruit paper 
estimated that 100,000 members could be obtained at a cost of 
$T.oo each. 



19 

Once begun with sufficient financial foundation, tliere is 
every reason to believe that the Society could l)e developed into 
a strong factor in the pomological world. 

Publications — During the year, the Proceedings of the 
Thirty-sixth meeting at St. Louis and the Thirty-seventh meet- 
ing at Columbus were printed and distributed. Together with 
this, was issued the first Pomological Annual, most of the ma- 
terial for which was gathered bv former Secretary Lake. It 
comprised ninety pages of the volume. This feature has pos- 
sibilities of great value and interest to members of the Society. 

Late in the year, in an attempt to keep the members more 
frec^uently and more completely in touch with the policies and 
activities of the Society and to give them more definite service, 
your secretary began sending out monthly mimeographed letters. 
Three were issued. While far below their possibilities, judging 
from the responses received, they appeared to be welcome. At 
least, they served to put the Society in mind more or less regu- 
larly. Such letters, though not so attractive as a printed page, 
have the advantages of being less costly, of consuming less time 
in the secretary's office and of possessing a more personal at- 
mosphere. A sufficiently organized secretarial oftice could make 
of these a source of real pleasure and worth to members. They 
like to hear from headquartei s. 

The President's Proclamation, calling this convention into 
session, was printed and mailed to meml:)ers. to horticultural 
societies and to agricultural magazines. 

Obituary — The following deaths have been reported to me 
during the year : Mrs. Helen V. Austin, Richmond, Indiana, 
and Prince E. L. Odescalchi, Purser, Hungary, both life mem- 
Ijers; Mr. George W. Trowbridge, Glendale, Ohio, and Mr. 
George B. Thomas, West Chester, Pa., annual members. 

Awards — Silver Wilder Medals were sent to the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada, and to the Buckeye Nurs- 
eries, Tampa, Florida, the latter for the Temple Orange. 

Bronze Wilder Medals were sent to the New York x\gri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Experiment Station, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Wisconsin 
State Horticultural Society, New England Fruit Show and Miss 
Elizabeth C. White, New Lisbon, New lersev. 



20 



A silver cup was given to the successful judging team of 
the Department of Horticulture of the Ohio State University. 

Silver medals were sent to Mr. A. L. Laisy and Mr. H. L. 
Geer, of Ohio and Massachusetts, respectively, as awards for 
their high scores in the judging contest at Columbus last year. 

In conclusion, your secretary is of the opinion that the 
American Pomological Society is in better position than it was 
a year ago. Its new policies are better defined, it has introduced 
itself to many thousands of fruitgrowers who previously had not 
heard of it, it has had widespread publicity which can be capi- 
talized, it has been promised the financial support of many busi- 
nesses allied to the fruit industry, it has had correspondence with 
all state horticultural societies and with a large number of fruit- 
growers cooperative associations, it has kept in close touch with 
its membership and has given considerable personal service to 
them, it has been stirring and has attracted attention to itself. 



Columbus, Ohio, 

December G, 1!)-21. 



R. B. Cruickshank, Secretary-Treasurer 



In account with the American Pomological Society. 



J92I 








March 1. 


To Cash. 


Received from L. R. Taft. . 


$608 Ml 


Dec. H. 


" 


297 Annual Memberships... 


rm 00 




" 


1 Life Membership 


m 00 






301 Collegiate Memberships 


30 .V) 




" 


State Memberships 


20 00 




" " 


Institutional Membership... 


.-)0 00 




n « 


Subscriptions 


448 00 




" 


Reports sold 


53 10 




" " 


Interest on Bonds 


200 00 



.12,054 51 



Feb. 23. By Cash. 



Nov. 21. 



April 



F. E. Dillon. Stenographic Service, 

Columbus meeting |152 90 

R. B. Cruickshank, Expense Office and 

Ex. Com. meeting, Chicago 19 10 

Madge Guyton, Stenographic Service. 40 00 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Letterheads.. 25 00 



9. 
21. 

22. 



May 


4 


June 


1 




20 


July 


1. 




30 


Augus 


4 



9. 

12. 

Sept. 1. 



23. 

26. 

80. 

Oct. 8. 

20. 



31. 

Nov. 3. 
5. 

11. 
30 



21 



Mary E. Brown, Merchandise 

R. B. Cruickshank, Expense Office and 

Ex. Com. meeting, Chicago 

F. Cranefield, Expense Ex. Com. 

meeting, Chicago 

Madge Guyton, Stenographic Service 
Madge Guyton, Stenographic Service. 

H. M. Aldrich, Legal Opinion 

Madge Guyton. Stenographic Service 
Madge Guyton, Stenographic Service 
F. J. Heer Printing Co., Letter Heads 
Trafford Talmadge Agency Co., 

Premium on $10,000 Bond 

L. Roesch, Return on Overpayment 

of Dues 

Weinland, Kahle & Doud, Legal 

Service 

E. S. Welch, Return on Overpayment 
of Dues 

Frances Carlisle, Stenographic Service 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Envelopes, 
Letter Heads, Paper 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Envelopes 
for Report 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Bill Heads.. 

Frances Carlisle, Stenographic Service 

Xantha Day, Stenographic Service... 

Simons Bros., Philadelphia, Wilder 
Medals and Cases 

Xantha Day, Stenographic Service... 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Stamped 
Envelopes, Folder, Paper 

Frances Carlisle, Stenographic Service 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Envelopes... 

Xantha Day, Stenographic Service... 

R. B. Cruickshank, Office Expense... 

Frances Carlisle, Stenographic Service 

F. J. Heer Printing Co., Annual Re- 
ports 

R. B. Powers , Ribbons 



(30 



48 24 



28 


16 


40 00 


40 


00 


25 


00 


40 00 


40 00 


10 


00 


35 


00 


1 


(M) 



2 50 

1 00 

40 00 

41 50 

15 00 

3 50 
40 00 
20 00 

79 00 
24 00 

141 20 
40 00 
10 00 
24 00 
88 65 
40 00 

758 80 
9 00 



11,925 15 



Cash to balance. 



$2,054 51 



$1,925 15 
129 36 



$2,054 51 $2,054 51 



22 

Ex-treasurer Taft reported that his books showed a balance 
of $730.00 credited to the Life Membership fund, and that the 
receipts from the Wilder Medal fund had exceeded the outlay 
for medals by the sum of $499.20, but that it had been neces- 
sary to draw upon these funds to pay current bills. One new 
life membership has been added, making the total fund now 
$780.00. There were expended for Wilder Medals $79.00; re- 
ceipts were $40.00. This fund therefore stands reduced to 
$460.00. 

Res])ect fully submitted, 

R. B. Ckujckshank. 
Secretary-Treasurer. 
Columbus, ()., Dec. i, 192 1. 



The President: You have heard this report. It is in two 
parts as the office is now a secretaryship and treasurership. 
Whether you wish to do anything with the secretary's report 
more than to receive it, is for you to say. It is the usual custom 
to have an auditing committee appointed to go over the Treas- 
urer's books, and a motion to that effect would be in order. 

H. P. Gould: I move that an auditing committee of three 
he named by the Chair to go over the Treasurer's report. 

( Motion seconded and carried. ) The president named : 
Charles E. Greening, 
Fred Johnson, 
J. E. Cochran. 

The President: We are now ready to adjourn this ses- 
sion. We are to be back here at two-thirty ready for a trip to 
the plant of the Rex Spray Company, and before that time we 
will have our afternoon session. The program calls for one 
o'clock, l)ut it has been suggested that this be made one-thirty, 
which will leave us an hour for our program. If there is no 
action to the contrary we will now adjourn to meet at one-thirty 
hy this clock. 

Any further business to come before this session? If not 
we will stand adjourned. 



W KDNESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 

The Wednesday afternoon session was called to order at 
one- forty by the President, Dr. L. H. Bailey. 

The Prksidknt : Wc have one or two things left over from 
the morning session. One is the appointment of the committee 
to dissect the President's Address. This committee was to be 
appointed by Mr. Criiickshank. 

The Secretary: That committee will be: 
H. P. (jould. Washington, D. C. 
Frederic Cranefield, Madison. Wis. 
M. B. Davis, Ontario, Canada. 

The President: A committee was appointed this morning 
to audit the Treasurer's Report. No action was taken, however, 
in reference to the re]Kirt of the Secretary. Do you wish to ac- 
cept it ? 

Cl.\rk Allis (New York) : I move that the report of the 
Secretary be accepted. 

(Motion seconded and carried). 

The President : We have two numbers on the program 
this afternoon. Mr. H. C. Taylor of Washington is not able to 
be here, but his paper is in our hands. I think we ought to 
give Mr. Allis whatever time he wants, and I propose therefore 
to call on him first. Then if we have time before going to the 
plant of the Spra}' Company we shall have the other paper read. 

Mr. Clark Allis of New York will now read a paper on 
"Pure Fruit Juices." 



PURE FRUIT JUICES 

Clark Allis, 

Neiv York 

Mr. President and Fellow Members : I think perhaps in 
fairness to the victims I have before me that I should announce 
that I am a manufacturer of cider; I am also a fruit grower. I 

(23) 



24 

am very much interested in growing fruit, apples principally, 
and I think there is no field in the fruit industry that offers the 
chance that does the manufacture of the by-products of the 
apple. Perhaps I am a crank on that subject. I never drank 
cider until I began to make it myself. 

This short title does not sound like the biggest thing and the 
greatest opportunity that has ever come to any class of ordinary 
business. Very few, if any, realize that this one, demand, if 
catered to and encouraged, with a publicity campaign carried on 
in keeping with the magnitude of the fruit business, would take 
all the fruit juice we could make. A billion dollars does not 
make a loud noise any more, but a billion spent by Americans 
last year for so-called "soft" drinks would boom the fruit busi- 
ness so all the world would hear. 

Much of the soft drink business is but a left-over from the 
brewing and whiskey-making days and is the most prolific source 
of bootlegging and drink with over one-half of one per cent, 
that the prohibition officers have to handle. Most of the near- 
beers, pops, Bunco-Bunco and drinks with similar compound 
names that have such immense sales are absolutely worthless and 
dangerous. Dye stuffs, chemicals and drugs, with the addition 
of a small amount of saccharine and canal water, make a con- 
coction that is beautiful to look at, that sells readily, and is al- 
most all profit. Some of the most widely advertised drinks con- 
tain certain drugs that are Avorse than beer. Part of the brewers 
and makers of soft drinks are as unscrupulous as ever and are 
making a big drive against the largest manufacturer of grape 
juice because this manufacturer worked hard to make America 
dry. As a part of their contract with retailers they have this 
clause — that the retailer of pop, etc., shall not handle this brand 
of grape juice — and incidentally, any kind of fruit juice made 
from fruit. 

A noted doctor who is a manufacturer of lemon, orange and 
other bottled fruit juices, gave me to drink at his laboratory 
several brands of fruit juices, none of which had a particle of 
fruit juice in them. In many cases of children's diseases where 
doctors have advised fruit juices, parents have bought commer- 
cial fruit juice without knowing that it was made entirely of 
chemicals. 



25 

The bottlers of America in their annual convention passed 
resolutions against certain editors of farm papers who were 
urging that school children should be furnished free, or at cost, 
milk to drink. They boom their hellish business even at the ex- 
pense of children's health, and America will stand or fall on 
the health or illness of its children. Milk and fruit juices are 
Nature's complete foods. Constipation is called an American 
disease, but with the proper use of milk, fruit and fruit juices, 
the use of drugs and dope is not necessary. A vast amount of 
pop and dangerous drinks are always on sale where school chil- 
dren can get them and many parents do not know the harm such 
drinks do to the children. 

Ikey went home one day to find his wife ill and wanting a 
doctor. Ikey hurried to get one, and his wife liked the doctor 
so well that she had him every day. Ikey objected, but his wife 
could not exist without the doctor's daily visit. Finally Ikey sent 
home a barrel of apples. When he came home his wife said, 
"Ikey, some one, I guess the doctor, sent us a barrel of apples." 
"Oh, no," said Ikey, "I sent them. I read in a paper that 'An 
apple a day keeps the doctor away.' " 

Loganberry juice, with its exquisite aroma and taste is dis- 
tinctly a product of our great Northwest and one of which she 
may well be proud. 

Grape juice had long been a favorite with many people, but 
it took Bryan, the Boy Orator of the Platte and our perpetual 
candidate for President, to give it a deserved boom at Washing- 
ton. Practically all fruits furnish juice that makes drinks that 
are refreshing and valuable as aids to health - — currants and 
berries of all kinds. 

Orange juice has sprung into great popularity and all the 
citrus fruits are valuable for their juices. No home or table is 
furnished as it should be without some citrus fruits always on 
hand, and lemonade — say boy ! This would be a desert place 
indeed without lemonade, both hot and cold. I can remember 
in the olden days that I often faked a cold just to get a quart or 
two of hot lemonade, and we use lots of it the year around. 

I am a great lover of citrus fruits and never read any of 
the wonderful ads. their associations put out but what I say, 
"Go to it ! You have the goods." 



26 

In a recent campaign three thousand doctors have been writ- 
ten to as to the value of orange juice. I think so far all who 
have answered endorse it unreservedly. From Washington our 
Government is sending out floods of bulletins encouraging the 
use of citrus fruits. All this shows what a wonderful organiza- 
tion the citrut fruit growers have. I congratulate them and hope 
they continue to prosper. Up to the present time it has been im- 
possible to pasteurize any of the citrus juices and retain a good 
flavor and color. Many have tried, ]:)Ut the results have been dis- 
appointing. 

All that has gone before is but an introduction to the one 
fruit and its juice, whose glory shines so brightly and whose true 
merit and worth are so wonderful. Xo fruit can compare with 
it. Adam and Eve left Paradise and all its pleasures for a poor 
specimen of an apple, but what would they say now if they could 
but see and eat some of our luscious apples or have a drink of 
cider made from ripe, picked, sound apples — apples that are 
fresh from the trees with no rot, specks or dirt I 

Do you know how Queen Victoria took her pills? In side'er 
( cider). 

The apple is the king of all fruit, and cider is the queen of 
all drinks. The nectar that the gods of old were so fond of was 
poor stufif compared with cider. For ages cider has been of such 
poor quality and usually hard, that it has been quite properly 
classed with the outlaws. But made as it should be, from good 
apples, bottled, capped and pasteurized at 140" to 145° long 
enough to destroy all the ferment germs, it is truly a drink fit 
for the best people on earth, the Americans, and my ambition is 
to make cider America's royal drink. 

Any process that will keep cider from working is all that is 
required, and pasteurization is the one usually followed. But 
one recipe is to get an 1. W. W'. to oversee the job — and the 
cider will never work — it is guaranteed never to work. 

(jrades and grading are drawbacks to apple growers, but 
with cider made as it should be, and all but the best grades of 
fruit made mto cider, apples would have a boom that would 
benefit the grower, the 'dealer and the consumer alike. The 
grower would not have so many barrels or boxes to sell and 
would receive more money. The dealer could say the packages 



27 

contained nothing but No. i fruit, and the consumer would al- 
ways be able to get high-class fruit. 

Until recently the United States Department of Agriculture 
has advised pasteurizing cider at 1/5°. This is entirely too high 
a temperature to use. as some kinds of apples have juice that 
changes flavor at 140''"'. All manufacturers of Ijottled cider that 
I know have been after a clear cider that deposits no sediment 
after standing. They have produced a clear liquid almost like 
water. They have refined cider to death. A filter should be used 
that leaves a cloudy, natural-colored cider. The sediment, which 
is pectin, easily shakes into suspension again and is what gives 
the cider its fine flavor. 

■'Liquid apple" should be a standard product and everyone 
should ask for cider or apple juice instead of pop, Coca-Cola, 
etc. The International Apple Dealers' Association and other as- 
sociations are readv to help in a campaign of this sort. Coopera- 
tive packing associations everywhere should back this movement 
to dispose of many of the apples now shipped in barrels and 
boxes. Cider can be made in vears when apples are cheap, and 
held over until the following year or years. Cider sells well in 
the summert-me, and this would help the apple business the year 
around. Publicity, a nation.-wide campaign, and every grower a 
booster, would do this. 

Doctor Bates, the great Indian expert at Cornell University. 
attended church on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation. He 
and Hen Hawk, an Indian Ijrave, were asked how the}^ liked the 
sermon — an eloquent sermon on Adam and Eve — the sin of 
eating the apple, what might have been, etc., etc.. etc. Doctor 
Bates of course praised the sermon, but when the minister tried 
to get praise from Hen Hawk he only grunted. Finally the min- 
ister urged Hen Hawk so hard that he said, "Adam damn fool." 
The minister wa^ horrified to hear Hen Hawk swear, l^ut asked 
him what he would have done with the apple, to which Hen 
Hawk replied, "Made cider.'" 

Legislation is necessary to check the flood of soft drinks 
now being sold. Every bottle should l)e branded as to its con- 
tents and as to the [)urity of the water it contains. The Pure 
Food law covers ]:)art of this, but it is not strict enough. ^lany 



28 

of the brands now being sold should be prohibited entirely. 
Nothing will help the sale of fruit juices as much as making 
public the "dope" that soft drinks are made from. It is some 
job, but each and everyone should do his part. "Up, men, and 
at 'em!" 



The President : This interesting paper is l^efore you for 
consideration and discussion, presented by one of the substantial 
fruit growers of western New York who is well known to all oi 
us. Are there any questions? 

A Member: I want to ask about the length of time to 
hold it. 

Clark Allis : When you get it to 140° hold it for one 
hour. But never let it get beyond 140° or 145° 

C. A. Bingham (Cleveland, Ohio) : I would like to ex- 
press my appreciation of this paper. I realize thoroughly the 
great business that can be done in bottling good fruit juices, be- 
cause I know a gentleman who had made himself an income of 
over $100 a day from the drink they call "Whistle." And he 
made a very small initial investment. His brother-in-law told 
me that when he died, at the age of about forty-five, he had an 
income of $100 a day. 

The President : You may not all know it, but the person 
who just sat down is Dr. C. A. Bingham, President of the Ohio 
State Horticultural Society, one of the members of the Executive 
Committee of this Society, and a practicing physician of many 
years' standing. 

We have time enough to hear the other paper on the pro- 
gram, by Dr. H. C. Taylor. Unfortunately, Dr. Taylor cannot 
be with us, but Mr. H. P. Gould, of the Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington, is here and will read the paper, on 
"Economic Work of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture in Connection with Pomology." 

Lest there be confusion, let me say that this is Dr. H. C. 
Taylor, not Dr. William A. Taylor, Chief of .the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, who was for some years the Secretary of this Society. 



29 



ECONOMIC WORK OF THE UNITED STATES DE- 
PARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN CONNEC- 
TION WITH POMOLOGY 

Dr. H. C. Taylor, 

Chief, Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates, U. S. D. A. 

The work of the Department of Agriculture having a vital 
relation to the economic advancement of pomology has many 
phases and is scattered through many offices in several bureaus 
of the Department. The field of pomological research is of 
major importance in such bureaus as Plant Industry, Markets, 
Chemistry and Entomology. Even the W^eather Bureau and 
Bureau of Forestry are concerned with problems that contribute 
in some vital respect to the well-being and progress of pomology. 
But ina-much as members of this Society are already well ac- 
quainted with much of the work conducted by the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, always ably represented at your meetings, and 
probably to a certain extent with the other lines in the other 
ofifices, it seems safe to assume that you expected in this paper 
special consideration of the economic work of a marketing 
nature. 

Standardization. — Fundamental to all of our economic 
marketing work with fruits is the work relating to standardiza- 
tion. In the process of developing each of our other lines we 
have come squarely up against the necessity for more general 
and just recognition of standards now in use, for further de- 
\elopment of standards and education regarding their purposes 
and use, to the end that we may have a generally recognized 
basis for buying and selling, a common language understood by 
contracting parties, a definite standard of quality upon which 
values may be tixed and quotations and determinations made. 

Experience has shown that products which are sold by grade 
more readily find a market, bring better prices, and are marketed 
at less expense than those which are not so graded. The ship- 
ment of poor quality and ungraded commodities causes great 
losses and has a depressing eflfect upon prices of the good as well 
as the poor products. A great many fruits and vegetables are 
shipped to market whose value does not warrant the payment of 
the freight charges. This poor fruit occupies valuable space in 



30 

cars and not only results in a loss upon arrival at destination, but 
lowers the value of the good fruit with which it is often mixed. 

Chiefly as a result of the work of the Department of Agri- 
culture mandatory standards have been promulgated for several 
staples and ])erniissive and tentative standards have been de- 
velo})ccl for various vegetables and fruits. The Department was 
able to be of considerable service to Congress in preparing the 
Standard Container Act and other standardization legislation 
now pending, and has had sole cliarge of the administration of 
the Standard Container Act. the enforcement of which is largely 
a matter of education. A Farmers' Bulletin dealing chiefly with 
much of our work of standardization has been issued. An 
article in the last Yearbook of the Department gives a popular 
review of the progress of standardization to date. 

Crop and Market News Scr7'icc. — The Department of 
Agriculture is making vigorous efforts to place the market news 
and trade information in its possession within the reach of all 
sellers and buyers whether they be farmers, dealers or ultimate 
consumers. The development of a nation-wide market news 
service, especially on vegetables and fruits, was one of the most 
insistent demands of the public when the Bureau of Markets 
was organized in 19 13. Naturally the people at large were en- 
tirely uninformed regarding • the complexity and magnitude of 
such an undertaking and had little idea of the expense involved 
in such a service. One of the first lines of work drafted and- 
pursued by the Bureau of Markets was the investigation of the 
practicability, methods and costs of a general market news 
service on perishables, and by 191 5 an experimental market news 
service on specified perishable commodities was in active opera- 
tion. During the war this service reached large proportions and 
was trvdy nation-wide in a very real sense. Curtailed appropria- 
tions have necessarily meant a curtailment of the work but in all 
reductions of the service the national aspect has l)een kept in 
mind and the essentials for such a framework have been retained 
in so far as possible. 

Whenever serious consideration is given to the complex 
and intricate prol^lems of marketing and distributing farm 
products, the need for prompt and accurate market information 
at every stage in the process is quickly manifested. This is 
especially true in tlie marketing of such highly perishable 



31 

products as fruits and vt-getables. If all parties to a commercial 
transaction are correctl}- informed with reference to the main 
conditions and circumstances surrounding the transaction, the 
possibilities for misunderstandings, misrepresentations, and un- 
fair practices are greatly minimized. This is particularly ap- 
plicable in the merchandizing of goods when the seller is hun- 
dreds of miles away from the buyer. If the buyer does not have 
dependable information regarding supply, movement, demand, 
and price, he is at a disadvantage. If the seller — the farmer or 
his agent — does not know the prices in the big markets ; if he 
does not have reliable information regarding supplies, movement, 
demand and weather conditions in the markets and other ship- 
ping districts competing with him he is at a disadvantage. When 
these conditions prevail, suspicion arises, confidence is destroyed, 
and unfair practices are indulged in by the unscrupulous. 

The circulation and dissemination of market information 
will not correct all these things, but it will go far toward allaying 
suspicion, establishing confidence, and in l)ringing about a better 
basis for common understanding. Its educational advantages to 
the farmer in particular are obvious. It demonstrates to him that 
he must know liis markets ; that he must be able to sell as well 
as to produce. 

A market report must be more than a report of prices. It 
must descrilie weather conditions for the weather is an important 
factor in marketing fruits and vegetables. It must show sup- 
plies moving to market, supported by production data. It must 
indicate the trend of demand and movement. It should describe 
the products sold or shipped according to definite grade and con- 
tainer so that a common language will be used by both buyer and 
seller. It is difficult to report market conditions when the 
products are not standardized as to grade and container. Com- 
prehensive market reporting has given an impetus to standardiza- 
tion work. There is now an unprecedented interest in standardi- 
zation activities by State and Federal agencies. 

The methods followed in collecting, compiling and dis- 
seminating this information are too detailed to be described here. 
Sufficient to say that earnest efiforts are made to make the service 
of the greatest practical benefit. 

Important reports on certain fruit crops showing condition 
during growing seasons, the prospective production, and later the 



32 

total production, are made available periodically by the Depart- 
ment. Perishables are so susceptible to the weather that these 
reports of conditions often show decided change in crop pros- 
pects from week to week and are awaited with much interest by 
the trade. Special reports on the commercial fruit crops were 
rendered for several years prior to 1920 but are temporarily sus- 
pended for lack of funds. 

Through our foreign information service we are able to 
keep in touch to a considerable extent with export conditions as 
they relate to fruits as well as other commodities. Press ma- 
terial and Department circulars have been issued intended to 
carry to the public the results of some of our studies regarding 
foreign outlets for fruits. 

As a result of the crop and news service work in the De- 
partment, many valuable statistics have been gathered day by 
day, week by week, month by month, and year by year. Many 
of these statistics have recently been compiled, tabulated and 
averaged and made available through a Department l)ulletin en- 
titled Market Statistics. 

Cost. — Cost and accounting studies under way in the De- 
partment have included fruits. Cost of production studies have 
included apples in New York and in the West and citrus fruits 
in Florida. Accounting systems for fruit associations have been 
worked out and are now in process of revision after being tried 
out under actual conditions. Accounting records for sampling 
apples by weight have been worked out for the packing houses 
of the Northwest that needed the system. 

Hcmdling, Transportation and Storage. — Much progress 
has been made in the prevention of waste in the handling, trans- 
portation and storage of fruits and vegetables. All the effort and 
expense that go into the production of a fruit crop .for market 
may be largely wasted unless it can be transported to the mar- 
ket in sound, edible condition. The investigations of the factors 
influencing the keeping qualities of fruits and vegetables in 
transit and storage have pointed out why careful handling and 
refrigeration in transit reduce the losses from deterioration and 
decay of these products during their transportation and distribu- 
tion in the markets. Careful studies of the precooling of fruits 
and vegetables have led to the installation of many precooling 
plants in producing districts whfch have contributed to the elimi- 



33 

nation of waste in transportation. During the last five years 
extensive investigations iiave been made by the Department to 
determine the factors influencing the efficiency of refrigerator 
cars. Verv definite improvements in the type of this equipment 
have been worked out with the cooperation of the fruit growers, 
shipper and the carriers. Many of these improved cars are being 
built by the railroads of this country to replace old and obsolete 
equipment. The refrigerator cars of this type are capable of 
transporting fresh fruits and vegetables to distant markets with 
a minimum of loss from spoilage and deterioration in transit. 
Better methods of applying refrigeration and ventilation for the 
safe and economical transportation of these products are being 
studied and improved methods worked out and widely demon- 
strated. 

The causes of poor keeping quality of fruits and vegetables 
in storage are being studied and many of the destructive diseases 
and other troubles affecting these products in storage are being 
brought under control through proper methods of handling, and 
by determining the most favoral)!e temperature, humidity and air 
conditions which effect the storage life of perishable products. 
The Department is called upon to assist fruit growers and ship- 
pers in the building of efficient storage houses, based on the find- 
ings of its investigations. Assistance has beeen given in the 
building of several thousand storage houses for apples, pears, 
sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and other fruits and vegetables. 

Market Inspection of Perishable Products. — Inspection of 
perishables at the market is sought l:)y the shipper that he may 
know the condition of the goods if they arrive unsold. It is 
sought by the city buyer or receiver when he feels that the goods 
received are for any reason less valuable than he had a right to 
expect. 

Market inspection is not sanitary inspection, nor c[uarantine 
inspection nor regulatory inspection. Market inspection is a 
service rendered to aid in merchandizing the goods inspected. 

If this service is to be of real value it must be technically 
efficient and thoroughly impartial. Public sentiment in America 
will credit none but an official agency with a combination of these 
qualities. Therefore, Congress authorizes the Department of 
Agriculture to sell the services of men trained for this purpose. 



34 

in the principal terminal markets of the country. With the 
service thus instituted private enterprise has made no effort to 
compete. 

Inspection under the Food Products Inspection Law, first 
effective in 191 7, may involve any fact, condition, or cjuaHty 
which affects value. It may be invoked by any party interested 
in or having custody of the products. It is forced upon no one. 
A fee is charged which approximately covers the cost of the 
service and a certificate is issued setting forth in detail all the 
facts discovered which affect the value of the goods. Congress 
has made this certificate prima facie evidence in all United States 
courts as to the true grade, quality or condition of the products 
when inspected. As a result the certificate is usually made the 
basis of settlement out of court. 

Market inspection may be desired to determine grade, 
quantity, quality or condition, or twO' or more of them. Larger 
and larger volumes of fruits and vegetables are offered or con- 
tracted for on the basis of grade. When deliveries are made 
the receiver, if the market is declining, is anxious to secure a 
concession from the contract price and will often challenge the 
grade of the goods on the slightest pretext. The boxed apple 
crop of the Northwest and a large part of the potato crop are 
sold on grade. The volume of these products is enormous and 
the number of honest controversies over the question in grade 
is large. 

The question of quantity may be raised on account of 
breakage, slack or improperly filled packages, excessive shrink- 
age caused by evaporation or decay, or caused by pilfering en 
route to market. 

Inspections for quality usually involve grade but are often 
requested on products for which no grades are established. The 
controversy or complaint may involve maturity, color, freshness, 
flavor, odor, texture, freezing or any factor which by injuring 
the character of the product tends to reduce its market value. 

Inspection for condition is likely to be asked when perish- 
ables arrive with many packages broken and the contents of the 
car disarranged and injured by rough handling on the road. Im- 
proper loading and the use of frail containers are frequent 
reasons for arrivals in bad mechanical condition. General 
deterioration, however, may result from deficient refrigeration. 



35 

improper ventilation, delays in transit, freezing, general disease 
infection and many other causes. 

The economic value of the inspection service is seen in the 
fact that it expedites and renders safe transactions based upon 
standard grades and also provides expeditious machinery for 
the impartial determination of the facts tipon which prompt set- 
tlement can be based in cases where the goods delivered are not 
exactly what the purchaser had a right to expect. In many cases 
also fault may lie with the common carrier, and many of the 
railroad companies are making the inspection reports the basis 
of judgment in cases where loss and damage claims are filed by 
the shippers of perishables. 

The Office of Fruit-Disease Investigations in the Bureau of 
Plant Industry cooperates closely with the Bureau of Markets 
and Crop Estimates in this inspection service, by identifying the 
fruit diseases on the market, investigating the cause and spoilage 
of fruits on the market and giving advice and instruction to the 
inspectors on matters, pertaining to fruit pathology. Other im- 
l)ortant lines of work conducted by that office are probably al- 
ready known to you, as it has contintied for years the investiga- 
tions relating to the diseases of fruits and fruit trees, including 
citrus and subtropical fruit diseases, the diseases of cultivated 
nuts and the grape, cranberry, and small-fruit diseases. 

In the fruit utilization investigations of the Department, 
better methods are being developed for the caniiing, preserving 
and dehydration of fruits that products which would otherwise 
be wasted may be utilized for food purposes. The discovery of 
new and promising fruits, the improvement of varieties by selec- 
tion and breeding and the introduction and propagation of the 
most valuable fruits of other lands, has been an interesting and 
highly productive work of the Department. 

In fact, much more has been attempted and accomplished in 
the study of production problems than in the equally important 
field of distribution and. marketing. As you are aware, scientific 
study of marketing may be said to have had its beginning in 
1900 when the U. S. Industrial Commission called attention to 
the need for intelligent analysis of the marketing problem. Even 
with this impetus to study, scientific investigations in this field 
were slow to develop even among agricultural research workers 



36 

until the Federal Government took action in 191 3, resulting in 
the organization of the Bureau of Markets. 

Economic conditions today, however, force the Nation to an 
acute consciousness of the necessity for pushing such work with 
vigor and determination. We have been laying the foundations 
for safe building; we must press on with practical and construc- 
tive work, accompanied by close study of economic forces and of 
changing economic conditions. > 



Dr. L. H. BAILl-:^• : I am sure you will all agree that this is 
a very valuable paper, setting forth as it^does this particular work 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. This subject 
takes on a particular interest just now in view of certain state- 
ments in the address by President Harding before Congress yes- 
terday. He said he was shocked to learn — as it is shocking to 
all of us — that it is more profitable to raise nine billion bales of 
cotton than to raise thirteen billion bales (my denominations may 
not be exact) ; that it is more profitable to raise seven hundred 
million bushels of wheat than to raise one billion bushels ; and yet 
there are persons everywhere greatly in need of fabrics and also 
in need of bread. He brings out the fact very strongly that there 
are great deficiencies in our distributing and marketing systems 
whereby these goods must be sold. But to me the significance 
of these statements has another very important bearing — it 
constantly suggests to a man that three-fourths of his produc- 
tion is at the expense of four-fourths of his elTort. 

It is important that every man and every woman in a re- 
public put forth the best effort of which they are capable. It is 
the only way whereby we can become the best type of citizen, 
and certainly there must he something radically wrong in any 
situation that does not give to a man the projjer reward for the 
expenditure of all his efforts. Every statement, therefore, that 
has any bearing upon this general question of marketing and 
distribution and selling is of great importance to us, not only 
as fruit-growers and those interested in getting a return on our 
investment, Init also to bring to us as citizens that we must de- 
velop that type of effort that will allow a person to put forth 
the best effort of which lie is capable and receive a return for 
the Avhole of it. 



37 

Is there any further discussion of this paper? 

F. P. Downing (South Bend, Indiana) : I am particularly 
interested in this paper by Doctor Taylor, probably because I 
was formerly associated with that Department. While we are 
in the employ of the Department we cannot have anything to 
say, but now that I am out I want to say just a word to the fruit 
growers here. 

The work of the Bureau of Markets is something in which 
you as individuals and through your Society should be very much 
interested. This paper has very briefly told the various lines of 
activity of the Bureau of Markets — the work in reference to 
the marketing of surplus, the work in reference to the standardi- 
zation of fruits and vegetables, and that referring to the inspec- 
tion of fruits and vegetables. These three lines of activity should 
receive the undivided support of every fruit grower. It is ab- 
solutely to your interest to read these market reports yourself and 
to make use of this inspection service, because by it you can re- 
ceive protection in the large markets of the country. There are 
of course certain interests that are opposed to inspection, and 
they are lobbying against this work. When the Committee on 
Agriculture holds its meetings there are very few fruit growers 
there to take a stand for the things they want — but the other 
fellows are there. 

Let us hope that this Limitations Conference now meeting 
in Washington will be successful, and that when they accom- 
plish their purpose we may get at least a portion of that money 
saved for the development of these activities that are being car- 
ried on by the Department of Agriculture — things that ar^ 
worth while. 

Gentlemen, I think there is one place where this Society, 
through its efforts in a national way, and through good legisla- 
tion, can do a decidedly good work. That is one place where by 
oro-anizing you can get together and send someone down there, 
or even through your own State Associations, you can voice 
your desires in this matter. It seems to me that this matter 
should receive careful consideration. 

The President: There is one phase of this question 
brought out by the last speaker that seems to me very significant 
— that if we are to save vast sums in the expenditure for arma- 
ments, not all that money should be saved ultimately to the tax- 



38 

payer, but should be put into constructive lines of effort. When 
you come to consider what a small proportion of public expendi- 
ture really does represent constructive effort, it is almost alarm- 
ing, and if we can deflect a good part of the expenditure for 
armament mto constructive channels it will make vastly for the 
happiness and health of the country. 

Is there anything further to be said on this paper? The 
time has about come to adjourn. There is no regular program 
for this evening, but tomorrow evening there will be a program 
in the form of a get-together supper. Full arrangements for 
this have not been made, but they will be announced. T hope you 
are all planning to be free tomorrow evening so that we may 
get together in an informal social way. 

This evening at seven-thirty I should like to have a meeting 
of the Executive Committee at the Hotel Secor. This Committee 
is not desirous of holding secret sessions, and if any persons 
connected with the Society desire to drop in and take part in any 
of the discussions of plans and policies which may be there 
suggested, we should be very glad to have them come. Bear in 
mind that you are welcome to come if you desire to do so, for 
the Executive Committee is your committee. 

I hope you will be here promptly tomorrow morning when 
we will discuss the situation and the policies which obtain in the 
different parts of the country. This meeting is not large — al- 
though I can say frankly that it is larger than I at first expected. 
But I am particularly impressed with the number of young per- 
sons in the room. There was a time — many of the older mem- 
l)ers will remember it — fifteen or twenty years ago, when at 
the farmers' meetings you saw only graybeards ; the young men 
were not going into the agricultural enterprises to any extent. 
Now in the meetings of stock growers, farmers, fruit growers, 
you see the young men coming forward. It augurs well for the 
future. The larger numl^er of persons before me are young men, 
and as one of the older men I wish to say that we are especially 
pleased to have them, and we hope they will not feel that be- 
cause some of us are older in years, they are therefore debarred 
from getting on their feet and saying what they think. I re- 
member when as a lad I met with the American Pomological 
Society and had the privilege of the floor. I trust it will seem the 
same honor to these young men that it did to me. It is a great 



39 

privilege to inherit the traditions of the old Society, to know- 
something of the men who have iDeen at its head — Wilder. 
Berckman, Hale, Watrous. Goodman, Hutt- — I have known them 
all — and the continuing welfare of the Society will depend upon 
these young people who will carry forward these traditions. I 
think I am the only one in the room who participated in these 
old traditions. I am sorry for it, but glad I had the privilege. 

Before we adjourn I wish to say that we should have a 
Nominating Committee. Other committees will be appointed to- 
morrow, but I think the Nominating Committee should be ap- 
pointed today. The election will not take place until the close 
of the program, but this committee should be at work. 

H. P. Gould: I move that a Nominating Committee of 
three be named by the Chair. 

(Motion seconded and carrried). 

The President : I will name on that committee : Clark 
Allis, New York; \\\ C. Reed, Indiana; M. B. Davis. Ontario. 

We will now stand adjourned until nine o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 



TRIP TO PLANT OF THE TOLEDO REX SPRAY CO. 

The fruit growers attending the meeting were especially in- 
terested in the privilege extended for a trip to and through the 
plant of The Toledo Rex Spray Company. 

First they were shown through the plant where they were 
producing Spraydried Lime-Stilphur Powder and which was a 
very interesting experience. In this Plant, the full strength solu- 
tion is sprayed into a closed, heated room, the temperature in 
that room being maintained at uniform heat, the solution being 
sprayed in at different points near the top of the room, and by 
the time that fine mist gets down to the bottom, the moisture 
has all been taken away from it and the powdered material falls 
into hoppers in the bottom of which there is a conveyor which 
carries it directly to the packages without further exposure to air. 

After being shown all through that plant they were taken 
through the Lime-Sulphur Solution plant, then all through the 
Arsenate of Lead Plant, and finally into the Laboratory, which is 
located on the second floor of the Arsenate of Lead Plant, and 



40 

there the fruit growers listened to a very interesting address by 
Dr. O. F. Hedenburg of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Re- 
search, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

His talk was on the subject: "Importance of Quality," is 
summarized as follows : 

Argentine Republic recently bought 85 locomotives for $6,- 
500,000.00 from a United States concern disregarding a 25% 
lower price by a German concern. Butter and apples, of high 
quality, are more desirable, demand a higher price, and find a 
ready market. Pure bred stock in being developed more each 
year because of the quality. Desirable features in anything mean 
higher quality. 

High quality in Lead Arsenate has been sought for by many 
manufacturers and others. The REX Spray Companies founded 
a Research Bureau, five years ago at the Mellon Institute of In- 
dustrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa., to develop new products for 
them and to improve all products to a high degree of quality. 

Apart from total and soluble Arsenic in Lead Arsenate, 
covering power and adhesion, are qualities that are highly de- 
sirable. Ordinary Lead Arsenate does not cover nor adhere so 
well as desired. 

A product has been developed for the REX people, at the 
Mellon Institute, which has all the desirable features required 
for spraying and this product is now being used in all parts of 
the United States and Canada. It is prepared by combining with 
the Dry Powdered Lead Arsenate a small quantity of a special 
colloid which gives the Lead Arsenate improved covering, 
spreading and adhesive qualities. This colloid is not an im- 
purity but a component part of an improved product. Carbon, 
vanadium, chromium and molybdenum are not impurities in the 
steels to which they impart new qualities but are necessary com- 
ponents to produce a desired result. Starch in baking powder 
is not an impurity but a necessary component. This colloid im- 
proves the suspension of the Lead Arsenate in water by causing 
the aggregations of particles to be deflocculatecl into separate 
particles. As a result, the Lead Arsenate is given greater cover- 
ing, spreading and adhesive properties. The surface of foliage 
will be covered with a more uniform covering of single minute 
particles instead of a deposit of aggregations of particles with 
uncovered spaces between the aggregations. The colloid causes 



41 

the particles of Lead Arsenate to adhere to a surface so that they 
are not washed off by flowing water. When the deposit of Lead 
Arsenate is dried on foHage and fruit it remains there after 
heavy rains have fallen. Ordinary Lead Arsenate would not re- 
main under these conditions. Whereas, ordinary Lead Arsenate 
when combined with Lime-sulphur for summer spray is black- 
ened and coagulated, the Lead Arsenate in this product contain- 
ing this special colloid is not coagulated by Lime-Sulphur, but re- 
mains finely divided and is colored only a light grayish brown. 
The Lead Arsenate in this product will, therefore, also have im- 
proved covering power when used with Lime-Sulphur. 

Many spraying experiments have proved the superiority of 
this product when compared with ordinary Lead Arsenate. Of- 
ficial tests made under direct supervision of State Experiment 
Station men during the past year have shown that this product 
gave a considerable percentage more of sound fruit. Li Illinois, 
an experiment was carried on, without the REX people knowing 
anything about it, and in their experimental orchard at Plain- 
view, results as taken from the printed annual report of the 
Illinois Horticultural Society, (1920, Page 174), show as 
follows : 

Standard 

Arsenate 

NuREXform of Lead 

Number of apples 624 687 

Number sound 81% 70% 

Codling Moth 3% 6% 

Stings 3% 8% 

Curculio 4% 6% 

Scab 10% Ibfo 

Other diseases 1% 1% 

This table shows that NuREXform gave 11% better control than 
the old form Arsenates of Lead. 

Fruit growers in order to protect and advance their own 
best interests from a dollar and cent or profit-paying standpoint 
must hereafter give more consideration to quality and less 
consideration to a little difference in price. For instance, the test 
above referred to shows 11% better control from using the im- 
proved quality product. 



42 



Figuring apples at $i.oo per bushel, the matter figures out 
as follows : 

1% better control makes the improved product 
worth 30c more per pound to the user. 

2% better control makes the improved product 
worth 60c more per pound to the user. 

3% better control makes the improved product 
worth 90c more per pound to the user. 

10% better control makes the improved product 
worth $3.00 more per pound to the user. 



THURSDAY MORNING SESSION 

The Thursday morning session was called to order at nine 
forty-five by the President, Dr. L. H. Bailey. 

The President: This morning is to be devoted, as you will 
see, to regional reports on conditions and outlook — etc. Not 
all of these persons are here, but their reports are in the hands 
of the Secretary, and we have enough for a full session this 
morning. 

I will call first for the report of Mr. H. P. Gould, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. 



AN ANALYSIS OF SOME OF THE CENSUS FIGURES 
ON FRUIT TREES 

H. P. Gould, 
U. S. D. A. 

For the past week or ten days I have been spending con- 
siderable time trying to find out something about what the census 
figures on fruits really mean. While census figures are not of 
themselves untrue, one can prove almost anything by them if he 
only goes at it in the right w^ay. There are certain outstanding 
facts which I think may not be without interest to those of you 
who have not been following the census summaries as they have 
come out from time to time. 

There are some surprises — to me at least — as well as 
some things which on their face, if taken as they stand, are de- 
cidedly striking. One of these striking things, taken as a bare 
statement, is that, as oi January i, 1920, there were in round 
numbers 65,670,000 fewer apple trees in the United States than 
ten years before. Xow a loss of sixty-five million apple trees 
and more, in ten years is no small thing ! That loss is divided 
between bearing and non-bearing trees approximately as follows : 
36,000,000 bearing trees, and 29,620,000 non-bearing trees. The 
census of 1910 showed 65,790,000 trees of non-bearing age, while 

(43) 



44 

the census of 1920 shows only about 36,000,000 trees not of 
bearing age. Bearing and* non-bearing trees taken together were 
in 1 9 10: 217,000,000; in 1920, 151,000,000. 

Referring to bearing trees, there are eighteen states which 
show an increase in the number of trees as compared with 1910. 
These instances range in number from 8,000 in Arizona and i'),- 
000 in North Dakota, to ahnost 5,000,000 in Washington. Other 
States show, of course, some heavy losses. I was interested in 
trying to discover where these gains and losses were, because 
after all, the gains and losses are relative in importance, those in 
some States making very little difference. For instance, losses 
in such States as Florida and Louisiana, Nevada and Wyoming, 
and some others, would have no real significance so far as the 
apple industry is concerned, and I think I can show you that even 
large losses in certain apple-producing States do not have the 
commercial significance that the bare statement of the fact might 
suggest. 

So far as gains are concerned, in trees of non-bearing age, T 
was interested to notice that there has been slight increases in 
all of the New England States except Maine, and in Massa- 
chusetts the gain was something like four millions. In Maine 
there was a loss of a half million trees, but that still leaves more 
than a half million not of bearing age in that State. There are 
gains also in non-bearing trees in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware and Maryland, as compared with 19 10. 

Then there have been quite appreciable losses in non-bearing 
trees, as compared with 1910, in Illinois, Idaho, Montana, Ore- 
gon, Washington, Texas, and some other States. Now let us 
see what these losses mean. For instance, in Texas, which is not 
a heavy apple-producing State, there were in 1910, 1,100,000 
apple trees not of bearing age. In 1920, that number was re-, 
duced to 236.000. Montana in 1910 had 1,300.000; in 1920 that 
number was reduced to 69,000. The census figures do not tell 
all of the story by a long ways as to what has happened in that 
state. It was during the census decade that the great promotion 
development in the planting of apple trees occurred in western 
Montana. It reached its peak and was well started on its decline 
within this period. The decline is suggested by the relatively 
small number of non-bearing trees in 1910 but the maximum 



45 

number was undoubtedly much greater about 191 3 or 1914 than 
is suggested even by the large number reported in 1910. 

In Oregon, in 1910, there were 2,240,000 trees not of bear- 
ing age; in 1920, a half million. You will notice there have been 
some very decided reductions in some of these apple-producing 
States. In that number would he Washington, Oregon, Ar- 
kansas, Iowa and Illinois. Of course the trees reported as of 
non-bearing age in 19 10 were included in the number bearing in 
1920. That the number of non-bearing age should be apprecia- 
bly smaller in 1920 as compared with 1910 is but natural; it re- 
flects the influence of World War conditions, high prices, scarcity 
of labor, etc. 

I will run over hastily a part of the figures in some of the 
important apple producing States, because even there heavy 
losses in the important commercial producing sections may not 
mean, from a commercial standpoint, just what the bare figures 
might suggest: In Arkansas, in 1920, there were 3,575,000 few- 
er trees of bearing age than ten years before. About 2,970,000. 
or all except some 600,000 of this number (3,575,000) were in 
Benton and Washington counties. These are the two largest 
apple producing counties in Arkansas. But even such losses as 
these do not necessarily mean very much in terms of actual ap- 
ple production. In both Arkansas and Missouri the census 
figures, as in the case of Montana, do not tell all the story by a 
long ways, \^^lat was going on between the years in which the 
census figures were compiled, is not shown. This is true 
especially of the Ozark region. The crest of the wave of ex- 
tensive planting was reached early in the census decade. Every- 
body, nearly planted an orchard. Many without previous ex- 
perience planted 40, 60 or perhaps 120 acres to apples. Under 
such circumstances, fatal mistakes in the selection of sites, in the 
care of the trees and in other ways, was inevitable and failure 
was certain from the beginning. As a result of these conditions, 
hundreds of acres, once in trees, were never included in a census 
enumerator's record of trees in bearing, because they were 
planted and in turn dug up before the enumerator got around in 
his decennial visits. But thousands of the trees included in the 
decreases shown in the census figures represented trees planted 
on impossible sites or which for other reasons never possessed 
any potential value in terms of commercial production. In other 



46 

words, the decrease shown does not necessarily represent any 
decrease in the actual apple producing capacity of the States. 
This applies elsewhere as well as it does in the Ozark region. 

In California there was a gain in the number of bearing 
trees during the decade in question of 645,000, not a great num- 
ber for so large a State, but yet these figures have quite a lot of 
significance, because they include, among other things, the de- 
velopment of at least one new and rather promising apple area 
— the Yucaipa district in San Bernardino county. There was 
a gain in Sonoma county of 270,000, in San Bernardino county 
of 208,000, and in Riverside county of 97,000 trees. 

In Colorado the gain is 89,000 in bearing trees, but in non- 
bearing trees, a loss of nearly 1,800,000 trees, compared with 
the number in 19 10. Relatively speaking, the gain in bearing 
trees in Colorado is small, but on referring to the report of the 
census by counties some rather striking facts appear. In the 
three most important apple-producing counties of the state there 
were increases as follows : In Fremont County, 65,000 ; in Delta 
County, 117,000, and in Mesa County, 130,000, — a total of 312,- 
000 trees for these counties. Note that for the state the net in- 
crease was only 89,000. There were appreciable gains in the 
three most important apple-producing counties, but there were 
evidently losses in the relatively small apple-producing counties 
which largely offset these gains. It may be questioned whether 
these losses affect the commercial crop in any appreciable degree. 

In Delaware there is a gain of 386,000 in bearing trees and 
that gain means relatively quite a lot, the increase being from 
430,000 in 1910 to 816,000 in 1920. By counties, 289,000 in 
Kent; 91,000 in Sussex; 5,000 in New Castle, all in round 
numbers. 

In Idaho the gain in bearing trees was 1,375,000 trees. I 
was surprised at this. In some sections of Idaho where the early 
plantings represented promotion developments, the orchards have 
ceased to be, and the land has been planted to potatoes, alfalfa 
and other crops. These figures (1,375,000) show a gain in 
actual numbers from 1,005,000 in 1910, to 2,380,000 in 1920. It 
is not possible to make a comparison by counties in Idaho, be- 
cause during the last ten years the county lines have been much 
changed and a number of new counties have been created. The 



47 

gains, however, are mostly in the Fayette and Snake River 
Valleys. 

In Illinois we have to talk al^out losses, because that State 
shows in the decade, not gains, but losses of 4,800,000 trees of 
liearing age, and some of this heavy loss has occurred in some 
of the heavy apple-producing counties. Just what that means in 
potential production I do not know, but there are many counties 
in the State which show losses of from 50,000 to 75,000 trees. 

I might digress here to say that a loss of 75,000 or 100,000 
or even 200,000 bearing trees in a county does not necessarily 
mean that there is a loss in commercial production, as I had oc- 
casion to realize a number of years ago when I was sent into a 
county in northeast Indiana. I knew nothing about the county, 
but looking at the census figures it seemed as though there ought 
to be quite a lot of apple-growing there. If I remember correct- 
ly about 150,000 trees of bearing age were reported by the last 
census then made, but when I got into the county and tried to 
find the orchards and the people who operated them, not a com- 
mercial planting could be located. The number of trees reported 
was made up of ?mall home orchards that were without commer- 
cial significance. 

In Kansas the loss is 5,400,000, or a reduction from 6,900.- 
000 in 19 10 to 1,500,000 in 1920. I have no county figures at 
this time for Kansas, but I think that must mean some heavy 
losses in the commercial counties as well as in some that do not 
figure very much in the commercial estimates. 

In Maryland there was a gain of 363,000, the gains being 
mostly in the Blue Ridge region and in the western part of the 
State. The largest county gain ( 161,000) was by Washington 
County. 

In New Jersey the gain was 96,000. The situation there is 
not unlike Colorado with reference to the meaning of the figures. 
Burlington County has lost 94,000, while the net gain for the 
State is only 96,000. Burlington County has also 228,000 trees 
not of bearing age. Gloucester County has a gain of 41,000 trees 
of bearing age. This means of course heavy losses in other 
counties. 

Missouri, so far as census figures go. shows by far the 
heaviest loss in trees of bearing age — something over 9,000,000 
trees, the reduction being from 14,397,000 in 1910 to 5,160,000 in 



48 

1920. I have no county figures — at least I did not undertake to 
work out the county comparisons ; but these losses occur quite 
largely in the (Jzark region, and as I said in the beginning, the 
census figures do not tell all the story, because I have no doubt 
there was a considerably larger number of trees of bearing age 
subsequent to 1910 when the Thirteenth Census was compiled 
than was shown in that year. In other words, I do not think the 
14,397,000 trees reported in 1910 represents the largest number 
of bearing trees that there were in Missouri at one time. During 
the last decade many orchards have been taken out in the Ozark 
region. They were planted during the boom period when farm- 
ers without any experience in orcharding frequently wanted at 
least 160 acres in apples. Many of these orchards were planted 
without regard to suitability of location or ability of the grower 
and the result in the final day of reckoning has been what these 
figures show. That, substantially, is the situation. I suspect 
the 5,000,000 trees of bearing age now in Missouri are worth 
more from the standpoint of production than the 14,000,000 
of igio. 

I was interested to see what the crop estimates for Missouri 
showed in view of this production. Beginning with 1910, the 
estimated total (not restricted tO' the commercial) crop for each 
year in hundreds of thousands of l)arrels, using the first two 
figures only, was as follows: 1910. 25; 191 1, 38; 1912, 64; 1913, 
26; 1914, 41; 1915, 62; 1916, 27; 1917, 26; 1918, 14; 1919, 19: 
1920, 16. These figures suggest a decrease in production, but 
the estimates are for the total or farm crop. They do not in- 
dicate how the commercial crop — that part of the total actually 
marketed — has been affected. 

In 1921, Missouri was one of the States that was in the 
l)ath of the spring freeze, and the estimated crop was only about 
10 per cent of that for 1920. 

New York shows some interesting figures. The reduction 
was i,6cG,ooo l:earing trees — (juite a sizable loss — yet some of 
the counties show an increase. Columbia County, the most im- 
];ortant Hudson River county, shows a gain of 55,000 trees; 
Ulster County, a gain of 30,000; Orleans County, 107,000, and 
Wayne County, 107,000. These same counties have trees not of 
bearing age — Columbia, 199,000; Ulster, 203,000; Orleans, 205,- 
coc, and Wayne, 374,000. Of some of the relatively less impor 



49 

tant counties, Erie shows a loss of 133,000 bearing trees; 
Genesee, 60, coo and Oswego, 60.000. The S.tate shows a total 
loss of 1,600,000 trees of bearing age, while four important 
apple-producing counties show a gain compared with 1910 of 
299,00c. These figures, in spite of the losses, make it looks as 
though New York State was in pretty good shape — still on the 
map. 

Rvmning over the apple crop estimates in New York, these 
figures may not be without interest. Using the first two figiires. 
or three as the case may be, as I did for Missouri, the crop in 
1910 would be represented by 56; (5,600.000 barrels) ; 191 1, 
130; 1912, 146; 1913, 65; 1914, 165; 1915, 85; 1916, 126; 1917. 
33'^ 1918. 136; 1919. 56: 1920. 157; 1921. 47. 

These figures would make it look as if apple production in 
New York, even with the losses, has been maintained on a pretty 
good basis. 

I think this sort of thing grows rather monotonous, and the 
only thing I hope to accomplish is to show that figures in man\- 
cases, whether indicating gain or loss, need interpretation on the 
basis of known facts in order not to be misleading. 

I have here the estimated commercial apple crop since 1916. 
You may be interested to run over these figures with me in the 
same way we did for New York and Missouri. Using "millions"" 
of barrels as the unit, the commercial crop for 1916 wotild be 
represented by 25; for 1917. by 22; 1918. by 24; 1919. by 26; 
1920. by 7,"/: and 1921, by 19. The average for these six years 
is nearly 26,000,000 barrels. 

There is another thing I want to mention in this connection. 
Not infrequently we get crop comparisons, in the press and else- 
where, of different ^'ears. Such comparisons -are likely to be mis- 
leading, unless the crop conditions in those years are known. 
For instance, suppose the year 1922 was the census vear instead 
of 192c, and the census enumerators used the crop of the pre- 
ceding year, which would be for 1921. What sort of a showing 
would the apple crop figures suggest if interpreted without re- 
spect to crop conditions for such states as Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia, Missouri, Kansas, and so on for fifteen States in which 
the apple crop for that year was nearly wiped out by spring frosts 
and freezes? If the croj) for 1921 in these States went into the 

4 



50 

census hgiires there would be some pretty sad comparisons be- 
tween that year and the one preceding. It would look as if they 
had gone out of the apple business ! And yet that sort of inter- 
pretation of census figures and crop estimates is going on in some 
([uarters all the time — facts so far as figures are concerned ; but 
mere figtires. even though they tell the truth, can be made very 
misleading. 

I will not say more about apples, but will pass quickly over 
peaches. Substantially the same thing is presented in the peach 
data that appears in apple figures. One of my office associates 
commented to me a while ago to the effect that it had been shown 
by Government figures that in the course of twenty-five or thirty 
years peach growing in the United States would cease. I won- 
dered for a moment what there was back of such a report. It 
happened, however, that just before this a summary of the census 
figures on the peach had been released for publication. I looked 
them up and sure enough, some interpretation as that just in- 
dicated might be possible. For instance, in 1910 there were in 
the United States 94.500.000 bearing peach trees. In 1920 there 
were 65.600,000, a reduction of nearly 29.000,000 trees. On that 
basis, a continued reduction at the same rate, during the next 
25 years, would, for a fact, leave but a very small showmg in the 
way of commercial peach growing in the United States. Such 
is the misuse of figures ! In this case no account had been taken 
of the number of trees not of bearing age, nor of the fact that 
during the decade between the two Census reports the world 
had been turned up-side-down by war, and that the planting of 
peach trees had not gone on "as usual." 

In non-bearing peach trees there was a decrease of nearly 
21,000,000 trees as compared with 1910 (1910, 42,266.000; 1920. 
21,623.000). The total decrease in both bearing and non-bearing 
trees for the same period was about 49.000,000. 

But here again one gets into difficulties if one compares 
merely figvires, since in si)ite of the loss of nearly 29,000,000 
bearing trees between the two census years, the peach crop 
figures for 1919 show an increase of 16,000,000 bushels over the 
corresponding census figures of ten years previous. The gains 
and losses are significant — the States in which they occur — the 
came as with apples. Take, for instance, the gains in the number 
of bearing trees. I was quite a good deal surprised when I found 



51 

that all over the New England States there has been gains in the 
number of peach trees of bearing age. Maine has gained 564, 
Massachusetts, 190,000. The production of peaches in New 
England is of course a minor factor except in Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, and in Massachusetts the fruit is mostly marketed 
locally. There are sixteen States which show a gain in the number 
of bearing peach trees : These include New Jersey. Pennsylvania. 
West Virginia. Washington. Oregon, and California. The others 
I am not stopping to mention. 

The States in which the heavy losses have occurred in bear- 
ing peach trees are significant, as I have already said. I did not 
have time to consider these figures from the county basis, but 
simply collected them from the State basis, and as I run over 
them it will come to your mind at once whether the State is a 
large or small peach producer. 

In Indiana the decrease as compared with 19 10 was 1,270.- 
000; Illinois. 1.800.000; Iowa, 960,000; Missouri. 4,230,000; 
Nebraska. 1.093.000; Kansas, 3,550.000; Delaware. 700.000; 
Maryland. 500.000 ; Georgia, 2.000,000 ; Tennessee. 800.000 ; 
Alabama. 1,600.000; Mississippi, 870,000; Arkansas, 3,500,000; 
Oklahoma, 1,900,000; Texas. 5.200,000, and several others with 
smaller interests. 

So you will see that some of these heavy losses have oc- 
curred in what we have come to think of as important com- 
mercial peach producing States, but judging from the yields it 
would look as if the production had been maintained on a pretty 
good parallel. 

The gains in trees of bearing age were made in four States, 
compared with 1910: Illinois, 100,000; X^irginia. 3.000; North 
Carolina. 233.000; Georgia, 1,800,000. 

To suggest to you how the crops have run, let me go over 
the crop estimates very briefly. These figures are given in mil- 
lions of bushels using the first two figures. 1919, 35; 1910, 48; 
1911, 34; 1912, 52; 1913, 39; 1914, 54; 1915, 64; 1916, 37; 1917. 
48; 1918, 34; 1919, 50; 1920, 43; 1921. 33. A five years' aver- 
age, 191 5-19, is 46,608,000 bushels. 

Just a passing mention should be made of citrus fruits to 
show the trend of things. Because of the restricted distribution, 
geographically, of citrus fruit growing and from the nature of 



52 

the case, the statistics are prett}- dehnitely commercial in their 
bearing. Of course only a few states are concerned with citrus 
fruit growing. 

In California there were, in 1920, in round numbers 2,600,- 
000 orange trees not of bearing age ; over 10,000,000 in bearing. 
In 1910 there were 6,600,000 orange trees of bearing age. Lem- 
ons, — number of trees in 1920 not in bearing, 780,000; in bear- 
ing, 2,880,000. In 1 910, there were 940,000 trees in bearing. 

In Florida, orange trees in 1920 not of l^earing age, 2,300,- 
000; in 1920, in bearing, 3,600,000; in 1910. in bearing, 2,766,000. 
Grapefruit in 1920 not bearing, 960,000; in l:)earing 1,680,000. 
In 1910, in bearing 656,000 trees. 

In Alabama, oranges principally of the Satsuma group, 
1920, not in bearing, 165,000; in bearing, 260,000. In 1910 there 
were only 2,600 orange trees in bearing in this state. 

In Texas, mostly in the Lower Rio Grande A'alley, there has 
been considerable planting of oranges and grapefruit during the 
past few years. During the past decade also, in the Gulf Coast 
region, great numbers of orange trees of the Satsuma varieties 
have been destroyed. It is therefore, rather difficult to tell just 
what statistical reports actually signify. 

The figures for Arizona are not available at this time. 

One might go on studying census figures almost to the end 
of time, making minute comparisons, but in order to really know 
just what the difi^erences mean in the net total one has to know 
])retty nearly what the local conditions are. In other words, fruit 
statistics, taken by themselves, do not always mean just what 
they appear to mean, any more than do averages. I heard the 
other day of a man who tried to shoot a rabbit with* a double- 
barreled shotgun. The first time he fired he shot a foot too far 
to one side ; the next time he shot a foot too far to the other 
side. Now, according to the law of averages, the rabbit ought 
to have been dead, — but he wasn't. So figures when averaged 
and adjusted without due regard to what is, are likely to show, 
what in fact is iwi. 



The President : You have heard these very interesting 
figures. I have come to feel that I will not read reports of 
census figures unless I see the name of the person who makes 



53 

the report. (Jne must understand cr(jp conditions, and all that. 
Census figures are exceedingly valuable when interpreted by per- 
sons who understand what they mean ; otherwise, they are not. 
Are there any suggestions in connection with these figures? 

There are some exhibits that ne&d to be gone over with 
reference to the Wilder medals for this year, and there should be 
a committee appointed for that purpose. 1 shall appoint on that 
committee Professors Taft of Michigan, and Gourley of Ohio. 

The Nominating Committee named yesterday had for its 
Chairman Mr. Clark Allis of New York. Mr. Allis was obliged 
to leave last night, and we must appoint someone else in his 
place. I will ap]:)oint Professor F. H. Beach of Ohio. The com- 
mittee will now be, W. C. Reed, Chairman; M. V>. Davis of On- 
tario, and F. H. Beach of Ohio. 

I understand Mr. Drain is here from Massachusetts and 
will present the report of F. C. Sears. 



FRUIT CONDITIONS IN NFW ENGLAND 

F. C. Sears, 
MassacliHseffs 

As a general statement I think it would be safe to say that 
the condition of the fruit in lustry in New England is excellent. 

Certainly it is excellent when one considers the fact that our 
countr\- is in the midst of 'one of the worst financial depressions 
ever known ; and when he adds to that the fact that the crop of 
1921 in our section was one of the poorest for many years. It is 
surely a sign of great vitality of the industr_\' that fruit men are 
as cheerful and oj^timistic as the^• are. 

As to the problems which face our fruit growers, we have, 
of course, those which face fruit growers everywhere, — the secur- 
ing of an adequate and satisfactory labor supply ; the choice of a 
market package which shall meet the requirements of our trade; 
the question of the extent to which dusting ought to supersede 
s]M-aying ; the attempt to formulate and have passed such laws as 
will benefit the industry ; better control of ]>ests ; better fertilizing 
and cultivation and marketing. 



54 

In addition to these. New England may fairly lay claim to a 
few problems of its own, just as most other sections probably 
can. Some of these are the following: 

1. We suiTered more than probably any other section from 
the severe winter of 1917-18. The authorities in Maine estimated 
that that state alone lost over a million bearing apple trees. Other 
New England states lost very heavily. What is to be done about 
replacing these damaged or ruined orchards? Shall we reset our 
crchards or shall we grow potatoes or cabbages or cows? If we 
do reset shall we set out Baldwins, the variety which suffered 
more tl:an any other, or shall we resort to some of the cast-iron 
varieties like Ben Davis and Stark and Mcintosh and Fameuse? 
Mcintosh is, of course, one of our best varieties but there is a 
limit to the extent to which this variety can be handled by any one 
grower. It will be seen that this one question of winter trouble 
involves all the ])roblems that most men would care to shoulder. 

2. A second problem which has just come upon us within 
the last fortnight is the damage from the most severe ice-storm 
in a centur}'. It is too early to say what the damage has been 
but is it certainly tremendous. It will certainly lead to more care 
in the formation of the heads of trees, to greater interest in bolts 
and braces to support trees ; and it is more than probable that it 
will modify the popularit\' of varieties since some have suffered 
much more than others. 

3. A third problem which is as yet a New England specialty 
is the Gypsy-Browntail-Moth menace. It fluctuates somewhat as 
t(j severity Ijut is alwa\s a serious added handicap to our 
growers. 

Yet withi all these handicaj^s. general and special, our growers 
are most of them conhdent of the future of the fruit business 
in New England. 

Turning now to some of the more recent developments in 
the fruit business in New JMigland perhaps nothing is of more im- 
])ortance in those sections where it has come than the roadside 
stand or market. The conditions in many parts of New England 
are ideal for the development of such markets, combining a maxi- 
mum of traffic by a public which is almost wholly non-producing. 
And we might add, largely fairly well-to-do and with a distinct 
preference for country buying. 



55 

Naturally these roadside markets are of every conceivable 
variety, from the simplest sort of stand (or even no stand at all) 
to fairly good sized buildings. In many cases what started as a 
mere stand, has gradually developed into a fair sized market and 
finally into a combination of market and "tea room." 

Of course the great advantage of these roadside markets is 
the fact that the farmers get the retail price and without any ex- 
pense for transportation. There is also the added advantage that 
there is a sale, in fact an urgent call, for the riper and softer 
grades which perhaps would not stand transportation to market. 
This is especiall}' important in handling fairly large crops of such 
fruits as peaches. 

Moreover there is a sale for any and everything that is, or 
can be, produced on the farm, — home made sausage, bread, 
pastry, candies and the like ; wild flowers of all kinds, guinea 
pigs, chickens, hickory nuts, butternuts, elderberries and rabbits ; 
all sorts of maple products, fresh eggs, saner kraut, vegetables 
and fruits of every description. 

Another development which has gone hand in hand with 
the roadside market and yet which is only now in its infancy, is 
the manufacture of fruit products. Customers who bought apples 
asked for apple jelly and the housewife made some. People who 
bought a basket of fresh peaches asked for canned peaches and 
they were forthcoming. In some cases this making of fruit 
products became the principal line of endeavor and the output was 
so large that some of it had to be marketed in the city ; but in most 
cases it was sold right on the spot, no matter how large the output. 
And the beauty of this work is that it requires such a small capi- 
tal. In one case a woman with an investment of not over $ioo 
for equipment makes a labor income of about $2000. In an- 
other case a woman with certainly less than $1000 for equip- 
ment makes a labor income of close to $10,000. Of course in 
neither of these cases is the building included but in both cases 
the home has been utilized and only slight additions made to it. 

This development has been greatly stimulated by the estab- 
lishment some four years ago of a Department of Horticultural 
Manufactures at the Agricultural College at Amherst. Prof. W. 
W. Chenoweth is at the head of this work and the department 
now numbers four men with a registration last year of about 
200 students 



56 

Another very important factor in the present situation of 
the fruit industry is the adoption by some of the New England 
states, notably Massachusetts, of a lo-year program for the de- 
velopment of the fruit industry. Space will not permit more 
than a mere mention of it here but it is a very definite and con- 
crete plan to improve the industry along certain lines. Some of 
the more important of these lines are as follows — 

1. Better methods of planning, equipping and growing 
orchards. 

2. Improvement in nursery stock. 

3. A better selection of varieties ; fewer in number, red in 
color and better in equality. 

4. Management of orchards to secure better color. 

5. Management to reduce the percentage of low grade 
fruits. 

6. Better equipment and more efficient management of 
labor. 

7. Better crop reporting. 

8. Better advertising and publicity. 

9. Better transportation. 

10. More cooperation. 

11. Better storage facilities. 

12. Development of fruit manufactures. 

13. Standardizing grades and packages. 

Just a word in closing as to the outlook for the future. A 
glance at the accompanying table, which gives the percentage of 
increase or decrease in New England of the various fruits for 
the past ten years, will show that while New England has not 
kept up in production and acreage as was expected, yet it has 
made a better showing than many other parts of the United States 
and a decidedly better one than the country as a whole. And a 
very encouraging feature of the situation is the fact that while 
the number of bearing apple trees has decreased 22%, the produc- 
tion has increased 14%. showing that our growers are taking 
much better care of their orchards. 

Moreover to the man who is now in the fruit business, or 
who is contemplating going into it, there is certainly every as- 
surance that the market of the future will at least equal that of 



57 



the past and prol^ably be vei')- much better. The bogie of over- 
production which ha.? been constantly exhibited by some people 
in an attempt to alarm the fruit grower, ought certainly to be laid 
to rest for a time at least. If the trees of bearing age in the 
United States have decreased 22^^'/r and those not in bearing 45%, 
one would certainly seem to be safe in sticking to the fruit busi- 
ness and in enlarging somewhat his plantings. 

At least that is the view of our New England growers. We 
are facing the future wtih contidence ! We believe in the fruit 
business and in New England ! And to any man who tries to 
discourage us and to dampen our ardor we will say, with our 
brothers from Missouri. "You'll have to show meT' 



Division and 
State 



Small Fruits 



Strawberries 



Rasp- 
berries 



Black- 
berries 



3 P 

-50 



New England....! 6.15+ 13.98— : 24.35- 

Maine 24.84+ 31.67— I 20.49— 

N. H I 73.30+ 24.47— ' 18.06+ 

Vt. i 47.98+ i 9.33— | 0.36— 

Mass I 0.81+ I 7.39— I 28.98— 

R. I I 12.46— I 22.51— ] 35.71— 

Conn i 11.52— ! 50.21— I 35.95— 



46.19— 
45.04— 
23.24— 
30.44— 
42.90— 
64.28-T 
58.90— 



22.84+ 
81.194- 
51.51-1- 
108.75+ 
24 .61+ 
44.03+ 
29.59— 



1.80— 
57.64+ 
19.43+ 
101.25+ 
18.19— 
64.04— 
55 . 71 — 





Apples 


Peaches 


Division and 
State 




be 

c 

'u 

CO 
u 




1) 

u 

™ 

- fct 


.2~ 

— 


1 

CO 

V 

a 


V 


New England 


14.86+ \ -12. 1-2— 
3". 81+ 1 18.50— 


1.39-1- 
51 99— 


17.22+ 
8.C9+ 


37.19+ 
11.05+ 
41.19-1- 
46.92— 
123.98+ 
55.36+ 
7.37-1- 


43.36— 
22.59— 


N. H 


■''3.06+ 1 41.8.5- 1 9.95+ 


34.12— 


\"t 


34.22- ' 39.79— 15.55+ 59.30-^ 

24.97+ 1 10.86— 122.48+ 132.29+ 

57.02+ i 13.88+ 30.82+ | 62.51+ 

9.46 — 1 1.^.99— 1 9.=s.76-l- 1 97_7,S— 


45.02— 




16.46— 


R. I 


17.63— 

60.55— 
















58 





Pears 


T'lunis and Prunes 


Division ^nd 
State 




bc 

a 

o 


o 


Production 
(bushels) 


1 


Trees not of 
bearing age 


Xew England 

Maine .' 


; 

16.92— 1 25.75— 
63.32— i 51.75— 
lS.60— 1 41.59^ 
1 50.11— 1 45.45- 
12.06— 1 21.82— 
14.30— 20.54— 
38. .33+ 1 5.6.^? 1- 


18.71+ 23.74— 
45.29— 36.93+ 
17.49— 11.76+ 
9.81+ 71.38— 
37.43+ 1 26.17— 
47.17+ 1 75.16— 
34.28+ 1 73.01- 


18.43— 
13.8&- 
20.81— 
40.32— 
20.7.5— 
59.39— 
47.87- 


40.81— 
58.23— 


N. H 


48.62— 


Vt 


32. CO— 




30.66— 


R. I 


47.30— 




31.43— 















Ur. L. H. Bailey: I think this is an exceedingly suggestive 
paper, as showing the tendencies in the development of a country 
which is old, and which has long since gon-e through its formative 
and exploitive stage, which has passed its period of miscellaneous 
planting of a great number of crops for the purpose of maintain- 
ing the home family, and which has outlived the epoch of dis- 
couragement that comes with the development of a new section. 
And now you find in New Rngland a well organized, thoughtful, 
constructive movement in agriculture, perhaps one of the best 
movements in the United States, wherein persons are concerned 
with the careful study of the whole situation and with the homo- 
genous development of it^ enter]>rises and of its country life, as 
tl:is i;aper very clearly rex'eals. 

Another suggestion from the paper is the fact that with the 
coming of the automobile, the motor-truck and good roads in 
parts of the country largely filled with a city population, the 
buyers are coming to the farmer, and home manufacture is again 
develci>ing. Perhaps we should not look for the mill along the 
creek any more, but the making of fabrics of home manufacture 
is beginning to find itself again and the return to the country 
is marked. Every agitation that exposes the deficiencies of our 
marketing system makes persons all the more anxious to do their 
own marketing at the source and to get away from the city markets 
as far as they can. Those who have automobiles go to the country 
to buy ; and so you will find in the more thickly settled parts these 
wayside markets developing, and, as this paper suggests, they are 
coming to be of great importance. This probably means in the 



• 59 

future a diiferent conception of market statistics for the dilierent 
parts of the country, and any records which are to be made as to 
tl;e output of the farms. must take into consideration this question 
of home sales. 

1 wish to call for tlie report of the committee on the Presi- 
dent's Address. Inasmuch as certain recommendations were 
made in that address which may need some discussion it seems 
not to be wise to hold it until tomorrow afternoon if the com- 
mittee is ready to report at this time. 



REPORT OF THF. COMMITTEE ON PRESIDENT'S 

ADDRESS 

This committee has been somewhat handicapped by not hav- 
ing actually befoie it the record of the precedent to guide it in 
its action. We lacked assurance as to just what was expected of 
us. We have assumed, however, that our course should result in 
the Society's giving positive, detailed consideration to the program 
];resented in the President's Address. The Committee therefore 
comments an I recommends as follows: 

We commend without reservation the ftjrward-looking pro- 
gram outlined by our President, and congratulate the Society on 
the opi^ortunit'es for serving the fruit industry of America that 
arc befoie it. We feel that the Address should mark a new start- 
ing point in the work of the Society, and that it will be the docu- 
ment to which the officers of the Society in future years will refer 
to determine progress. 

We recommend the adoption b\' the Societv of the Presi- 
dent's .Vc'dress and the taking of such ])ositive steps as will best 
insure the accomplishment of ihe program. These steps should 
include activities along several lines. 

I . .\ full-time paid Secretary. The Society should commit 
itself to this idea and should consider every possible means to 
attain it. We believe the Executive Committee is at present in 
the best position of an\' group in the Society to deal with this 
matter. Our recommendation is that the Executive Committee 
be especially charged with the matter of securing funds by which 
a full-time Secretar\- ma\- be em])loye(l, 



6o • 

2. It is too much to ask of a Secretary who serves without 
pay and with active duties that require practically all his time, to 
do all the work that is proposed for the Secretary's office. We 
recommend that a committee be provided to assist the Secretary, 
as he might direct, in the preparation of material for the monthly 
or bi-monthly letter to members, and in other ways. This recom- 
mendation in part anticipates one in the latter part of the 
President's Address where he suggests the appointment by the 
Society of advisors to the Secretary on publicity, consumption, 
planting, marketing, co-operation, affiliation, etc. These two fea- 
tures — advisors and special assistants — may well be considered 
together. 

3. Membership — regular and collegiate. At present any 
campaign for new members rests with the Secretary. That of it- 
self is a heavy burden, if the work be effective. A committee of 
really interested members could doubtless accomplish much: The 
work of such a committee should be directed by the Secretary. 
We recommend that a committee be appointed, with the Secre- 
tary as chairman, and that this committee be in two parts, one to 
cover the regular, the other the collegiate membership. 

4. Medals, aw^ards, etc. Our recommendation is that a 
standing committee on awards he appointed and that this com- 
mittee be charged with the awarding of the Wilder medal and 
all others that may from time to time be given by the Society ; 
further, that this committee be charged with the canvassing of 
the entire situation to determine what other awards, medals, etc., 
ought to be given by the Society, if any, in addition to those that 
are now given from time to time. 

5. Increase in consumption of fruits. Our President re- 
commends the issuing of bulletins by all the experiment stations, 
colleges, departments of home economics, etc., in which are set 
forth the value of fruit in the diet. We heartily endorse such a 
program, but this committee would place special emphasis on the 
work of the home economics departments in the colleges and 
also on the work of home demonstration and other home ex- 
tension agencies. These are the people who are reaching those 
who put the food on the table. We recommend especially that, 
whatever else be done, the Secretary's office address a special 
letter to these agencies asking them to stress as much as possible 



6i 

the use of fruil in the home and perhaps referring them to the 
Hterature ah-eady available. 

6. Cooperation and affiliation with State societies. We 
cannot over-emphasize the importance of our President's refer- 
ences to such activities. The American Pomological Society 
ought to be the central clearinghouse for all the State and 
Provincial fruit-growers" organizations, and each one should be 
somehow linked up with it. We recommend that every Provin- 
cial, State and county organization or society be urged to desig- 
nate a member who shall be its representative in the American 
Pomological Society and whose annual dues shall be paid by each 
society or organization so represented. It is believed also that 
as far as our funds permit the monthly or bi-monthly letters 
from the Secretary's office should be sent to all horticultural 
society secretaries and other officers as a means of interesting 
them in the American Pomological Society and its work. A 
committee on affiliation and cooperation l:)etween the American 
Pomological Society and other societies might well l)e designated. 
We recommend it. 

7. The desirability of establishing a regular-sized page 
and style of binding for the annual report needs no discussion. 
It is self-evident. We believe this is a matter that the Execu- 
tive Committee, in consultation with those familiar with print- 
ing, binding, etc.. can best handle. We recommend that the 
Executive Committee be charged with this duty and that it be 
given power to act. That is, that the action of the committee 
shall be the action of the Society. 

8. The raising of supplementary funds. The whole work 
of this Society seems to hang on funds, and our financial limita- 
tions mark the limitation of the , Society's activities. The com- 
mittee recommends that this Society give its earnest considera- 
tion to all possible sources of securing funds. The President 
had made certain suggestions with several alternatives. They 
merit consideration and action. This committee, however, feels 
that this is a matter on which it should withhold at this time any 
particular recommendation of its own. 

9. The matter of nomenclature. We feel that the im- 
portance of this matter is very inadequately appreciated. 
Throughout its entire life this Society has stood as the one 
bodv in America that had had a directing: influence on fruit 



62 

\ ariety names. That influence has had more or less general 
recognition, lint it has no comi)e11ing power. Its influence in 
this direction has sometimes waned, and many times has been 
ignored. The whole question needs careful, constructive, scien- 
tific consideration. This committee recognizes the fact that 
nomenclature work is very definitely research work. The re- 
sults are not merely matters of opinion, where one man's is as 
good as another's ; hut rather, the results are matters of fact, and 
the problem is to establish the fact or facts which are involved. 
Not every one is so situated that he can do lesearch work in fruit 
nomenclature. The placing of this work where it can best be 
done is a matter that calls for earnest consideration. Our Presi- 
dent has said as much in his Address. He recommends the pub- 
lishing of the Code, after proper editing as a bulletin. This 
committee emphasizes the need of action and recommends giving 
the widest publicity possible to the Code, after it has received 
the editing our President speaks of and consideration with re- 
spect to revision along the lines suggested in the President's Ad- 
dress, and in any other respects that are essential to make it 
scientific and workable. A committee to consider these matters 
should be appointed with power to act. The latter feature is 
necessary if the recommendations of the President for the pub- 
lication of the Code as a l:)ulletin are adopted. 

We have not tried to include in our recommendations for 
action every detail presented in the Address, but we have en- 
deavored in this way to suggest to you what we believe should 
be done to put the President's program, which becomes our pro- 
gram if ap])roved, into real action. 

H. P. Gould, Chairman, 
Frederic Cranefield, 
M. P.. Davis. 

H. P. Gould: It may seem that in the execution of the 
President's recommendations we have recommended the appoint- 
ment of an unduly large number of committees. We realize that 
if you want to kill a thing the best way to do it is to appoint 
a committee to handle it and then have that committee inopera- 
tive. A dead committee means dead activity. Possibly some very 
worthv things promulgated by this Society have died in just that 



63 

way. We believe, on the other hand, that there are enough men 
vitally interested in the things we wish to accomplish in this 
Society so that these committees may be very valuable. 

Another thing. I think one of the difficulties experienced by 
many committees is that they have been large and scattered over 
the country so that it was practically impossible to have a meeting 
of the committee. It seemed to this committee as we talked over 
this feature that very much smaller committees could accomplish 
everything that larger committees could accomplish, and nuich 
more in most respects, because of the situation I have just men- 
tioned. 

Then. too. there is one other feature with reference to com- 
mittees. There has been* an effort made in the past to have the 
committees represent the Society regionally, and that is theoreti- 
cally a most excellent and essential point because of the nation- 
wide scope of the Society, extending into international aspects - — 
the American Pomological Society being Canadian as well as 
American. It has seemed to us that certain committees, as for 
instance the committees to advise the Secretary and assist in some 
of his work ; the membership committee, too. should perhaps be 
regional because there are regional problems to work out and the 
work is necessarily regional. But the committee on nomenclature 
does not have regional problems. The giving of a name to a 
variety is the same whether it is in Manitoba, Florida, or Alaska, 
and the committee therefore does not. it seems to us. require 
regional representation. 

The President : What will you do with the report of this 
committee? Do you wish to consider it as a whole, or adopt it 
recommendation by recommendation? 

J. E. Smith: (Muncie, Indiana) I move that we accept the 
report of the committee. 

( Motion seconded ) . 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : There are some questions in regard to 
nomenclature on which I should like to express myself briefly. 
Nomenclature is exceedingly important, not merely academically, 
not alone in the finding of a set of names which will be usable 
and in all ways commendable in itself, but because the time is not 
far distant when some action may be expected by Congress that 
will require a standardized set of names of fruits. For example, 
a bill is now before Congress which seeks to regulate the sale of 



64 

nursery stock with respect to misnaming. Whether there is any 
chance of this bih passing Congress or not, legislation along this 
line is bound to arise. Whenever such legislation shall arise, the 
whole question of the proper naming of varieties, whether we 
are considering fruits or nursery stock, becomes very important 
and there must be a standard practice. The Government, prob- 
ably in its own interest and in self-defense, must before long begin 
to compile a list of standard varieties which carries with it the 
determination of the j^roper nomenclature. As many of you 
know, this Society once had affiliations with the United States 
Department of Agriculture whereby the work in nomenclature 
was conducted by its members, some of whom were connected 
with the Department, and the fruit catalog was published by the 
Department. 

It is one thing to make a set of standard names ; it is an- 
other thing to find a means of publication and of distribution. 
The question is whether this Society should memorialize the 
Secretary of Agriculture looking toward the renewal of such co- 
operation. Very important questions arise at once in the con- 
sideration of nomenclature, particularly in view of the fact that 
the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature 
is putting into type its second list or report. This committee, 
representing nurserymen, florists, landscape gardners, the Amer- 
ican Pomological Society and practically all the national societies 
that deal with plants, is now waiting to publish something from 
the American Pomological Society. 

I do not know that the committee has definitely passed on 
the two recommendations I made as to new principles to be con- 
sidered. 

H. P. Gould : The committee recommended that a committee 
on nomenclature be appointed to consider this and other things, 
with power to act. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : The American Joint Committee on 
Horticultural Nomenclature is a going organization. It started 
in the nurserymen's organization for the purpose of determining 
a uniform practice in the naming of plants. This Society has 
taken action whereby it is to co-operate with the committee. It is 
very important, therefore, that this nomenclature question be con- 
sidered at once and that this committee have power. 



65 

Mr. Frederic. Cranefield (Madison, Wisconsin) : It 
seems to me that the reason there is so little response to your re- 
quest for discussion of this subject is that it is such a tremen- 
dously big subject — so many things involved. The success or 
failure of the work of the American Pomological Society is in- 
volved, and yet we pass it lightly off, extend our thanks to the 
Secretary^ hope that by some means we may be able to employ 
a permanent secretary, and so on, and lo and behold, there is no 
discussion of the subject. These subjects are vital to the in- 
terests of the Society and its life in the future. Unless ways and 
means are found for carrying out these recommendations we 
might as well stop where we are. 

Perhaps this is not the best time and place to discuss these 
things. It occurred to me while Mr. Gould was reading the report 
that perhaps at the informal supper this evening we may feel like 
taking these subjects up in detail. But we should not leave this 
convention without a fuller discussion of the points involved in 
the President's Address. I shall feel that my trip here is wholly 
in vain, wath due respect to the other subjects on the program. 
1 merelv rise to invite fuller discussion, either now or at a later 
time. To my mind there is nothing else as important before the 
convention as the employment of a full-time Secretary and how 
we are to accomplish this end. 

Charles E. Greening (Monroe, Michigan) : I feel some- 
one should comment on the splendid, thorough, carefully worked 
out report that has been submitted by the committee. It is a 
difficult task to handle the subjects presented by the President, 
and I feel this report will help us a great deal in our discussion. 
I want to express my commendation of the work of the com- 
mittee. 

The President : I may indicate to you what we have be- 
fore us this morning. We have on our program for this afternoon 
Mr. Charles Brand, formerly with the Department of Agricul- 
ture, who cannot be here this afternoon. I propose therefore 
to call on him this forenoon. Before I do that, what do you 
wish to do in regard to this report which is before us? Shall 
you take action on the motion, or have further discussion of it 
tonight as to ways and means, and defer action now? 

5 



6S 

W. C. Reed (Indiana) : I think it would be better to dis- 
cuss it tonight more thoroughly. 

H. P. Gould: We have this matter before us now, ready to 
speak or keep silent, as you see fit, and my fear is that if it is 
not settled now it will go by default — or some other road — and 
this motion that is before us be left hanging in the air. 

Paul Thayer (Ohio) : I think the idea just expressed is 
the idea of all of us. I think we all agree with the suggestions 
of the committee, and the way to work them out it seems to me 
would be a fit subject for discussion now, not tonight. I there- 
fore call for discussion. 

(Vote on the motion of Mr. Smith. Carried). 

The Secretary : The Toledo Chamber of Commerce has 
arranged for a supper to be given in the Chamber of Commerce 
dining room on the top floor of the Nicholas Building corner 
Madison and Huron, tonight at six-thirty. The price is $1.50 a 
plate. This will not be a banquet, but just a good supper, and 
I would like to have a show of hands now of those who will 
attend this supper. 

The President: Then we can discuss this subject which 
we have before us. I will now call on Mr. Charles Brand, whom 
we will be very glad to hear. 



FRUIT FOR THE FUTURE 

A BRIEF review OF ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING FRUIT 

MARKETING AND OF THE STATISTICAL POSITION OF 

THE DECIDUOUS FRUIT INDUSTRY 

Charles J. Brand, 
Vice President and General Manager of American Fruit Grow- 
ers, Incorporated, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Economic conditions in the United States and in the world 
at large are such that we have far more than the usual interest 
in the future of the fruit industry. Our interest and concern 
most generally contemplate two phases of the problem; namely: 



^7 

I. — The relatively immediate future, 1922 and 1923, and 
2. — The longer pull of the census decade ending in 1929, 
but including as well the past year and the years im- 
mediately before us. 

An intelligent consideration of the probable future involves 
not only a consideration of the present statistical position of the 
industry itself and a comparison with the past but also a study 
of economic events in past times under relatively similar condi- 
tions and the present trend of things commercially and in- 
dustrially. 

Every form of agricultural industry feels thoroughly de- 
flated, and so it is, relatively, in greater measure than any other 
great industry that comes to my mind. As the editor of the 
Wall Street Journal recently put it — "not only has the water 
been squeezed out of farm prices but a lot of the blood." Prices 
of many manufactured products, particularly, are still on too 
high a plane compared with a five year average of pre-war prices. 
Retail prices of foodstuffs and particularly of fruits and veg- 
etables are too commonly wholly out of line with wholesale 
prices. Within a week I have seen boxed Spitzenburgs, 96 size, 
selling on fruit stands at ten cents a piece or $9.60 per box when 
the wholesale price was ranging between $3.25 and $3.75. 

On the whole, fruit prices to the grower are ranging higher 
in comparison than live stock, grain and cotton prices. I heard 
the Chairman of the Congressional Joint Commission of Agri- 
cultural Inquiry, Mr. Sydney Anderson, of Minnesota, at the 
American Farm Bureau Federation Meeting at Atlanta give some 
decidedly shocking figures resulting from the Commission's in- 
vestigations. The following implements are a necessity to the 
great bulk of our farmers; a wagon; a gang plow; a corn binder 
and a grain binder. 

It was found that when the farmer buys these four im- 
plements paying for them in corn shipped to Chicago from 
Springfield, Illinois, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, the total 
freight in money is as follows : — • 

At Springfield, Illinois : — 

1913 .^1 

1920 474 

1921 700 



68 

At Oklahoma City, Oklahoma : — 

1913 $484 

1920 934 

1921 751 

Expressed in terms of corn the cost of the four implements 
is as follows : — 

At Springfield, Illinois : — 

1913 716 bushels 

1920 583 bushels 

1921 2,027 bushels 

At Oklahoma City, Oklahoma : — 

1913 932 bushels 

1920 702 bushels 

1921 4,191 bushels 

The freight on the implements alone expressed in terms of 
corn was : — 

To Springfield, Illinois : — . 

1913 71 bushels 

1920 132 bushels 

1921 265 bushels 

To Oklahoma City, Oklahoma : — 

1913 197 bushels 

1920 308 bushels 

1921 1,238 bushels 

The freight on the corn plus the freight on the implements 
in 1921 was fifty percent greater than the cost of the implements. 
The blighting efifect upon agriculture that the continuance of 
such a condition will produce needs no comment. 

GENERAL BUSINESS CONDITIONS 

While American business is enjoying a great deal of grief 
these days, conditions are by no means as bad in some ways as 
they have been, even in the relatively recent past. 

Most of us find no difficulty in recalling the depression in 
1900 followed by two years of recovery, and then by the com- 



69 

mercial and financial crash of 1903 and 1904. 1905 and 1906 and 
the first few months of 1907 represent a period of unusual pros- 
perity which was followed by the panic of 1907 and 1908. In 
fact, a curve showing conditions shows with slight fluctuations a 
normal period to 1912, 1913 and 1914, followed first, by prostra- 
tion at the outbreak of the war, with subsequent inflation, specu- 
lation, waste, extravagance, over expansion and uneconomic pro- 
duction that culminated in 1920, and from which we have been 
recovering or deflating since that time. 

In a recent statement showing fifty different commodities, 
in which there has been a recession to practically pre-war levels, 
I noted that thirty-one were farm crop or farm crop derivatives. 
In any period of sharp price movements, particularly downward, 
farm and wholesale prices move first and farthest; retail prices 
move more slowly; wages change even less rapidly; and manu- 
factured articles, having a high labor content, change more slow- 
ly than any of the foregoing; while salaries and rents change 
slowest of all. Farm and wholesale prices have receded to a 
considerable extent except in certain lines, but retail prices have 
not reacted satisfactorily and are at a serious disparity. This is 
especially true as to farm and food products. 

Wages in other industries than agriculture are still exceed- 
ingly abnormal. While farm wages average now in the neigh- 
borhood of twenty cents an hour, common labor on railroads is 
still in many cases as high as sixty-one cents an hour. The wage 
scale of the United States has been increasing constantly for 
more than a hundred years. In 1820 the average weekly wage of 
an artisan was about $7.00; by i860 it was $10.00 a week; dur- 
ing the Civil War it rose to a level of about $15.00, where it re- 
mained relatively stationary until 1900. By 191 5 it has risen 
to over $21.00; while in 1920 it was $42.00. Needless to say, 
with this fixed rise in costs deflation along many lines has pro- 
ceeded necessarily slowly. Conditions are improving. In Pitts- 
burgh a number of additional furnaces have been blown in. We 
hear the same news from Chicago, Cleveland and other points. 
There is a firmer undertone not only in business in general, but 
in the security and commodity markets. While unemployment 
is abroad in the land, improved conditions with constructive ef- 
forts at relief promise better conditions. This is of great im- 



1o 

portance to the farmers and fruit growers of the United States, 
as purchasing power of the pubHc will be one of the important 
determining factors in their operations during the next year. 

There is ample evidence that the general trend of prices for 
a 1 eriod of years will fluctuate irregularly downward, on the 
whole. Prices of farm products are more nearly normal than 
01 bet commodities, and will, therefore, in the future recede less. 
The index numbers of wholesale prices, using 1913 as 100, 
show the following situation : — 

October, October, 
J920 1921 

Farm Products 182 119 

Clothes and Clothing 257 190 

Fuel and Lighting 282 182 

House Furnishing Goods 371 218 

From this it appears reasonable that agriculture on the 
v.'hole will suffer less from further deflation than other industries. 
T am sure we are all thankful for this hope. Nevertheless, as 
perishable growers, we must remember that certain of our 
products are still above normal. This is particularly true of 
apples and potatoes. 

After our war of 1812, which was a mere incident in the 
Napoleonic world war; and after 1864 the culmination year of 
Civil war high prices, there were periods of nearly thirty years of 
generally receding wholesale prices followed by twenty years in 
each case of ascending prices. 

How long we will be in completing the cycle of receding and 
ascending prices under existing world conditions, it is of course, 
impossible to foretell. This much is certain, the elasticity of the 
modern financial structure with its marvelously increased facility 
to accommodate itself to changed conditions gives good reason to 
hope that the readjustment which we are now carrying on after 
the orgy of the past six years will be accomplished at a rate 
hitherto impossible, nevertheless we are in a period of genuine 
depression. Consuming power of great bodies of consumers ha=; 
been impaired by unemployment. Continued high prices along 
many lines have decreased consumption. High costs of produc- 
tion seem in many cases to make profitable operations impossible. 
On the other hand, we have the statistical position : 



71 

First — Of population and hence of possible consump- 
tive demand. 
Second — Of acreage, both bearing and non-bearing rep- 
resenting available and prospective supply to 
consider. 

By census periods our population has grown as follows : 

1890 62,947,000 

1900 75,994,000 

1910 91,972,000 

1920 105,683,000 

These figures mean that in tlip last forty years our population 
has increased about 43.000,000 persons. This increase is more 
significant than the mere figures indicate. In 1890 the United 
States was still preponderantly an agricultural nation, so that the 
consumptive force of the population for commercially produced 
and commercially shipped products was not what it is in 192 1. 
More than fifty per cent of our population has ceased to be rural, 
within the census meaning of the word, and being largely in- 
dustrial and urban is dependent upon commercial production of 
fruit for supplying its needs. The other side of the picture, 
considering for purposes of illustration a comparison only peaches 
and apples, we find the following situation as to production as 
disclosed by the census figures : 

APPLES 

1889 143,105,000 bushels 

1899 175,397,000 bushels 

1909 146,122,000 bushels 

1919 136,746,000 bushels 

1920* 244,022,000 bushels 

1921* 102,290,000 bushels 

During more recent years the Bureau reports have presented 
commercial production as distinguished from total production. 
The commercial crop is expressed in barrels and by the term 
is meant that portion of the total crop which is sold for con- 
sumption as fresh fruit. The commercial production for the last 
five years according to the Bureau has been as follows : 



* Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates figures for November 1st. 



72 

1916 26,747,000 barrels 

1917 22,341,000 barrels 

1918 24,743,000 barrels 

1919 26,174,000 barrels 

1920 37,239,000 barrels 

1921* 18,563,000 barrels 

The average commercial crop for the five years from 1916 to 
1920 was 27,848,000 barrels. Compared with this, the present 
commercial crop is approximately 9,285,000 barrels short, but 
compared with the year 1920 it totals only about one-half the 
quantity of commercial fruit that was put into consumption from 
the 1920 crop. 

It will be noted by comparing total crop figures with com- 
mercial crop figures that the latter do not show the fluctuation 
the former show. 

The unattended farm or garden orchard, left largely to 
nature's care, swells the total crop in years of favorable con- 
ditions, no doubt exercising a profound influence on the prices 
of the commercial crop. 

From Colonial time until about thirty to forty years ago 
specialized commercial orchards were practically unknown. Now 
a constantly growing proportion of plantings is in commercial 
orchards, well cared for by trained and successful orchardists. 
This fact must be borne in mind in considering the subsequent 
census figures: 

BEARING AND NON-BEARING TREES 

Trees of Bearing Age : 

1910 , 151,322,000 

1920 115,265,000 

a decrease of slightly more than 36,000,000 trees or 23.8 per 
cent, as shown by the Bureau of the Census release furnished by 
Mr. Cruickshank. It is to be remembered that within the same 
period the population of the United States increased about 14,- 
000,000; namely, from 91,000,000 in 1909 to 105,000,000 m 1919. 
The short crop of the present year is, of course, merely a 
temporary phase in the situation, due to unprecedented Spring 



* Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates figure for November 1st. 



n 

frosts, particularly the one that occurred on Easter day. Never- 
theless, it is of interest to know that the 1921 crop is the small- 
est but one in the last thirty-two years, the only one that was 
smaller being the crop of 1890, which amounted to 80,142,000 
barrels. 

As long ago as 1889, when the population of the United 
States was only about 60,000,000 souls, we had a total crop, ac- 
cording to the census, of over 143,000,000 bushels, compared 
with a total estimated crop of 102,000,000 bushels for the present 
year, when our population stands in excess of 105,000,000. 

From the foregoing it is most obvious that the fundamental 
conditions, in so far as apple production is concerned, must be 
sound. We must, of course, bear in mind the greater efficiency 
of commercial production together with the fact that a very large 
percentage of our bearing trees are of an age that will lead to 
increased production without any necessary increase in plantings. 
The situation with respect to trees of non-bearing age is of the 
same kind. 

There were trees of non-bearing age : — 

1910 65,791,000 

1920 36,171,000 

a decrease of 29,620,000 or 45 percent of trees not of bearing age. 
As it requires from 6 to 12 years for different varieties or 
different sections of the country to bring apple trees to bearing 
age, it is quite apparent both from an economic and a practical 
nursery standpoint that with the continued inevitable growth of 
our country, the fundamental outlook for the apple grower is 
good. 

PEACHES 

I have devoted so much time to apples, which are no doubt a 
premier crop both in quantity, value and importance as a food, 
that there is little time to devote to other fruit crops. 

In the case of peaches ; there has been a fluctuating but 
nevertheless on the whole a progressive increase in production 
during the 22 years from 1899 to 1921. The normal total crop 
amounts to about 46.000,000 bushels. x\s long ago as 1900 a 
crop of greater size was produced. The largest crop in our his- 



74 

tory was that of 191 5, totalling 64,000,000 bushels. Its dis- 
astrous effect on the market is still recent enough in the minds 
of many of us so that no description of it is necesasry. 

The position with respect to trees of bearing age is as 
follows : — 

1910 94,506,657 

1920 65,654,219 

The effective life of the peach tree is relatively so short that 
this decrease of 28,851,438 in the number of trees of bearing age 
is more significant than are the figures given for apples. Peach 
trees are so susceptible to bacterial and insect enemies that the 
mortality per year is extraordinarily heavy. 

However, viewing the figures as they stand, the present 
plantings being more largely in commercial orchards have a 
greater potential productive capacity than a great number of 
trees had in earlier years. 

The number of trees not of bearing age were as follows : — 

1910 42,266,243 

1920 21,623,657 

a decrease of more than 20,000,000 or 48.8 percent. 

It is evident from the foregoing that production possibilities 
both present and prospective do not point to any grave dangers 
through over expansion and wild exploitations in the near future. 

It is so commonly said that figures lie that we are forced 
to hesitate, but we do know the stupendous decreases both of 
bearing and non-bearing apple and peach trees. The census 
figures, however, are certainly to be relied upon implicitly, with- 
in the limits of probable error in any task so enormous. 

PROSPECTS FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE I92I CROP. 

The crop in the barrel states shows a decrease of almost 71 
per cent from 1920, while the crop from the box states shows an 
increase of over 39 percent, indicating one of the largest, if not, 
the largest box crop on record. The average decrease for the 
whole United States, compared with last year is approximately 
one-third. The movement of the crop to the first of December 
was as follows : — 



75 

Box Sections : 

Total this season to November 26th 40,311 cars 

Total last season to November 26th 24,357 cars 

Total last season — 1920 36,293 cars 

Barrel Sections : 

Total this season to November 26th 21,614 cars 

Total last season to November 26th 50,999 cars 

Total last season — 1920 72,417 cars 

As the total barrel crop for this year is about 29 per cent of 
last year it would appear that the movement has proceeded more 
rapidly in 192 1 than in 1920, in relation to the probable total 
crop. Similarly the box crop seems to have moved more rapidly 
into consumption or storage or both, in relation to the size of 
the crop, than last year. 

The December ist cold storage report is not available but 
the November ist holdings were: — 

Barrel Apples : 

November 1, 1920 3,516,000 barrels 

November 1, 1921 1,815,000 barrels 

Box Apples : 

November 1, 1920 2,878,000 barrels 

November 1, 1921 5,-348,000 barrels 

It will be seen from the above that, while the deficiency in 
barrel apples is very great, the quantity of box apples in storage 
is such as to leave the total deficiency only 231,000 barrels in 
192 1 as compared w^ith 1920. 

As usual, when the supply and demand operate with relative 
freedom, the barrel deal, with its short supply, will show higher 
returns per package but very low returns per acre. 

The conclusion of the box deal depend on skillful sales- 
m_anship and the general character and quality of the stock in 
storage. 

In closing, may I say that the situation in the fruit industry 
as a whole is unquestionably good. That does not mean that 
efficient work, elimination of waste, the application of sound 
economy and a most careful cutting of all the corners will not be 
necessary. In fact, judged from previous economic history, as 



76 

very briefly outlined above, economy, thrift and efficiency will be 
absolutely essential. 



A Member: What about the probability of exporting ap- 
ples in the future? 

Charles Brand: I feel that the export problem will be de- 
termined largely by a reasonable system of parity of exchange, 
and as the pound Sterling has gotten above $4.07 in the past 
ten days I think the outlook in that respect is very favorable. 

The President : We will now have the report of the 
Auditing Committee. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE TO AUDIT TREASURER'S 

BOOKS 

Toledo,, Ohio, December 8, 1921. 
The Auditing Committee wishes to report that they have 
gone over the books, vouchers, receipts and bank balance of the 
Treasurer and find them correct. We therefore move the ac- 
ceptance and adoption of the treasurer's report. 

Charles E. Greening, 
Fred Johnson, 
J. E, Cochran. 

(Motion seconded and carried.) 



THURSDAY AFTERNOON SESSION 

The Thursday afternoon session was called to order at one- 
thirty by the Secretary, Prof. R. B. Cruickshank. 

The Secretary : Doctor Bailey has been detained, but will 
be here shortly, and he asks that the program go forward even 
though he is absent. 

One of the men on the program this morning who was not 
here was Prof. Laurenz Greene of Indiana. We would like to 
hear from him at the present time. 



17 



FRUIT GROWING IN THE EAST NORTH CENTRAL 
GROUP OF STATES 

Laurenz Greene, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind, 

This group of states is a general farming country with few 
well developed orchard districts. It contains the agricultural 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. Door 
County, Wisconsin, with its cherries and western Michigan with 
its general fruit plantings mark the most highly developed horti- 
cultural industries. Southern Illinois is distinctly an early apple 
district but the orchards are not so thickly planted as in the dis- 
tricts named. 

In addition to the general farming this region is noted for 
its industrial development insuring markets close at home. The 
great "Calumet Region" with its hundreds of thousands of work- 
ers and the automobile industries of Michigan are the most 
famous. Of equal importance from the marketing standpoint 
are the numerous large towns, small cities and great industrial 
centers over the central part of this group of states. 

Because the bearing apple trees — found in the farm or- 
chards comprise a relatively large percentage of the total the 
mortality during the decade covered by the recent census has 
been rather high. This region lost one third of its bearing apple 
trees during that period. During that same time there was a, 
loss of 35% in the number of bearing peach trees, 30% of its 
bearing pear trees, 50% of its bearing plum trees, while the small 
fruit acreage was increased less than one per cent. 

Non-bearing fruit trees tell about the same story. This 
region had 70% as many-non bearing apple trees in 1920 as it had 
in 1910. Only 48% as many non-bearing pear trees were found 
in the last census as were found in its predecessor but this crop 
is unimportant as only about three million pear trees of all ages 
were found in 1920. Only half as many non-bearing plum trees 
were found in 1920 as were reported in 1910. 

It was noted that there was a slight increase in the small 
fruit acreage but there are few cars of this fruit shipped out of 
the counties where it is produced as compared with the better de- 
veloped small fruit sections. With a few exceptions, labor con- 



^ 



78 

ditions remaining- on either the present or a pre-war basis, no 
large development of this industry may be looked for and the op- 
portunities where labor can be secured are excellent. 

Approximately 20% of the total population of the United 
lives in this group of states. They produce but 17% of the total 
apple crop of the United States during the period 191 1 to 1920, 
inclusive. A large percentage of that was produced on the farms 
and was not marketed nor marketable. The commercial crop of 
the United States is 45% of the total farm crop while in this 
section only 35% is called commercial, according to Bureau of 
Markets figures. Such conditions make for excellent markets 
within the district. 

As a further illustration of these markets and their supply 
it is interesting to note that in 1918 this group of states supplied 
their large markets of Cleveland, Detroit, Cincinnati, Indianap- 
olis and Chicago with less than one third of the cars of apples 
consumed by those markets. 

The east north central group of states produced less than 
10% of the cars of apples that were unloaded on the 14 larger 
markets of the country. Of the fruit marketed in these cities 
that was produced in this group of states practically 90% was 
marketed within the border of the group. Either New York 
state or Washington supplied more apples for the markets in 
these five states in 1918 than came from their orchards. During 
that year New York supplied Indianapolis with six times as many 
cars of apples as were received from either Indiana or Illinois. 
Indianapolis in that season received less than seven percent of 
its apple supply from the state of which it is the capital. 

Because of this shortage of supply and the apparent demand 
at home the average farm price is higher in this section than in 
the United States as a whole. It was 13 cents per bushel higher 
for the ten year period just past. In 1919 it was 54 cents per 
bushel higher in these five states than the average for the United 
States and in Indiana that year it was 81 c per bushel higher. 

The automobile trade is developing rapidly and many or- 
chardists are finding they do not need to provide packages, storage 
and marketing facilities beyond the limits of their own farms. 
Isolated orchards can not supply the demand at the orchard while 
the elimination of the farm orchard crops is adding to the joys 
of the commercial man in increasing- his orchard trade. One In- 



79 

diana berry grower with fifteen acres sells his berries on the 
vines and the customers pay for the privilege of picking them. 

The loss of the large numbers of trees and the increasing 
city populations with smaller and smaller crops of fruit coming 
from the farm orchards makes a very bright outlook for the real 
commercial fruit grower in these great lakes states. There have 
been no boom plantings since the nineties and the neglected or- 
chards put out at that time are nearly gone. There are no young 
plantings coming on to supply the demand ten, fifteen, or twenty 
years in the future. It is undoubtedly a most opportune time to 
plant fruit in this region. Good care has produced some splendid 
orchards that have proven highly productive and profitable to 
their owners. Personally I believe that it is not only a most op- 
portune time to plant orchards in the east north central group of 
states but I also believe that this region is the most promising 
place to plant fruit that can be found in this or any other country. 



The Secretary: Is there any discussion of this paper? 
There seems to be no question but what, so far as Ohio is con- 
cerned, a great many men are beginning to develop markets such 
as Professor Greene has indicated. 

I will now call on Mr. H. G. Ingerson to tell us something 
about the census figures from the standpoint of a man interested 
in the manufacture of spraying machines. 



UNITED STATES APPLE PRODUCTION IN 1930 

H. G. Ingerson, 
Ohio 

1 have taken for my topic, "United States Apple Production 
in 1930." I think we like to look forward, but perhaps not for 
more than a ten-year period. We can only arrive at that ap- 
proximation by what has happened in the past ten years, so I 
will present in a brief way my personal opinions on this matter, 
and then just briefly state what I feel, as a manufacturer of spray 
machinery, should be the trend of orchard planting from the 
standpoint of orchard economics. 



8o 

A study of the United States census figures on apple pro- 
duction in 1909 and 1919, and the relative number of bearing and 
non-bearing trees in 1910 and 1920, shows clearly the following 
condition: That of a total of 216,000,000 bearing and non-bear- 
ing apple trees in 1910, but 115,000,000 were in bearing in 1920; 
a loss of 47 per cent. With this same ratio of loss prevailing 
(and we have no reason to doubt that it will prevail), from the 
total of 151,000,000 bearing and non-bearing trees in 1920 we 
will have but 80,000,000 bearing apple trees in 1930, or but 
slightly more than half as many bearing trees as in 1910. 

The production figures for 1909 and 1919 show an increase 
from one bushel per tree to 1.2 bushel, or 20 per cent, increase. 
With an additional increase per tree of another 20 per cent., 
which I think we may expect from our improved methods of 
pruning, fertilizing and spraying, we shall still be short 33,000,- 
000 bushels, or 23 per cent, of the 1909 crop. 

So far we have not considered any increased consumption 
of apples. I think we all realize that consumption could be 
greatly increased if high quality apples could be furnished to 
our people at reasonable cost. How much this increase may be 
we will leave to our advertising friends to estimate, but surely 
enough to care for the increase per tree that we are securing. 

With these facts before us I believe we must agree that a 
period of apple tree planting is just ahead of us, and I feel that 
it is for an organization such as the American Pomological So- 
ciety to point out the course that such planting should take. 

I submit that the most successful and profitable orchard in 
the future will be the two-man commercial orchard, probably 
thirty to fifty acres of mixed fruits, within trucking distance of 
several small towns, or a city of some size. I see the advantages 
of such a location as follows : 

I'. Production : 

1 . A constant supply of labor, the owner and son, or 
owner and one good tenant. 

2. Economical use of labor throughout the season in 
production and marketing work. 

3. Economical use of orchard equipment. 

4. Low overhead. 



8i 

II. Quality fruit: 

1 . Because relatively small acreage of each kind and 
variety can be harvested and marketed in best con- 
dition. 

2. Because storage varieties can be placed in home 
storage immediately following harvest and mar- 
keted when in best condition. 

III. Most important of all, the marketing of fruit at lowest 
possible cost effecting the following savings over 
the grower who must pick and ship to distant 
markets : 

1 . Packing expense oc to 10c bushel 

2. Shipping expense over local market 

package 5c to 10c package 

3 . Season storage 10c to 20c bushel 

4. Commission 10c to 20c bushel 

5. Drayage to freight car and to storage 

or commission house 10c to 15c bushel 

Total saving per bushel 40c to 75c 

I am assuming that the total cost of trucking to local mar- 
kets will not exceed the cost of freight on distance shipments. 

I believe we must recognize that the unusual development of 
automobiles, trucks and roads, and the growth of our urban 
population is calling for a rapid change in our marketing methods 
and that the future orchard plantings should be made with these 
things well in mind. 

Now just a word as to the attitude of the sprayer manu- 
facturers on these things. We believe we had better have less 
fruit on the market and have it of higher quality. A lot of this 
home farm orchard fruit on the market serves no good purpose 
and should not be there, and we feel that rather than encourage 
the general planting of farm orchards we should rather discour- 
age them and encourage the commercial orchard on an economic 
basis. 

The Secretary : Is there any discussion of this paper ? He 
has brought out some figures which you may or may not agree 
with, and we would be glad to have the subject discussed. 

6 



82 

Prof. Laurenz Greene (Indiana) : Mr. Ingerson brought 
out a thought that I am wondering about. That is that apple 
planting occurs in cycles. If that is the case, the last cycle has 
been a long period. If I remember history right, the last general 
planting in most of the orchards through the country west of 
us, including the Missouri River country and the Ozarks, was 
from about 1883 to 1893. Aside from the planting in the Pacific 
Northwest we have not had in the eastern or central west ex- 
tensive commercial planting since that time. I wonder if he has 
the facts as to the general planting that we had at that time ? 

H. G. Ingerson : No, I do not. Personally, I do not feel 
that we will see the extensive planting that we have had in other 
periods of inflation of the orchard industry. I beheve the fruit 
growers will avoid planting exceedingly large orchards, such as 
the big plantings of the Ozarks and other places. The smaller 
tracts can be handled well and sold to advantage. I feel the fruit 
grower of the future will be the man who puts out thirty to 
forty acres and cares for them well without a big investment. In 
other words, a substantial commercial orchard. 

T. B. West (Perry, Ohio) : I think the passing of the farm 
orchard is much to be regretted, if it is true. I think an organiza- 
tion such as this, and organizations such as the state horticultural 
societies, should encourage the planting of small farm orchards. 
I think in the passing of the farm orchard you are hitting hard- 
est at farm life. I think everything should be grown on the 
farm for the comfort and enjoyment of the people who live on 
the farm, and they should be encouraged to produce them. If 
the farm orchard is a thing of the past, as the talks here would 
seem to indicate, it is very much to be regretted. Children on 
the farm should have apples where they can get them. You know 
the average farmer's attitude towards buying fruit for the fam- 
ily — if he does not grow it he will not buy it, I think as men 
who stand for and represent this industry we should encourage 
the planting of the small farm orchard for the benefit of the 
farmer's children. The farmer should be encouraged to take 
care of a few trees so he can have the fruit for his family. I 
think it is very much to be regretted that we are losing that great 
asset to our American farms. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene: I may be guilty of starting this 
discussion. I think every one of us is absolutely with the last 



83 

speaker, with one proviso — that the farmer will take care of 
the planting, that he will plant fifteen or twenty trees in place 
of three or four hundred, as Mr. Ingerson mentioned. I believe 
it is the place of the fruit industry to encourage an orchard 
on each farm, but this fruit should be taken care of. 

Frederick Cranefield : I agree with all these gentlemen. 
When you get down to the bottom there is no difference of 
opinion. I think perhaps we might use another term that would 
help in this matter. Why not say "home orchard"? That is 
what we mean — enough fruit trees to produce sufficient fruit 
for the home needs, for the family, and as Professor Greene says, 
with the proviso that these trees be taken care of. If you can do 
that you will have done a great thing. We have been working 
at this in Wisconsin for years, through the Horticultural Society, 
the Farmers' Institutes, etc., trying tO' induce the farmers to care 
for their farm orchards, and we have helped some. Further 
than that I would not have the farmer go. We say up in Wis- 
consin that no farmer has brains enough to be a successful stock 
grower, dairyman and fruit grower at the same time. He is 
not able to do it even if he has the equipment. He is com- 
pelled to provide the equipment necessary to take care of his 
overhead, and then the question arises of marketing the fruit. It 
is no problem for the farmer to market his stock, or his dairy 
products ; that is comparatively easy. Sometimes he asks wheth- 
er he is getting the price he should be entitled to, but the matter 
of disposing of his product is pretty well settled. There are cer- 
tain definite channels through which these products go. But 
not so with fruit. He must seek his market. Can the average 
farmer do that? Experience shows he cannot, and I doubt if it 
will ever be done successfully. In years of over-production there 
is a glut and it is not reasonable to expect the average farmer to 
produce the good quality of fruit, so let us burn out every farm 
orchard in the United States except what will supply the farmer's 
needs, but let us at the same time encourage the farmer to plant 
trees enough to supply the needs of his family. 

R. A. Simpson (Vincennes, Indiana) : I would like to em- 
phasize the importance of selling from the orchard. You can 
develop a home orchard trade and supply the wants of the family 
and children by advertising, because the people from the city 
will come out to the farms and buy fruit at half the price charged 



84 

by the stores, and therefore they will use a great deal more fruit. 
For instance, at our place, we find if we sell our fruit to the 
stores, which we do, the price immediately goes up loo per 
cent, it keeps down the consumption, and there are not as many 
apples used. If we sell direct to the customers they come to the 
farm for the fruit and a great many more apples go to the chil- 
dren. The farmers want apples, but they are not willing to pay 
the price and take care of their orchards. They say they want to 
take care of the orchard, but the corn has to be cultivated, or 
something else must be done, and they cannot take proper care 
of the orchard. I do not believe it will hurt the consumption; I 
believe it will increase it. 

The Secretary: In that connection I might say that our 
Ohio farm bureaus are buying apples by the car-load in the Fall 
for those members who do not raise fruit. It seems to be a work 
that is developing very rapidly. 

W. S. Perrine (Centralia, Illinois) : Either the farmer 
should take care of his orchard, or cut it down and this will be 
necessary if the commercial man is to take care of his orchard. 
The farmer who has had a commercial orchard should either 
care for it or take it out. In Illinois, especially in the southern 
part, we have thousands of acres of uncared-for orchards, 
and they ought to come oUt. I believe it is in the province 
oi this Society and others like it to lend their influence along that 
line and get these orchards taken out ot cleaned up. It is a 
great handicap to the healthful development of the fruit industry 
to have these orchards standing there uncared for. These census 
figures undoubtedly are true, but it is a fact that we have more 
trees in the United States at the present time than we need to 
produce the fruit that is being produced. It is a question of care, 
not the number of trees. Not more trees, but better care, not 
only on the part of the commercial growers, but everyone who 
has trees. I want to emphasize the need of either caring for the 
farm orchards, or the commercial orchards, or cutting them down 
and cleaning them out. 

The Secretary : I think this Society is committed to the 
proposition of better home as well as commercial orchards, and 
certain publicity ought to be carried on in that connection. 

The President : Some of these numbers on the program 
are represented only by papers. Inasmuch as the program is full 



S5 

the probability is that we shall not have these papers read, but of 
course they will be available in the Annual Report. Others have 
not even sent in their papers. The program will therefore be 
more or less mixed for the remainder of the afternoon, but we 
hope to get. through with the persons who are here without hold- 
ing any over until tomorrow. We are now on the general subject 
of the analyses of the census figures for fruit trees. Mr. Pratt 
of New York is here. We will hear from him. 



SOME LESSONS FROM THE 1920 CENSUS REPORT 

B. G, Pratt, 
New York 

During the past ten years the general opinion as expressed 
by many of our fruit growers has been that the fruit business is 
being overdone ; that when the young orchards being planted had 
come into bearing, the price of fruit would go so far below the 
cost of production that fruit growing would cease to be profitable 
and orchards would be cut out to make way for more profitable 
farm products. The late Mr. J. H. Hale stated in my presence, 
several years before his death, that he believed that fancy grade 
apples would reach as low a price as $1.00 per barrel, which 
would mean the destruction of many of our orchards, especially 
those uncared for. 

And while I am not a prophet, nor the son of a prophet, my 
observation in visiting orchards throughout the country was, that 
despite the heavy planting of young trees, too many orchards, 
both young and old, were receiving but indifferent care and that 
it would be a case of the survival of the fittest. 

With these facts clearly before me, I have set out over 30,- 
000 fruit trees in the past ten years and expect to plant as many 
more in the next five years. I am an optimist but I have been 
long enough in the game to appreciate the difficulties and disap- 
pointments, as well as the possibilities of profit. 

This reminds me of Fisher Ames' description of the differ- 
ence between a monarchy and a democracy. "A monarchy," he 
said, "is like a merchantman ; you get on board and ride the wind 
and tide in safety and elation, but by and by you strike a reef and 



86 

go down. But democracy is like a raft; you never sink, but, 
damn it, your feet are always wet." You seldom hear of a fruit 
grower (not a fruit company) failing, but his feet are always 
in the water. After he has done his part, there are frosts in the 
spring, hail in the summer, winds in the fall, railroad freights 
and commission men after picking. He even questions the valid- 
ity of the check when he receives it, especially if it is a large one. 

But what is the actual condition of the fruit industry as 
shown by the U. S. census report, released June, 1921? It was 
a surprise to me, although I was more or less prepared for it. 
Mr. D. E. Lewis of the Central States Orchards Company, Kan- 
sas City, Missouri, in an address before the Horticultural So- 
ciety at Topeka, Kansas, last winter gave a summary of reports 
received throughout the country on the lack of care of the apple 
orchards during the past five years and the small plantings of 
young trees. This he had gathered to convince his board of di- 
rectors of the advisability of planting more orchards at once. I 
am sorry that I could not get a report of this address, for it was 
the first word of encouragement for planting young orchards I 
had heard in five years. This year's census report confirms all 
he said, but dwarfs it by comparison. 

What does it say? That in 191 o there were 151,000,000 
apple trees in the United States of bearing age, while in 1920 
there were only 115,000,000, a reduction of 23.8%. It also says 
that in 1910 there were 65,000,000 apple trees under bearing age, 
all of which would be of bearing age or dead in 1920, so that 
the figures show an actual loss of 101,000,000 trees, or 47% in 
the past ten years. 

But unfortunately, this does not represent the total loss. 
The planting of apple trees after the census was taken in 1910, 
191 1 and 1912 was very heavy, amounting to millions of trees 
more, rnost of which are included as bearing trees in the 1920 
census. So you see that it is safe to say that one-half of all the 
apple trees in the United States ten years ago are today dead ; 
and there are only 36,000,000 apple trees under bearing age today 
against 65,000,000 ten years ago, — a decrease of 45%. 

With all the trees planted out in the past thirty years, we 
have today 5,000,000 less bearing apple trees than we had in 
1890, thirty years ago ; 86,000,000 less than 20 years ago, and 
36,000,000 less than ten years ago. I am sorry that the census 



87 

does not give the number of apple trees under bearing age in the 
census of 1890 and 1900, but from the figures we have, it is 
reasonable to calculate that we are losing apple trees today faster 
than in the palmiest days of the San Jose Scale. 

The length of life of an apple tree is almost comparable 
with that of a human being. Twenty years ago there were more 
than two bearing apple trees for every man, woman and child in 
the United States. Ten years ago there were i^ bearing apple 
trees per capita. Today there are not much more than one. 
If the present mortality continues, we will have to plant 20,000,- 
000 apple trees every year for the next ten years, or about five 
times as many as we are today planting, to place the apple in- 
dustry on the same plane as it was only ten years ago, with a 
reasonable expectation that the population will be 20% greater 
than it was at that time. 

1 assume that the census figures are as near- correct as 
similar figures can be and represent a true condition of the apple 
industry today. 

But there is a cause or causes that dominate every effect, 
and with your permission I will try briefly to point out some of 
the causes for this tremendous economic waste. It is a tre- 
mendous waste when 50% of our apple trees do not reach bear- 
ing age or die prematurely, for an apple tree of bearing age 
represents a value of at least $10.00 and pays a handsome divi- 
dend on a much larger amount, so that the loss of 100,000,000 
trees in ten years represents an economic loss of at least $1,000,- 
000,000 or $100,000,000 each and every year. Can we afford it? 

What are some of the causes? There has been no general 
alarm such as that experienced by the fruit growers fifteen or 
twenty years ago when the San Jose Scale threatened the de- 
struction of the orchard, yet the danger is evidently as great. 
Only once in a while a voice is raised and then none too strongly. 

Naturally we would expect 10, 15 or possibly 20% of our 
bearing trees to go out in ten years from old age, yet I know 
of orchards in New York State a hundred to a hundred and 
twenty-five years of age still in profitable bearing. 

Then again, large tracts of land have been planted to apples 
during the past twenty years by orchard companies for specula- 
tive purposes that have been neglected and finally passed away, 
but in the states where these speculative orchards have been 



88 

largely planted, the mortality in the past ten years has reached 
as high as 8i%. 

While there are a number of other minor causes for the 
death of our apple trees, there is one other cause that I believe 
dominates them all, and that is the blight organism, Bacillus 
amylvorous, either as a primary or secondary cause. Its ap- 
pearance as twig blight is alarming because it is so noticeable, yet 
it is the least dangerous form and only the beginning of the 
trouble, — the flower, so to speak. It is the blight canker or 
hold-over canker as it appears on the branches, the larger limbs, 
the crotch, the collar and the root that is to be most feared, and 
the danger increases in the order named. 

It would be presumption on my part to attempt to describe 
so common a trouble before the American Pomological Society, 
but I do not think that as a rule we, as apple growers, appreciate 
how serious our losses are from this trouble alone, or if we do, 
do nothing to combat it. 

The Pennsylvania Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 136, of 
August, 1915, by Professors Orton and Adams, on page 6 says: 
— "The loss from collar blight alone in Pennsylvania is conserva- 
tively estimated at 2% annually". If this is conservative it will 
account for 20% of the loss in Pennsylvania, where the total 
loss for the past ten years is only 34%, — very much lower than 
the average. 

Please do not say that it is useless to combat it ; that it can- 
not be done. In an orchard, not over 25 miles from the Pennsyl- 
vania State Line, of 3,000 apple trees ranging from twenty-eight 
to forty years of age where collar blight had been taking its 
usual toll, we have not lost a single tree from collar blight or 
rot in ten years. What has been done and is being done can be 
done again. 

But that is not the question. What does the census report 
mean to the fruit grower? To my mind it means the dawn of a 
new era in the apple industry ; that there is no over-planting and 
no over-production; that there will be a good demand and good 
prices for all the good apples we can raise for a good many years 
to come, and the man who neglects his orchard today is blind 
to his opportunity. The great danger, as I see it, is that apples 
will be put in the luxury class, cutting down the demand. If we 



89 

would prevent this, we must stop wasting trees and wasting fruit 
and put business methods and business organization behind the 
industry; give personal attention to the details of the orchard 
and organization for distribution and sales. 

An old stage driver was showing his dexterity with a whip 
to a young city chap who was driving beside him on the box-. 

"You see that fly on the right ear of the off lead horse?" 
He flipped it off without even cracking his whip. 

"See that yellow leaf, the first sign of frost?" Again he 
nipped it off neatly. 

Then it was the city chap's turn. "See that gray ball hang- 
ing on that birch tree by the side of the road? Let me see you 
hit that." 

The old driver gave a grunt. "Look here, young man, a 
fly is a fly; a yellow leaf is a yellow leaf, but a hornet's nest is 
an organization." 

I thank you. 



The President : I certainly am impressed with the changes 
that are coming to pass in the fruit growing business. As I have 
stood here today, coming after an absence of two years, I am im- 
pressed with the remarkable optimism. It would seem from the 
census figures, as they appear on the face, that the opposite would 
be the result. But the vigor and energy manifested in these 
papers is really inspiring. 

Mr. D. C. Babcock of Ohio is here and will present a paper 
in this symposium. 



ANALYSIS OF CENSUS FIGURES FOR FRUIT TREES 

D. C. Babcock, 
Ohio 

The Department of Census at Washington has published 
from year to year figures on the growing apple industry. I say 
growing in spite of the fact that the total number of bearing 
trees for 1920 is given as 115,265,029, or a decrease of over 36,- 
000,000 bearing trees as compared with 19 10. We must first 



90 

bear in mind that these figures do not differentiate between the 
farm orchard and the commercial orchards that are now coming 
into existence and have helped materially to bring apples up to 
the ninth place among farm crops. The production of apples 
both commercial and non-commercial for 1919 is given as 136,- 
746,154 bushels, or a decrease of over 8,666,164 bushels. A de- 
crease of 36,000,000 bearing trees with only a decrease of 8,666,- 
164 bushels goes to prove the statement made by one of the 
liorticultural investigators a few years ago that a great many 
apple trees in this country bore no more relation to commercial 
production than so many shade trees. 

The number of bearing trees that can be reported in 1930 
will show a decrease over the number reported for 1920, as 
there are 29,000,000 less trees not of bearing age than there were 
in 19 10. The combined total of bearing and non-bearing trees in 
1920 is just 100,000 more than the total number of bearing trees 
in 1910 (151,322,840). There has been very little planting since 
1 910 and this with the passing out of some of our old com- 
mercial orchards like those in western New York will have a 
pronounced effect within the next ten years, or before 1930. 

Now how are we to interpret these figures for the fertilizer 
industry and what conclusions can we draw from them. In the 
first place the average yield per tree in 1910 was less than one 
bushel, while in 1920 the average yield was i 1-3 bushels. This 
increase has been brought about by the paying of more careful 
attention to the production of apples by the commercial orchard- 
ists who realize the importance of fertilization. This group of 
commercial orchardists are practically the only fruit growers 
that are buying nitrogenous fertilizers, as the home orchards are 
being sadly neglected. The commercial crop of the United States 
amounts to about 75,000,000 bushels per year. The trees in the 
commercial orchards will average more bushels per tree than 
the average given for the whole United States. We will say 
that they average two' bushels per tree. This would give us 37,- 
500,000 trees in commercial orchards. That would leave about 
75,000,000 trees of bearing age that are located in the home 
orchards and are producing only about 4-5 of a bushel per tree. 
Practically all of the fruit produced in these home orchards is 



91 

consumed by the owner's family, or disposed of locally to buyers 
whose purchases do not influence the market either way. The 
farmers will eat apples and use them in various ways when they 
have them in their own orchards, but they will not buy to any 
extent the apples offered on the market. The fertilizing of these 
home orchards which are in a deplorable condition will bring 
about an increased production that will be consumed largely at 
home and put apple sauce, apple pie, apple dumplings, etc., on 
the American farmer's table. The Pomological Society can do 
no better piece of work than to urge that more attention be paid 
to the farm orchard and make it possible for every American man, 
woman and child to "eat an apple a day and keep the doctor 
away." 

Bearing apple trees that need to be rejuvenated should be 
fertilized with approximately four pounds of sulphate of 
ammonia, or five pounds of nitrate of soda. These home 
orchards would require 150,000 tons of sulphate of ammonia. 
The majority of commercial orchards that respond to fertilization 
are being fertilized at the present time. Therefore, the additional 
150,000 tons can be profitably used by the apple growers of the 
United States. 

Something must be done to help make up the big shortage 
in apple production and which is not going to be any better 
owing to the big decrease in bearing trees. 

If we turn our attention to the peach industry we find a 
decrease of 28,852,000 bearing trees or one third less trees than 
in 1910 and with only one half as many trees not of bearing age 
as in 1910. Here a gain is a big field for the use of nitrogenous 
fertilizer and so it is all along the line in the fruit industry. Re- 
ports on pears, plums, strawberries, raspberries, etc., show a de- 
cided decrease in the source of supply. With the present de- 
velopments in the use of nitrogenous fertilizers on fruit and the 
increased yields obtained from the use of these materials, I pre- 
dict a big consumption of both sulphate of ammonia and nitrate 
of soda by this industry within the next ten years. 

The home orchard with its neglected trees is the great field 
to be developed by the various forces. 



92 



REPORT ON FRUIT CONDITIONS FOR NEW JERSEY, 
NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, 
MARYLAND AND DELAWARE 

NEW JERSEY 
Prepared by A. Freeman Mason and Arthur J. Farley. 

The Census Statistics for 1910 and 1920 are a little hard to 
understand in face of present day conditions. There has been a 
steady increase in plantings of apple trees, with no reductions of 
any importance, and, yet the Census figures only show a 400,000 
tree increase for the 10 year period, while in peach plantings 
there has been a corresponding increase, and the reductions in 
the past 10 years have not been anywhere nearly commensurate 
with the reductions of the preceding 10 years, and surely not 
enough to account for the small increase indicated in the Census 
figures. Either the Census figures for 1910 were high, or else 
the Census figures for 1920 are not entirely reliable in our 
estimation. 

peaches 

There has been a steady planting of peaches for the last 10 
years, culminating in a boom during the past 2 seasons, during 
which time we believe 300,000 trees have been set out, which are 
not accounted for in the 1920 Census. During the past few 
years, fewer old orchards have gone out than formerly, due to 
the greater care and the renovation work carried on. The high 
prices of nursery stock, and the cost of bringing an orchard into 
bearing caused the growers to take better care of their old or- 
chards. There has also been a corresponding increase in per tree 
production, due to the improved cultural methods during the last 
10 years. 

The outlook is for increased plantings in the peach sections 
of Burlington, Gloucester and Cumberland Counties. The Vine- 
land and Hammonton sections are reducing their acreage, due 
principally to "yellows" and "little peach." The varieties being 
planted are principally the later peaches coming after Carman, 
with Elberta leading. There are very few of the early varieties 
being set out. New Jersey has not approached the former high 
mark reached in 1900, when it had five or six million trees in the 
state, but which were destroyed by scale, "yellows" and neglect. 



93 

The prospects for the industry are bright. The marketing 
question is a paramount issue. Until recently all of the New- 
Jersey crop was marketed in Philadelphia, New York and nearby 
points, but with the rapid increase in bearing trees these markets 
are not absorbing the crop in a satisfactory manner and a wider 
market is being sought. Along this line, steps were taken re- 
cently to organize the New Jersey Fruit Growers' Cooperative 
Association, with the intention of marketing the peach crop 
alone. No steps other than to vote for the formation of such an 
organization have been taken. 

APPLES 

During the past lo years there has been a steady, heavy 
planting of apples, which is believed to be much heavier than in- 
dicated by the Census figures. This reached a maximum prob- 
ably in 1915 and 1916 and 1917, but slowed down in 1918 and 
1919, due to the high prices of nursery stock and scarcity of 
labor, while now a normal planting is taking place, principally by 
old growers who are extending their present holdings. One firm 
alone, however, during the last 2 years has set out 50,000 apple 
trees. Stayman, Delicious, Rome Beauty and Old Winesap form 
the bulk of the late varieties, while Starr and Wealthy are the 
principal early varieties being planted, — equal quantities of early 
and late varieties being set out. The outlook is unusually bright 
for the apple industry, and without doubt the marketing work 
now being undertaken on peaches will be extended to apples in 
the near future. 

PEARS 

There has been a steady decrease in pear acreage during the 
past 10 years. Kieffer is the only variety now being grown ex- 
tensively, and many Kiefifer orchards are being pulled out due to 
the uncertainty of setting a crop, and the expense of spraying 
and other cultural methods, and to prevailing low prices for 
the product. 

CHERRIES 

Only sour cherries are being grown commercially in New 
Jersey, principally in Burlington and Camden Counties. There 
has been a slight increase in the last year or so, but there is a 
big decrease from the 1910 figures. 



94 



RASPBERRIES AND STRAWBERRIES 



Raspberries and strawberries have both decreased, the 
strawberry probably having dropped more noticeably. Formerly 
there were large acreages of these small fruits near Hammonton, 
but the growers went out of srnall fruits to go into peaches. 
There has been a general decline in interest in strawberries in 
all sections of New Jersey. 

GRAPES 

There is only a small "acreage of grapes planted commercial- 
ly in New Jersey, but there have been large extensions of plant- 
ings by growers formerly having small blocks. Concord is the 
principal variety planted, followed by a few Niagara and other 
varieties, 

PLUMS 

No commercial interest, due to uncertainties of market and 
lack of facilities for drying. 



NEW YORK 
Report Prepared by Ralph W. Rees 

In New York State there has been a decrease in the number 
of peach trees due to their having been very few profitable 
seasons on peaches during the past lo to 12 years; also, the 
freeze of 1917 and 1918 made a very marked decrease in the 
number of trees throughout our peach belt. Nurserymen tell me 
there is an increased interest in peach planting this year, and that 
the spring of 1922 will see the largest peach planting in New 
York since about 1913 or 1914. 

In apple planting there has not been a marked decrease or 
increase since 1914. During the war the scarcity of labor, high 
price of trees and only a moderate return on fruit, tended" to 
make a gradual decrease from 1914 to the present time. There 
has been some planting going on primarily in the old established 
apple sections, particularly in the lake counties from the Niagara 
River east along the southern shore of Lake Ontario. Planting 
has been done very largely by present fruit growers who have ex- 
tended their plantings. There has been very little speculative 



95 

planting in this state. Apples lead among the fruits ; the varieties 
have shifted to a smaller percentage of Baldwin, Greening, Spy 
and Kings which are at present the leading varieties, to a higher 
percentage of Mcintosh, Wealthy, Twenty Ounce and Wagener. 
The present outlook seems to be for a commercial planting 
about equal to the decreasing commercial acreage. There is 
practically no planting of home orchards and there has been a 
very high mortality among home orchards during the past lo 
years. The whole tendency is to drift from the home orchard to 
commercial plantings. 



MARYLAND 
Report Prepared by E. C. Auchter 

The reason for the decrease in the number of trees may be 
due to the fact that growers have realized that large plantings 
have been made and they probably felt that there may be an over- 
production of fruit and have stopped their planting somewhat. 
The other reason is, that fruit trees have been so high in price 
during the last five years, that orchardists have felt that they 
could not afford to plant until prices came down. 

During the past year with lower prices, we have had large 
plantings all through the western part of Maryland. Apples and 
peaches in equal number are being planted. 

Varieties being planted are Stayman, Winesap, Yellow 
Transparent, Williams Early Red, Northwestern Greening, 
Delicious, Duchess and Jonathan. 

Of peaches, the varieties being planted are Carman, Hiley, 
Elberta, Belle and some Salway. 

The outlook appears to me to be excellent at the present 
time. 

Very few pears and plums are planted in this state. The 
pears blight so badly that our growers do not want them around, 
because of the danger of getting blight in the apple orchard. The 
crop from plum trees appears to be lost from early frosts so 
much, and they are so subject to brown rot, that our growers 
are not planting them. Then, too, with no drying plants, they 
are compelled to market the fruit in a fresh state and this had not 
been worked out very well in this region. 



96 

Grapes should be very profitable in Maryland, and we are 
recommending that more of them be planted. 



PENNSYLVANIA 
Report by Dr. S. W. Fletcher and A. Freeman Mason 

The decrease in the number of trees in Pennsylvania during 
the last lo years has been due principally to the dying out of the 
old farm orchards in the Northwestern central portions of the 
state. This is not at all indicative, however, of the real status of 
the fruit industry ; there being at the same time a tremendous in- 
crease in commercial plantings which has been reflected in a 
tremendous increase in the commercial crops. However, there 
has been a steady increase in the peach industry, due to plantings 
in the southeastern part of the state, and this industry will prob- 
ably hold its own in the future. 

The principal plantings are in Adams and Franklin Counties, 
although there have been extensive plantings over the entire 
southeastern portion of the state. 

Peaches and apples are the principal fruits planted. 

The main varieties are Stayman and York Imperial ; York 
Imperial furnishing almost a third of the entire plantings of the 
region and Stayman about a fifth. Rome Beauty and Delicious 
are also planted heavily. 

The outlook appears to be excellent, due to the natural 
climatic advantages, and the adjacence to the market, providing 
that proper steps are taken to improve their marketing system. 

There are practically no pears grown in the state in a com- 
mercial way. The plum and grape section is in Erie County 
along Lake Erie, and should be classed with the New York 
counties in this industry. 



DELAWARE 

Report Prepared by Prof. C. A. McCue 

At the present time Delaware has about 816,000 apple trees 
in bearing and about 308, 000 not in bearing or only 28% non- 
bearing trees. This indicates a very steady increase in apple 



97 

planting. In 1910 there were only a total of 430,000 trees in the 
state while in 1920 the total is considerably above a million. 

In the case of peaches there has been a decrease in planting. 
In 19 10 there were 1,177,000 peach trees in Delaware while in 
1920 there are only 557,000, and of these only a little over 
90,000 were below bearing age. Only about 16% below bearing 
age. This indicated that the industry is on the decline because 
any district should have from 25 to 33% of its trees non-bearing 
in order to stabilize the industry. The peach industry is still un- 
dergoing an evolution whereby peach growing is becoming cen- 
tralized in the hands of specialists. I look for an increase in 
planting among specialists, but for a general decline by the farm- 
er and the ordinary fruit grower. A great deal of the decrease 
is due to the fact that most of our peaches are interplanted with 
apples and most of these trees have to be taken or have been 
taken out. It will only be in the new plantings of apples that 
very many new peach trees will be set out. The new plantings 
are largely centered for both peaches and apples in Kent and 
Sussex counties. 

For peaches the varieties commonly used are Belle and 
Elberta. For apples, Yellow Transparent, Williams Early Red, 
some Duchess, Jonathan, Grimes and Stayman. Rome Beauty 
is slightly on the increase. I believe the outlook to be good for 
both peaches and apples. 

The pear industry is on the decline and will become largely 
a thing of the past as is the plum industry. The grape industry 
is on the increase. 



VIRGINIA 

Report by Dr. S. W. Fletcher 

There has been a steady increase in planting during the past 
10 years, which has placed the Shenandoah district among the 
foremost fruit growing districts in the United States. This has 
been due to unusualy advantageous growing conditions, and near- 
ness to markets, and the prevailing high prices during this period. 
During the past 2 years, however, there has been a serious slump 
in the orchard outlook, due to an ice storm in November 2 years 



98 

ago, followed by the low prices the following season, and again 
by the freeze this past spring. 

Planting has been going on principally in the Cumberland- 
Shenandoah region, apples leading with some planting of peaches. 

York and Stayman are the principal varieties being planted, 
with Old Winesap and Rome Beauty following closely. 

The outlook appears to be good, providing the growers take 
the logical steps in organization and marketing. 

There is very little interest in the grape, berry and plum in- 
dustry. 



FRUIT CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST 

C. I. Lewis, 
Salem, Oregon 

The season of 192 1 will go down in the annals of the Pacific 
Northwest Horticulture, as a freak year. Seemingly the unex- 
pected has always happened. Very satisfactory returns have 
been realized from many fruits, and very disappointing results 
from others. 

The season of 1920 proved disastrous to the cannerymen. 
They paid high prices for the raw products, boxes, sugar, labor, 
— only to find such commodities subsequently dropping very 
rapidly in price. A buyers' market, which bought from hand to 
mouth, cancellations galore, with the result that the cannerymen 
found themselves holding huge stocks in the middle of the winter, 
on which they finally had to take heavy discounts. 

This condition forced some into bankruptcy, others into re- 
ceiverships, and made it difficult for others to operate. The con- 
dition which resulted from the collapse of the canning industry 
was that there was very little demand for canning fruits. The 
California growers were offered early in the season, about 3c a 
pound for strawberrries. They started a newspaper campaign, 
sold them in the fresh state, netting the growers about eight 
cents a pound. 

When the cherry season came on, most of the canneries 
would not offer more than five cents, many less, for a limited 
tonnage. California boxed most of their cherries, shipped them 
east, and netted the growers returns of probably an average of 



99 

not far from sixteen to seventeen cents a pound. The Pacific 
Northwest grows berries that cannot be shipped great distances, 
like the Loganberry and blackberry and many of the strawberries, 
of the softer types. So that the strawberry season on the whole 
proved to be rather disastrous. Right in the beginning of the 
season, high water in the rivers put some of the manufacturers 
of hallocks out of business, and there was a great shortage of 
crates and hallocks. Berries which were barreled and sold fresh, 
brought much better money than berries which were canned or 
made into juices. 

The cherry price offered to the northwest growers was three 
to five cents. However most of the larger associations were so 
equipped that they began to ship cherries east immediately. The 
Oregon Growers' Cooperative Association alone shipped sixty 
three cars of cherries to eastern markets, including about twenty 
five cars of Napoleons, known locally as Royal Annes. This 
variety is not considered a shipping variety but the cars arrived 
seemingly in good shape, and undoubtedly the foundation has 
been laid for a splendid business with this variety of cherry in 
years to come, as it arrived on the Atlantic sea-board in such ex- 
cellent condition. The growers will net several times as much 
for these cherries as they would have obtained had they been 
forced to sell them to the canneries. 

When the Bartlett pear season arrived the California grow- 
ers sold very little to the canneries, believing they could repeat 
their experience on cherries and berrries, and the northwest fol- 
lowed suit. However, there was a decided slump in eastern mar- 
kets, these markets were over loaded, at the same time with 
melons, grapes, green prunes, Barlett pears, and peaches. The 
buying powers of the public were decidedly curtailed, and as a 
result, there was a terrific collapse in the Bartlett pear market. 
Those canneries which were able to can strawberries. Logan- 
berries, Bartlett pears and similar fruits soon found a ready de- 
mand for their products, the result has been that the canneries 
have sold out practically their entire pack, and there is every in- 
dication that grocery shelves will be clear of canned goods this 
next spring, meaning that a new start can be made and the season 
of 1922 should be a profitable one for both growers and cannery- 
men. 



100 



APPLE GROWERS 

The apple crop in the Pacific Northwest is the largest in its 
history and also the finest quality. There was an indcation in 
June and July that the prices for our crop would beat all records. 
However the slump in the Barlett pear market was used by buy- 
ers as an index for prices on apples. 

The growers in the northwest made the mistake of not being 
so organized that they could obtain a very wide distribution of 
their fruit. Independent growers sold to many cash buyers, who 
dumped much of the fruit in large centers like New York and 
Chicago. An attempt was made by the big cooperatives to launch 
an advertising campaign and develop new markets. The in- 
dependent buyers and growers, however, would not join in this 
movement. The lack of joining in the movement has caused 
probably an average of a loss of fifty cents a box on the crop 
this year. However on the whole, the apple growers of the 
Pacific Coast this year are going to make money. 

The high quality of the fruit and the fact that a large per- 
centage of it ran to pretty good size and high color, has brought 
a very fair return. Small apples, even this year, have brought 
poor returns, and there is an indication that the small apple, ex- 
cept with a few varieties like Jonathan, and Grimes, is doomed. 
The program of the western grower will be in the future to at- 
tempt to grow a larger percentage of the larger sizes. This he 
will accomplish by more feeding of trees, intensive irrigation and 
tillage and heavier pruning. 

DRIED PRUNES 

Owing to the combined efforts of the Oregon Growers' 
Cooperative Association of Oregon, and the Washington Grow- 
ers' Packing Corporation of Vancouver, Washington, the huge 
crop of 1920 was moved. If this crop had not been moved out, 
the result for the crop of 192 1 would have been disastrous. As 
it is a large percentage of the 192 1 crop of dried prunes was sold 
at a very satisfactory price, and the indication is that the season 
will be a very profitable one to the growers. 

The fall of 1922 will show probably wholesale houses and 
grocery shelves cleaned up of dried prunes. This will be a 
splendid condition, because it is anticipated now, that the crop of 



lOI 

1922 will be the largest in the history of the northwest, and will 
mean much to the industry to have the supplies at the lowest 
possible point. 

All in all the outlook for the Pacific Coast Horticulture is 
very bright. With the canneries getting back on their feet, the 
supplies of fruits being exhausted, with new channels and new 
outlets being developed, with a greater tendency on the part of 
all concerned on the coast, to cooperate, the problems of the 
future should be solved. 



MONTANA HORTICULTURE 

F. M. Harrington, 
Boseman, Mont. 

An examination of census figures does not appeal to me as 
giving the exact situation of the fruit industry of a state or 
region. The census figures for Montana for the years 1909 and 
19 19 would indicate that Montana is decidedly going back, or at 
least not making any progress along the various lines of fruit 
pioduction. In part, the figures show the correct situation; in 
other ways they do not. 

The census figures released June 27th show the following: 

Apples — 

Production in 1909 — 567,054 bushels 
Production in 1919 — 673,716 bushels 
Trees of bearing age in 1909—696,753 
Trees of bearing age in 1920—1,059,198 

Pears — 

Production in 1909 — 7,543 bushels 
Production in 1919 — 3,960 bushels 
Trees of bearing age in 1910 — 10,297 
Trees of bearing age in 1920 — 10,278 

Plums and Prunes — 

Production in 1909 — 8,777 bushels 
Production in 1919 — 9,575 bushels 
Bearing trees in 1910 — 21,140 
Bearing trees in 1920 — 24,501 



102 

Small Fruits — 

Production in 1909 — 766,791 quarts 
Production in 1919 — 338,087 quarts 
Acreage in 1909 — 562 
Acreage in 1919 — 886 

Apple Situation. 

A talk with various fruit growers in the Bitter Root Valley 
for example, leads a person to believe that the situation there is 
better just now than has ever been the case in that valley previ- 
ously. The Bitter Root Valley is one of those sections which 
was strongly boomed by orchard development companies a num- 
ber of years ago. In the course of this boom development, it is 
very noticeable that orchards were planted and an endeavor made 
to develop orchards in places absolutely unfavorable. An in- 
spection trip which I made through the valley this fall revealed 
orchards planted on unsuitable soils. Other orchards were 
pointed out to me which are being caught practically every year 
by late spring frosts. Other orchards were found which had 
been put out above the irrigation ditch, inaccessive to water 
which is an absolute necessary in that region. As a result, a 
person will find many orchards in the Bitter Root Valley which 
are being allowed to go back. Many of them have already been 
pulled out and the land has gone back to the use for which it is 
fitted. In addition to the poor locations, one finds some of these 
orchards filled with any and all varieties of fruit. As a result of 
this some varieties are being produced in a quantity which has 
not warranted their being handled in a commercial way. Other 
varieties as grown are not equal to the same variety grown in 
other localities and as a result are not in commercial demand. 

The Bitter Root Valley, we might say, is just beginning to 
get back to normal. The orchards in undesirable localities are 
becoming a thing of the past and the varieties in turn weeded 
out. This past two years, the fruit of the district has been 
handled mainly through a cooperative growers' organization. 
This organization has established central packing and grading 
houses equipped with modern machinery. The fruit of the mem- 
bers of this organization has all been graded and packed in these 
central packnig plants and as a result the packing has been 
standardized to a greater extent than ever before. The state de- 



I03 

partment has maintained inspectors in these houses to insure 
proper grading and packing. This organization alone is already 
beginning to show its effects and an improved situation is be- 
ginning to develop. 

The Bitter Root Valley has not, and that is still the case, 
been bothered to any great extent with insects and diseases. The 
codling moth is almost unknown in the valley and scab shows 
up but rarely. Many orchards are producing good clean fruit 
without ever having had a spraying outfit working within their 
boundaries. This situation is changing somewhat. The blister 
mite and leaf rollers are comparatively new pests in the valley 
and have raised havoc in some orchards. Their presence is going 
to mean the equipping of orchards with spray outfits and the 
starting of a fairly general spray program in the valley. 

The handling of the soil is a matter in which the Bitter Root 
growers are not keeping up-to-date. In other words, they are 
depleting their orchard soils and so far are doing very little to 
bring them back or to keep up the present fertility. Clean culti- 
vation seems to be the general practice. Marked results have 
been obtained in a few orchards by the application of commercial 
fertilizers. Other orchards have shown marked benefit as the 
result of growing a legume such as clover. This question of 
fertility is one which the growers must meet if their orchards 
are to continue to do well. 

Apple production as far as Montana is concerned, is the 
only line of fruit raising which is possible on a commercial scale. 
With the elimination of undesirable situations and unsuitable 
varieties and by meeting the soil fertility situation and the spray- 
ing question halfway, western Montana, with its many young 
trees just coming into bearing should make a material advance 
in apple production during the coming years. 

Cherry Production. 

During the boom period, sweet cherries were planted pretty 
generally in parts of Montana. These trees have, to a great ex- 
tent, been killed out, showing that the state is not suited to the 
production of sweet cherries, at least. Varieties of cherries, such 
as the Early Richmond are being grown in a number of localities 
to good advantage but the demand within a reasonable distance 
does not warrant their being produced on any extensive com- 



104 

mercial scale. The total production of cherries should increase 
but mainly as a result of planting in home orchards with small 
commercial plantings in the vicinity of certain larger cities. 

Plums and Primes. 

Montana cannot produce a drying prune. The Bitter Root 
Valley can, however, produce such plums as Lombard, Green 
Gage and the Pond Seedling Prune. As a fresh fruit, there is a 
limited demand for such material. The part of the state east of 
the Continental Divide is only suited for the growing of Ameri- 
cana varieties. The Yellowstone Valley can produce such plums 
to very good advantage and throughout the Great Plains area of 
Montana varieties of the native plums are found doing very well. 

Pear and Peach Production. 

Pears and peaches might be said to be absolutely out of 
place in Montana. On such peach trees as are found, a crop is 
obtained once in a while. With the pears, the blight is such a 
factor that none of the desirable commercial pears can be grown 
to any advantage. An increase in pear production cannot be ex- 
pected. 

Small Fruit Production. 

The census figures show a decided falling away in the pro- 
duction of small fruits throughout the state. As a matter of 
fact it would seem to me one line of fruit growing that should 
become more general. Small fruits generally throughout the 
state will need to be given winter protection. By giving such 
winter protection the small fruits are being found doing fairly 
well in all parts of the state. Inasmuch as it can be so grown 
while other fruits cannot in all sections, a person acquainted 
with the growing conditions would have expected a decided in- 
crease rather than a decrease. 

Montana can never hope to be one of the leading fruit states 
of the union. It can, however, increase its total production of 
apples and small fruits in part by a good percentage. Extension 
work is needed along small fruit lines in order to acquaint the 
people with the proper methods of handling small fruits under 
the varying conditions. Such extension service has not been 
available to date but is likely to be inaugurated this coming year. 



los 



CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN STATES 
N. D. Peacock, 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

In the report which follows I have included statements from 
prominent men in many of the Southeastern States and in that 
way I have attempted to give a reasonable impression of the con- 
ditions as they are seen by prominent workers. I have, during 
the past few years been connected with the horticultural work in 
Georgia and more recently in Tennessee, and, therefore, base my 
report of these States, especially the latter, on my own observa- 
tions and investigations. 

All of the economic conditions in the United States now are 
so unsettled and during the past few years they have been so 
abnormal that it is rather difficult to distinguish the superficial 
expresssion of these abnormal conditions from the underlying 
forces which tend to stimulate or retard progress. 

Statistics show that the production of apples in Tennessee in 
1909 was 4,640,444 bushels while in 1919 the production was but 
1,258,878 bushels. However, production varies so greatly in dif- 
ferent years because of climatic conditions, that averages are more 
representative. The average production in Tennessee in 191 1, 
1912 and 1913 was 5,233,333 bushels, while the average produc- 
tion in 1915, 1916 and 1917 was 5,325,333 bushels which is an 
increase of approximately 2%. The average production in Ten- 
nessee during 1918, 1919 and 1920 was considerably less than 
this but exact figures are not at hand. A study of the statistics 
on the number of trees shows that in 1920 there were 34% fewer 
trees of bearing age and 51% fewer not of bearing age than there 
were in 1910. The greater decrease in the number of trees than 
in the production is largely explained by the fact that a much 
larger percent of the trees in the State in 1920 were in com- 
mercial orchards which received better care, and, therefore, 
yielded more per tree. 

Several factors may be mentioned which have had an in- 
fluence in bringing about these conditions. First : It is during 
this period that many of our orchard pests which are so serious 
now were introduced. These pests rapidly destroyed the small 
home orchards which were given no care and they made the cost 



io6 

of growing good fruit in well cared for orchards so much greater 
that many of these were abandoned. Second : The scarcity and 
extremely high cost of labor made it difficult to care for large 
plantings and prevented the setting of new orchards. Third : 
The abnormally high prices offered for other farm products 
which could be produced in a short time discouraged the setting 
of trees which would produce nothing for several years. The last 
two of these were temporary, and methods of controlling the or- 
chard pests have developed so that they are no longer so greatly 
feared. This, together with the high price which hias been secured , 
for fruits during the past two years as compared with the price 
of other farm products, has wonderfully renewed interest in or- 
charding. Growers who have stayed in the business and cared 
for their trees are optimistic. Their fruit has helped them over 
the slump in business and made the descent less abrupt. Com- 
munities where fruit is produced have passed through the hard 
times thus far much better than the average community. 

At present there is a very decided tendency to increase 
plantings and to set new orchards. I have been told by the large 
nurserymen of Tennessee that their sales are surprisingly large 
this season. All of those to whom I have talked are having no 
trouble to dispose of their entire production. During the season 
of 1920 there were 2,750,000 June bud peach trees sold from one 
county in Tennessee. In another county in Tennessee there were 
200,000 peach trees set last year and the year before and 150,000 
have been ordered for this year. There are several large com- 
panies being organized in this State which anticipate the setting 
of large acreages in the near future. As I see the conditions in 
this State, therefore, they are very promising for the man who 
will care for his trees and I anticipate a material increase both in 
the number of trees and in the production during the next few 
years. 

J. A. McCHntock, Physiologist of the Georgia Experiment 
Station, calls attention to the fact that there has been a large 
tendency to plant peaches in the Piedmont section of Georgia 
during the past few years, but that there has been less planting 
in Fort Valley and the other older sections. He states that many 
old orchards are being reduced in size because of disease. 

Mr. R. H. Black, a prominent apple grower of Georgia, 
reports a general optimistic feeling among the careful orchardists 



I07 

and states that the careless grower must go out of business. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Black there was heavy planting of apples from 
1908 to 1 91 4, but there has not been a general planting since. 

H. W. Harvey, Extension worker of Georgia, attributes the 
reduction in number of trees to the distruction of home orchards 
by insects and diseases. 

Dr. T. H. McHatton's, Horticulturist of Georgia, letter is 
enclosed and it gives a good idea of the present condition in 
Georgia. The opinions of these men cover the conditions very 
much as I have observed them myself. 

H. Garman, Entomologist of Kentucky, says that during the 
war, planting was at a standstill in that State, but that his im- 
pression is that now there is a renewed tendency to plant. He 
said that no definite figures were available at present in that 
State. 

W. W. McGill. Extension Horticulturist of North Carolina, 
could give no statistics, but reported a very large increase in the 
planting of peaches due to the past crop which was very success- 
ful. He also reports an increase in the planting of app'es at the 
present time. 

G. C. Starcher, Horticulturist of Alabama, attributes the re- 
duction in the number of trees to the ravages of insects and 
diseases. He reports a slight increase in the strawberry planting 
but no great movement. He says further, "Apples in Alabama 
have good bearing records and statistics show that the first class 
fruit in Alabama brings a higher price than in any State in the 
United States." 

George P. HofTman, Extension Horticulturist of South 
Carolina, couldn't give statistics but reported an increase in the 
planting of peaches. Much of South Carolina is not adapted to 
the growing of apples. 

W. P. James, State Fruit Specialist of Mississippi, was very 
enthusiastic over the conditions in that State. I am enclosing a 
copy of his letter to me. 

As is clearly shown in this report the prospects for the horti- 
cultural development of this section of the United States in the 
near future is very bright. The growers who are caring for their 
orchards are optimistic and they are the only ones who have a 
right to be. Every state and every section has its advantages but 



io8 

in many ways it seems to me that Tennessee offers as great op- 
portunities for development as any other state and I beheve that 
during the next few years we will see much of this progress. 



Agricultural College, Mississippi, 
November 28, 192 1. 

Mr. N. D. Peacock, Field Agent, 
Tennessee State Horticultural Society^ 
Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Dear Mr. Peacock: 

Mr. H. E. Kimball referred your letter of November 16 to 
me and it is with pleasure I offer the following facts : 

There are absolutely no climatic, soil or geographical reasons 
why Mississippi should have suffered the decrease of 50% in her 
horticultural industry in the last ten years. In fact the three 
phases mentioned above are so favorable to commercial apple, 
peach, pear, grape, satsuma and strawberry growing that Missis- 
sippi bids fair to wonderful strides in commercial fruit growing 
in the future. 

One year ago only 50 acres of commercial peaches were in 
Mississippi. During the planting season of 1920-21, 425 acres 
were added. One county alone put out 250 acres. There will be 
approximately 500 acres of commercial peaches planted in De- 
cember and a large setting in February. 

The Plant Board has issued 10,000 more nursery tags than 
last year and new capital and large land owners are beginning to 
investigate the commercial fruit possibilities. Four companies 
for growing peaches were incorporated in the state last year. 
The southern part of the state along G. & S. I. R. R. territory is 
especially adapted to fruit growing with rich clay subsoil land, 
and splendid drainage with good elevation. 

The satsuma or kid glove industry is being developed along 
the coast and one individual now has out 5,000 2 year old trees, 
is setting 6,000 more and installing power spray outfits and a 
power grader in his new packing house. 



109 

The Mississippi Gulf region is in the small territory peculiar- 
ly adapted to satsuma growing. 

The State Horticultural Society which was allowed to divide 
and disappear in the past ten years, has been revived and the 
Annual Convention is to be held in December and is meeting with 
enthusiastic support throughout the State. 

Home orchards are being planted extensively throughout 
the State with over 7,000 nursery orders having been sold in 
Mississippi last year. The strawberry acreage has been tripled 
for the coming season and two new points organized and placed 
on a stable basis. 

Commercial fruit growing in Mississippi is fast approaching 
volume enough to insure its becoming one of the State's leadmg 
industries in the near future. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) W. P. James, State Fruit Specialist. 



November 21, 1921. 
Mr. N. D. Peacock, Field Agent, 
Tcnn. State Horticultural Society, 
Knoxville, Tenn. 

Dear Peacock : — 

Yours of the i6th. received. 

I am glad that you are going to be able to go to the American 
Pomological Society meeting in Toledo, and if you are going to 
be there, there is no necessity for me to write a report for that 
Association as my report was only to be presented in case you 
did not appear, or so I understood, and I would be only too glad 
for you to incorporate in your report anything that you might 
from this section. 

I do not think that I have anything beyond what you al- 
ready know concerning conditions in this state. Of course you 
know we lost the apple crop, shipping somewhere around 200 
car loads from Cornelia. The movement of the peaches was the 
greatest in the history of the state, being 11,000 car loads. The 



no 

producers made some money out of this crop. The speculators 
and buyers, however, claim that they, themselves, made little or 
nothing. As a matter of fact, they lost due to high freight rates. 
We have an exceptionally good pecan crop. The estimates, 
however, are not now available. Some varieties have been very 
seriously affected by scab in certain localities, but, in general, the 
crop is a good one and should move at a good profit. The water- 
melon crop was exceptionally big, there being about 12,000 cars 
shipped from the state. This was a very opportune crop, as it 
furnished 'considerable ready money just at a time when the 
farmer needed it and, as a matter of fact, the watermelon crop 
tided over the section which produced them and they are not 
suffering as seriously from the depression as the other sections 
of our state. 

As a matter of fact, the horticultural industries of Georgia 
have been those that have seemed to help the farmers out in this 
present terrific cotton situation, and the horticulture of this local- 
ity is certain to be on the increase for the next few years. It 
will be the work of those interested along these lines to so direct 
those taking up the various horticultural ventures that they may 
be turned into profitable investments rather than into sink holes, 
out of which returns may never be expected. 

For your own information, I would suggest that you also 
include the report on Florida, which at this time has one of the 
largest citrus crops in its history. It is to be hoped that this crop 
will greatly help the financial conditions in that state. I also 
further understand that there is a good satsuma crop around 
Mobile. Generally speaking, the other southern states are not 
as successful, horticulturally, as Georgia, due to the fact that a 
frost last year practically wiped out their peach prospects. 

You can take this letter with you if you care to, or put it in 
as part of your report. 

Trusting that this will help you and that you will have a 
good trip as I will not be able to be there, I beg to remain 

Yours very truly, 

T. H. McHatton, Horticulturist. 



Ill 



MISSOURI 

V. R. Gardner^ Columbia, Mo. 

Columbia, Mo., 
December 6, 192 1. 

In answer to your request for a report on conditions and 
outlook in the fruit industry in Missouri I may make the follow- 
ing brief statement. For a period of ten years there has been a 
gradual decrease in tree numbers in Missouri. Some new plant- 
ings have been and are being made, but I do not expect that they 
will make up for the losses for a number of years to come. In 
other words I expect a still further decrease in the number of 
bearing trees in this State, particularly apples. On the other 
hand I expect our average annual production to stay stationary 
because better care will probably be given to the orchards that 
remain. I doubt if Missouri is raising as many apples on the 
average as it consumes. Of course each year there is a crop 
of apples shipped out, and others are shipped in. 

With other fruits the supply does not meet the demand, the 
small fruits particularly being very high priced. There is every 
reason to believe that this conditions will prevail at least for an- 
other decade, and probably very much longer. The only section 
of the State in which there is a boom to the fruit business is in 
Southwestern Missouri where they are making extensive plant- 
ings of the grape, especially the Concord which will be grown 
rather largely for grape juice purposes. 



FRUIT IN NEW MEXICO 

Fabian Garcia 

The fruit situation in New Mexico has been more or less 
at a standstill since the war. That is, there has been no addi- 
tional planting of large plantations. However, just now there 
is a marked interest taken in the planting of grapes, and I look 
for a good many vineyards to be put in this coming spring. The 
vinefera grape is the one that is planted in this section of New 
Mexico. The grape is one of the surest bearers of any fruits 



112 

under our conditions, because it begins to grow later than any 
of the other fruits ; and thus it escapes considerable frost injury 
from the late spring frosts that frequently destroy the crops of 
other fruits. 

In some of our fruit growing sections there has been a 
great deal of neglect in caring for old orchards, and as a result 
of this they decline very fast. On the other hand some of the 
young orchards that were planted five or six years ago are now 
coming into bearing, and in a general way, I am safe in saying 
that at present we have about the same number of bearing trees 
that we had a few years ago. 

Due to the low prices for farm products I begin to see some 
new interest being taken in orcharding; and if niirsery stock was 
not so high, I believe there would be considerable planting of 
small plantations at this time. I am inclined tO' believe that the 
old idea of planting large plantations is a thing of the past in 
this country, as it takes too much time and money to manage 
them. I feel that the future fruit business in New Mexico will 
develop along small, but more numerous, plantations, so that the 
individual growers cah take care of them, instead of having to 
hire everything done as has often been the case in past years. 

In New Mexico fruit growing can only be carried on suc- 
cessfully in the irrigated sections. On account of the high price 
of land and water our land owners are beginning to realize that 
they must grow more intensive crops than wheat, corn, or even 
alfalfa. So I feel that there are some chances of development 
along fruit growing. 



FRUIT PRODUCTION IN PORTO RICO 

By T. B. McClelland, Horticidturist, 
Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station 

Twenty years ago the fruit exported from Porto Rico was 
of little economic importance. Then its total value amounted to 
but slightly more than a hundred thousand dollars whereas today 
it does not fall far short of four million dollars. The fruits in- 
volved in this great change are grapefruit, oranges, pineapples, 
and cocoanuts. 



113 

The grapefruit groves are located principally in the vicinity 
of San Juan and along the north coast from San Juan to Arecibo 
and for the most part are in the hands of Americans. They 
have been planted and tended in systematic fashion and many of 
them are served by large community packing houses. 

Duncan is the variety generally preferred. The quality of the 
Porto Rican grapefruit is high. The cost of production ranges 
anywhere from $i to $2 per box. The department of farm man- 
agement of the Federal Agricultural Experiment Station has esti- 
mated that in 1919 it cost from $1.40 to $1.70 to pick a box of 
grapefruit and place it in the auction room in New York. This 
means that the total cost to the grower may range anywhere from 
$2.40 to $3.70 a box plus a 6 per cent selling commission. Dur- 
ing September and October prices are always high and the grow- 
ers ship at that time all fruit which is available, a quantity how- 
ever not very great. More than $13 a box has been paid for 
extra fancy fruit. Due to heavy shipments from Florida and 
Cuba which compete with Porto Rico, prices are much lower 
thru the winter but rise again in the spring. 

The Experiment Station is actively engaged in a study of 
citrus storage and of decay in transit. Other problems which 
confront the growers are the control of scab which makes much 
excellent fruit unsightly, and the profitable utilization of good 
but unattractive fruit. 

In the past, the fruit growers have felt greatly handicapped 
thru lack of properly equipped steamers. This autumn a new 
line has entered the Porto Rican trade offering both ventilation 
and refrigeration for fruit shipments. 

Most of the Porto Rican oranges are grown under very 
different conditions from the grapefruit as they are chiefly what 
is known as "wild fruit", that is, the produce of scattered trees 
found growing wild here and there through the country, princi- 
pally in the coffee-producing sections. They are frequently care- 
lessly picked and handled and often must be brought over long 
stretches of rough road. The owner receives relatively little for 
them, the crop being bought up by a few packers in the larger 
ports. These oranges are of delicious flavor when properly 
mature but many are shipped long before they are palatable. 



114 

Numerous sections of the interior are too inaccessible to permit 
exportation of the orange crop which proves nevertheless of 
economic importance in adding to the peon's food supply. The 
value of oranges exported has exceeded a million dollars in the 
years of heaviest shipments. 

The pineapple growers have been this past year perhaps the 
most prosperous agriculturists on the island. Pineapples have 
sold at good prices thruout the season, the very fanciest fruit 
bringing more than $13 a crate. Pineapple exportations show a 
decreasing production for the past few years. From 1906 to 
191 5 the increase was constant at which time the value of pine- 
apples exported reached nearly i^ million dollars. Since then 
there has been a steady decline with an insignificent rise in 1920. 

The pineapple growers are confronted with the difificulty of 
producing sufficient slips to maintain their plantings, the produc- 
tion of fruit of sufficient size for profitable shipment, and the 
necessity of a change of location as the same field does not pro- 
duce profitable crops indefinitely. 

The value of cocoanuts exported has increased steadily from 
$8,334 in 1 90 1 to $1,142,412 in 1920 and the many young planta- 
tions along the coast point to a continued increase for some 
years. This is generally regarded as one of the safest of tropical 
investments and the cocoanut grower has fewer problems to meet 
than almost any other agriculturist. 

Other fruits such as bananas, mangoes and avocadoes play 
an important role in the local food supply, but up to the present 
have been of little significance otherwise. All are abundant and 
better shipping facilities may mean their future transportation to 
the mainland. The Guatemalan avocado, more suitable for ship- 
ping than the West Indian type, is being tested at the Experi- 
ment Station where also many seelcted varieties of mangoes from 
other tropical regions have been extensively planted. To some of 
these choice mango importations the new environment has 
proved admirably adapted. 



115 



ALASKA 

C. C. Georgeson, 
Sitka 

The only fruits we can produce in Alaska are berries. 
Strawberries, raspberries, currants and gooseberries in all 
varieties do remarkably well, also about five or six species of 
native Vaccineum, but we are too far north to mature apples or 
any other tree fruit except when we happen to have an occasional 
very favorable season. In 191 5 the season was of this character. 
We then matured early summer apples at the Sitka Station and 
also sour cherries in several varieties. The sweet cherries have 
never matured at Sitka nor have we succeeded in growing any 
variety of plums. We have a native crab apple that bears fruit 
every year. It is Pyrus rivularis (diversifolia). This year the 
crab apples have had a fine crop. These wild crab apples make 
excellent jelly. The Yellow Transparent has been our most suc- 
cessful apple and it matures only in favorable years. 



The Presdent : So far as I know these are all the papers 
under these two headings — that is, all the persons who are here 
with their papers. If that is the case we will go on with our 
program. 

Many years ago I was asked to discuss before a horticul- 
tural society the question whether there is likely to be an over- 
production of fruit. Not knowing the facts, I engaged in specu- 
lation, and I remember starting with the premise that a certain 
percentage of failure follows human effort and that a certain 
percentage of accidents always occur, so that we could not ex- 
pect anywhere near all the plantings to mature to bearing trees, 
and I gave at that time some figures. I am glad to say they were 
borne out by the census of the United States a third of a century 
later. 

Now we are up with our program, and we are to begin with a 
discussion of "The Relationship Between the American Pomo- 
logical Society and Allied Industries." 

Before I call on the next speaker I wish to inject another 
statement in regard to the supper this evening. It is not merely 



ii6 

the coming together of a few persons here, it is a regular meeting 
of the American Pomological Society, and in order to save time 
and have a little pleasure we are to sit around the tables and 
have some discussion. There is no regular subject on the pro- 
gram for discussion, but this morning, as you will recall, the 
suggestion was made that certain of the questions raised in the 
President's Address, and also in the report of the committee who 
reported on that address, be discussed this evening. This dis- 
cussion will be perfectly harmless, because the Society has 
adopted the recommendations. 

We will now hear the paper of Mr. F. P. Downing of In- 
diana on the subject mentioned before. 



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AMERICAN" 
POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES 

F. P. Downing, 
South Bendj Ind. 

I wish to preface my paper by saying that I have not a single 
figure from the 1920 Census Report. (Applause). 

It will be impossible in the short time allotted to the dis- 
cussion of the relationship between the American Pomological 
Society and Allied Industries, to* do more than outline in a very 
brief manner a few of the more important existing relations and 
I shall confine my remarks to two phases of the problem that I 
believe are of fundamental and of prime importance. Briefly, 
these two phases, can be boiled down so that they can be ex- 
pressed by the twO' words — Interdependence and Cooperation. 

It shall be my purpose, therefore, to show on the one hand 
the dependence of Allied Industries upon the fruit grower and 
on the other hand I wish to show that the prosperity of the fruit 
grower depends in a very large measure upon the prosperity of 
these Allied Industries. 

First, what industries are so closely related to the growing 
of fruit that they can be called Allied Industries? Among the 
chief industries of this nature may be mentioned the Spray Com- 
panies that furnish chemicals and appliances for spraying 
orchards, the Fertilizer Industry, Farm Implement Manufactur- 



117 

ers, Orchard Supply Companies and Fruit Package Manufactur- 
ers. As I am more familiar with the Fruit Package Industry 
than with the other lines of work referred to, my remarks, while 
perhaps applicable in many ways to conditions existing in all 
these industries, will be particularly applicable to the industry 
with which I am directly connected, that is, the manufacture and 
sale of fruit packages. 

The factory that manufactures fruit packages, and fruit 
packages only, is absolutely dependent upon the fruit growers of 
the country for its market. When there is a large crop of fruit 
there is a big demand for fruit packages. When the fruit crop 
is a failure the factory has no outlet for it's product. The fruit 
package manufacturer is, therefore, vitally interested in the dis- 
semination of information that wil be helpful to the fruit grower, 
for he realizes such information will be helpful in his business. 
The publishing of market and crop reports ; the dissemination of 
information of an educational nature that will help fruit growers 
in increasing production or improving grades are of great value 
to the fruit package manufacturer as well. 

This interdependence of grower and package manufacturer 
can, be illustrated in no better way than by referring to the dis- 
astrous frosts of last spring that swept over the country from 
New Jersey to Oklahoma destroying all prospects of a bumper 
fruit crop in some thirteen or fourteen states. This shortage in 
fruit was reflected in our business this past season in these 
thirteen states to the extent of some 700 carloads of baskets. I 
simply mention this to show how dependent the fruit package 
manufacturer is upon the size of the fruit crop for a successful 
business. With no fruit to market there is no demand for fruit 
packages. The factory must close its doors and there is no re- 
turn to the stockholders on the capital invested. 

Now, let us look at this matter from another viewpoint. 
Just as the factory is dependent upon the grower so is the grower 
dependent upon the factory for his financial success. He must 
have fruit packages in order to get his fruit to market in proper 
condition. Let us suppose, for example, that one half of the 
fruit package factories in the country were to be destroyed with- 
in the next three or four months by fire. You can readily see 
what a disastrous effect this would have upon the fruit grower. 
Unable to obtain a sufficient number of packages he would be 



ii8 

unable to place all of his fruit upon the market and the returns 
for his year's labor would be very materially reduced. Now, of 
course, it is not at all likely that half of the factories in this 
country will be destroyed within the next few months, but right 
now there are many serious problems confronting the fruit pack- 
age industry that may have most disastrous results. 

Like the fruit grower the manufacturer is in business to 
make money ; like the fruit grower he is satisfied with a fair 
profit; like the fruit grower he can take his losses for one or 
probably two years as he has done during the past disastrous 
season, but he cannot keep this up indefinitely. I do not believe 
that there is a fruit package manufacturer that has made any 
money the past season, but I do know that most of them have 
sustained serious losses. They have been taking their liquida- 
tion. It has cost our New York factories more than $2.00 a 
dozen to turn out baskets this past season without taking into 
consideration the selling overhead or the payment of freight. If 
this condition continues for any great length of time fruit pack- 
age manufacturers will be obliged to shut down. In fact, a num- 
ber of manufacturers have madd it known to me this season that 
unless they can get a fair return for their packages they will turn 
their capital into other lines of industry. The shutting down of 
a considerable number of factories would, of course, be dis- 
astrous to the fruit grower. 

Now, this brings me to the second phase of my discussion, 
namely that of Cooperation. The fruit grower of today should 
be vitally interested in the success of the package manufacturer. 
Where are the factories going to obtain their raw material ? 
Timber is getting scarce. The big problems of reforestration 
should be of as much interest to the fruit grower as they are to 
the package manufacturer. Yet, very few growers see it in this 
light. 

It is true that the grower has problems in which the package 
manufacturer is not interested just as package manufacturers 
have problems that do not concern fruit growers, but there are 
many important matters in which both are vitally interested and 
which can only be handled by an organization such as the Amer- 
ican Pomological Society in which both fruit growers and Allied 
Industries are represented and where it is possible to get to- 



119 

gether and talk over problems that are of equal concern to both. 
This is true Cooperation. 

I know that you will pardon me if I take just a moment to 
show you the feeling of cooperation toward the fruit grower that 
exists in the minds of the officers and directors of the corpora- 
tion with which I am connected. I am going to take you back a 
few years and refresh your memory regarding the conditions 
existing in the fruit package industry at that time. 

In the fight for business between manufacturers price cut- 
ting was rampant and quality of output forgotton. Conditions 
became so bad that il finally became necessary for the fruit 
package manufacturers either to organize or go out of business. 
Some twenty fruit package manufacturers set aside their per- 
sonal grievances and incorporated as the Package Sales Corpora- 
tion of South Bend, Indiana. Aftei the organization of this new 
company conditions improved somewhat but not as fast as the 
officers of the corporation desired. Something was wrong. 
The bushel basket had a bad name in many of the leading mar- 
kets of the country. It failed to satisfy the fruit grower, the 
carrier and the receiver. The directors of our organization de- 
cided that there must be a change in the attitude of these parties 
towards the basket. They felt that this could only be accom- 
plished by rendering the fruit grower a real service and thru 
him the other interested parties would likewise be benefited. 

To do this a Service Department was established. About 
two years ago I was put in charge of this newly created depart- 
ment. Instead of selecting field men from the ranks of the 
package industry I informed our directors that we must obtain 
men who were conversant with the problems of the fruit grower. 
One of our men was an extension horticulturist in one of the 
leading fruit states, another was in charge of the spray work 
conducted by a State University, another was taken from the 
Bureau of Crop Estimates, a fourth was a trained marketing 
man taken from the Market News Service of the Federal Bureau 
of Markets, and the fifth a man who has made a record for him- 
self as a County Agent in a fruit county. These men were 
brought together, the condition of the basket industry was made 
known to them ; they were sent out into their respective fields 
and were told to make a careful study of the situation. After 



120 

doing this they were brought together and we began to formulate 
our plans. 

It was found that the fault stood in part at the door of the 
fruit package manufacturer and in part at the door of the grow- 
er. First, it was decided that the quality of baskets must be im- 
proved. Our field forces noticed that enormous losses were 
sustained through the manufacture of defective baskets. This 
matter was very carefully studied. A series of tests were con- 
ducted at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wis., with 
the object in view of determining the proper design and correct 
strength specifications for a good basket. 

Experimental shipments of fruits packed in baskets con- 
structed in accordance with the new specifications were made 
both by freight and by express and the weak points discovered. 
Finally the present wide bottom basket with star hoop cover 
was settled upon a satisfactory to the needs of the shipper. 

The field investigators emphasized the fact that the basket 
was given a black eye largely because of the poor quality of fruit 
marketed in that container. Because of this general condition 
basket apples, regardless of quality, were often penalized on the 
markets. A campaign for better packing in baskets was then in- 
situted. By means of addresses, publication of service literature 
and proper advertising, we are getting growers to see the need 
of careful packing in the basket, and for the first time this year 
apples in baskets brought better returns than apples packed in 
barrels. 

Our Field Department reported that oftentimes baskets of 
proper construction and carefully packed did not arrive at desti- 
nation in good condition because of the ignorance or lack of 
knowledge of many shippers in correct methods of loading. A 
careful study of proper methods of loading was instituted and 
as a result a Loading Booklet was prepared and distributed. The 
loss and damage claims against the railroads have been materially 
reduced this past season due in part at least to this booklet. 

Our Service Department is now getting ready to demon- 
strate to the apple grower that he can pack and store his apples 
in bushel baskets with even better results than he can in barrels. 
We expect within the next few months to get out a booklet 
showing proper methods of storing apples in baskets but we do 



121 

not intend to stop here. We intend to go on and work out a 
package that will be suitable for export trade. 

In our study of marketing conditions we know that the 
tendency is towards the use of a smaller container than the 
barrel. The barrel people already recognized this demand and 
at their last meeting in Atlantic City adopted the half barrel as 
a shipping container for apples. In doing the above lines of 
work we are not guided entirely by alruistic motives. We know 
that by making the basket popular we are increasing our output 
and developing the basket industry. 

Service work of the type just mentioned can only be carried 
on at considerable expense. It will not pay our organization to 
carry on this line of work indefinitely unless we receive the back- 
ing and cooperation of the progressive fruit grower. We know 
that the fruit grower who makes use of our Service Department 
will be amply repaid in net returns on the fruit grown and mar- 
keted. I wish to emphasize the fact that our Corporation is do- 
ing more than selling the grower fruit packages. We are selling 
him a service that he cannot obtain through any other source. 
That service should be worth money to him. He should be will- 
ing to share at least a portion of the expense. The success of 
our Service Department depends upon a true cooperation, there- 
fore, between the fruit grower and the package manufacturer. 

There is need of education, or publicity, of a knowledge of 
actual conditions. Many growers are of the opinion that all fruit 
baskets are of the same grade or quality. It is true that baskets 
look alike but there is as big a difference between a good basket 
and a poor one as there is between daylight and dark. 

I believe that an organization like the American Pomological 
Society could render both grower and package manufacturer a 
real service by making an unbiased study of this question. I do 
not ask you to take my word for anything but I do ask you to 
investigate. If our service is not worth anything to the grower 
it is a needless expense and it will be to the interest of both 
parties to have it discontinued at once. If it has a real value that 
fact should be given due publicity. Is this not a true function of 
the American Pomological Society? 

A grower may be able to obtain packages from manufac- 
turers not maintaining a Service Department at a price of from 
ten to twenty-five cents a dozen less than the container that we 



122 

manufacture but if in so doing he gets an inferior package, no 
service, no promise of prompt delivery, no surety that he will be 
able to obtain this package at all, the chances are that his net 
profit will be less than had he paid a few cents more for his 
container. 

The successful business man of today realizes that the sell- 
ing game is dififerent from what it was a number of years ago. 
There is a changed attitude. To be successful in business today 
you must render a real service to your customers. You must not 
only sell them a manufactured article but you must guarantee 
quality, delivery, and above all, you must give them an article 
that is suitable to their needs. This is a practical problem and it 
deserves a practical answer. An organization like the American 
Pomological Society can be of great value to its members by 
combining theory with practice. The colleges of today, through 
Extension Departments, and close association with the various 
farm movements are trying out many different theories, finding 
which are practical and which are impractical. Their work can 
be supplemented by such an organization as the American Pomo- 
logical Society. 

Until quite recently most colleges and government activi- 
ties were directed towards increasing the production of farm 
products, by studying processes of plant growth, spraying, culti- 
vation, fertilizing and so on. But we are beginning to realize 
today, that the problems of finding a market for our fruits, of 
getting our fruits to market in proper condition are of equal im- 
portance, and I believe that this association should make a care- 
ful study and analysis of marketing conditions. Its fields of 
activities are much broader than the activities of the Service De- 
partment of the Package Sales Corporation, which is confining 
itself to the development or improvement of marketing condi- 
tions with one container. 

The fruit grower of today must organize. It is only through 
organization that we can get anywhere. Working as individuals, 
it is true, we may accomplish something but by combining our 
strength through an organization such as this, through lending it 
our undivided support, we can obtain a much greater return than 
we can by working independently. Think of the national prob- 
lems that an organization like this might handle. One needs 
but mention such problems as crop reporting, market demands, 



123 

improved methods of production, proper methods of distribution, 
traffic problems and legislative matters. Combine with these the 
dissemination of information relative to proper methods of pack- 
ing, loading, storing, shipping and marketing and you will see 
that the field is unlimited, that it cannot be carried on except 
through a National organization with sufficient funds to maintain 
the right kind of an office, the right kind of help and the proper 
machinery for getting the information to the members. 

At this very moment there is an important piece of legisla- 
tion pending that should receive the undivided support of every 
member present. I refer to H. R. 7102, known as the Hamper 
and Basket Bill. This bill was introduced in the last session of 
Congress, was reported on the floor of the house favorably, but 
it has failed to pass thus far because the industries that are vital- 
ly affected have not shown a sufficient amount of interest to 
make the passage of the bill possible. As I stated this bill is of 
vital importance to every fruit grower. It provides for standard 
packages, standard bushel baskets, standard hampers and stand- 
ard market baskets. It gives the Secretary of Agriculture power 
to prescribe regulations, it provides for the marking of the 
capacity on these packages, it provides that these baskets be 
made in accordance with certain strength specifications. It will 
improve the quality and cut down the number of packages and in 
that way will have a tendency to simplify factory operations and 
that, of course, will result in lower prices. 

If the American Pomological Society has a Legislative Com- 
mittee, I am going to ask that committee to investigate the pro- 
visions of this bill and if they find the same satisfactory that they 
instruct the Secretary to get busy and use his influence to see that 
the bill is passed at the coming session of Congress. I have 
copies of the bill with me and would be glad to give the same to 
individual members and I know that after reading the same it 
will be a pleasure tO' you to write your Congressman urging him 
to get back of the legislation. 

In conclusion let me say that I believe the two main factors 
— Interdependence and Cooperation upon which I have briefly 
dwelt furnish the basis upon which the fruit grower will find it 
to his best interest to establish intimate and friendly relationship 
with Allied Industries. Your problems are our problems and 



124 

our problems should be your problems. Let us hope that this 
will be the ultimate outcome of your deliberations. 



The President : You have heard this very valuable paper 
which certainly opens up a new line of thought. Mr. Downing 
has mentioned Bill H. R. 7102, the Hamper and Basket Bill. 
This Society certainly must inform itself upon the movement in 
regard to packages, for this will take on international scope be- 
fore long. 

Is there any discussion? If not, we will pass to the next 
number, under this same heading of the relation of this Society 
to allied industries. 

I was interested in the remarks of Mr. Gould, the chairman 
of the committee on the President's Address, when he said that 
we had heretofore made a mistake in thinking that our commit- 
tees should have a large geographical spread, as a result of which 
they could not get together. I think that is true, and in appoint- 
ing the Committee on Nomenclature I will name : 

H. P. Gould, Washington, D. C., 
U. P. Hedrick, New York, 
W. H. Chandler, New York. 

We will now hear the paper of Mr. Gail T. Abbott of Ohio. 



HOW CAN THE AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
BE OF INTEREST AND BENEFIT TO THE FER- 
TILIZER INDUSTRY SO FAR AS IT IS 
CONCERNED WITH ORCHARDS? 

Gail T. Abbott, 
Medina, Ohio 

When the American Pomological Society adopted its new 
expanded program at its Annual Meeting in 1920 the allied com- 
mercial interests which are vitally interested in the production of 
good fruit and more of it were given representation in the 
organization. 



125 

As one of the representatives of the fertihzer industry we 
gladly avail ourselves of the opportunity to make suggestions 
which we believe the Society might adopt to our mutual profit. 

Since funds are provided for our Experiment Stations to be 
used in obtaining needed information along horticultural lines, I 
believe that we may well ask them for more information along 
the following lines. When Mr. Ballou started his pioneer work 
with fertilizers in the old orchards of southeastern Ohio, he 
arbitrarily assumed 5 lbs. of nitrate of soda, 5 lbs. of acid phos- 
phate and 2^ lbs. of potash to be the correct amount to apply 
to each tree. His work confirmed by that of many other experi- 
menters has pretty well established the fact that nitrogen is the 
only element of the three commonly purchased in fertilizer, which 
will greatly increase the fruit crop. The majority of experi- 
menters have made about the same application per tree as Mr. 
Ballou. Some of our best apple growers are coming to believe 
that 5 lbs. of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia per tree 
is not enough and that twice that amount is frequently highly 
profitable. We know of two of the best apple growers in the 
state of Ohio each of whom is making a second application in 
June on the trees which are carrying a heavy set of fruit. Each 
of these men feels satisfied that he is not using any more 
nitrogen than is profitable. 

We need a large number of experiments conducted on the 
different types of soil to determine more nearly the advisable 
amounts to use. 

Truckers have found it profitable to make two or more ap- 
plications of nitrate of soda to their crops, because of the ex- 
treme ease with which nitrate of soda may be leached from the 
soil. Because this is true in the case of truck crops some have 
thought that better results might be secured on fruit if several 
applications were made instead of one. Professor Roberts of 
the Wisconsin Station and many other authorities are now ad- 
vising that we apply soluble nitrogen two to four weeks before 
the buds open, yet we need more work so that the question may 
be answered with authority by the experiment station in each 
state where fruit growing is of any importance. 

Another question which arises frequently is the relative 
speed with which nitrtae of soda and sulphate of ammonia will 
produce results when applied to tree fruits. The small amount 



126 

of work already done seems to indicate that no difference can be 
noted. In a few cases experimenters thought they observed a 
change in color of foliage sooner where sulphate of ammonia 
was applied than when nitrate of soda was used. The majority 
report that no difference could be detected. We need many 
more experiments to enable us to speak with assurance on this 
point. 

When we discuss fertilizers for peaches we are more at sea 
than in the case of apples. While Alderman and a number of 
others have done some excellent work on peaches, the large per- 
cent of work on tree fruits has been done with apples and con- 
clusions and recommendations for other tree fruits are largely 
based on the results of experiments with the former. 

Peaches grow and produce fruit in an entirely different way 
from apples and we need much more work before we can say 
whether soluble nitrates should be applied to peaches at the same 
time we fertilize apples, or later in the season. We know that a 
peach tree will profitably use much larger quantities of nitrogen 
than an apple tree of the same age, because it comes into bearing 
and is gone and forgotten before the apple tree begins to bear, 
in many cases. How much nitrogen can it use? Should it be 
applied early, or later in the season? Should there be two ap- 
plications, or only one, and should the same rule be followed 
when using sulphate of ammonia as when nitrate of soda is the 
carrier ? Who can tell ? 

If our information on these points regarding apples and 
peaches is limited, what shall we say regarding pears, plums and 
cherries? 

Pear growers have always had a great deal of trouble witb 
pear blight, which has apparently been worse where there was 
a large amount of new wood. For this reason the opinion has 
been prevalent among growers that nitrogen should be used with 
a good deal of caution, yet the Oregon Station in an experiment 
with Winter Nelis pears .used 5 lbs. of sulphate of amonia and 
10 lbs. of nitrate of soda per tree with very satisfactory results. 

On plums and cherries we have practically no information 
regarding all these questions. 

There is very meager data for guidance in applying fertiliz- 
ers on the bush fruits and vines such as raspberries, black ber- 



127 

ries, currants and gooseberries. The best we can do at present 
is to reason from limited information we have on apples. 

The Geneva Station in New York has done some good work 
on grapes, but only a beginning has been made. 

Many of the results obtained by experimenters on apples are 
so absolutely at variance that the reader is tempted to inquire 
whether we know anything at all. In some of the older work 
some of the orchards were in sod while others were cultivated 
and cover crops sown. In some cases the nitrogen was ap- 
plied in ]\Iay or June and in others early in the spring. One ex- 
perimenter may have applied nitrate of soda in a cultivated or- 
chard very early and heavy rains leached it all away before the 
trees could make use of it. Another applied sulphate of am- 
monia on sod at the same time and had fine returns. The next 
man used sulphate of ammonia on sod in Alay and got nothing 
for his investment, while still another used nitrate of soda in two 
applications on sod, one early and the other the fore part of 
June with splendid results. 

Can the amateur who reads these conflicting reports reach 
any safe conclusions? It seems to me as a Society- we might 
recommend work along some of these lines which in time would 
give us information which we could follow in planting a com- 
mercial orchard with a reasonable expectation of getting results. 

Could not we appoint a committee whose duty it would be 
to go carefully over the experiments already made and recom- 
mend to the experiment stations a program which we would like 
to see followed out? 

I realize that it is a difficult problem, because the life of an 
apple orchard from setting to the end of its usefulness may cover 
a period of fifty or sixty years. The soil where it is located must 
be uniform in type and fertility. The varieties of apples on the 
different plots must be the same. The plots must be of consid- 
erable size. Experiment station workers hesitate to start such 
work, fearing they will be dead and gone before results will be 
obtained which will be of value. Experiment station regimes 
change and workers are removed by death or otherwise. New 
men are inclined to wish to start new work of their own instead 
of carrying on work started bv someone else. 

The advice and backing of this Society could do much to 



128 

encourage the starting and continuation of some such work as 
we have outHned. 

I believe I voice the best thought in the great fertilizer in- 
dustry when I say that we are willing and anxious to supply the 
fruit grower with the plant food which will give him the most 
satisfactory returns, not for one or a half dozen years, but for 
the entire life of his orchard. 

In order to do this we must know what is needed. 

We look to the experiment stations to svipply this in- 
formation. 



The President : This is a very interesting subject and 
probably in the older days would have aroused a great deal of 
discussion. Have you anything to propose in regard to these 
various suggestions? 

Mr. Cashman of Minnesota is not here, but I understand 
that Mr. Paul Stark has his paper, and we will have him read 
it now. 

Paul C. Stark (Missouri) : Mr. Cashman wrote me that 
he greatly regretted his inability to attend the meeting, but he had 
already accepted another appointment so the best he could do was 
to write his message and send it to the members of the American 
Pomological Society. 



COOPERATION BETWEEN THE AMERICAN POMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY AND THE NURSERYMEN 

M. R. Cashman^ 
President, Americani Association of Nurserymen 

The American Association of Nurserymen greet you and 
extend to you their hearty congratulations and best wishes for a 
successful and profitable conclusion of this, your annual meeting. 

We nurserymen appreciate, perhaps more than anyone else, 
the noble impulses which prompted the birth of the American 
Pomological Society, and we look upon it as an instrument and 
means through which many providential blessings are bestowed 
upon mankind. 



129 

The ambition and desire to know nature and to search her 
marvelous treasury for new fruits and new flowers is indeed 
most laudable, and we can look upon the American Pomological 
Society as a congregation of men and women, prompted by lofty 
ideals unselfishly laboring in the garden of nature in order that 
this old world may be a better place in which to live. 

The nurserymen are keenly interested in the work that this 
Society is doing for are we not following the same line of en- 
deavor in our propagating fields that you are in your experi- 
mental plots. You may be working to originate or improve a 
variety of fruit while we are engaged in disseminating those of 
recognized merit. Without the pomologist the country would be 
destitute of many of the valuable varieties we now enjoy, and 
without the nurserymen our orchardists would be unable to ob- 
tain these valuable varieties even after they were originatd. 

Your success is our success for our business is affected di- 
rectly when something new is brought out that the American 
planter finds more profitable to grow than that he already has. 
Progress has always been a watchword of the American people; 
our forefathers laid the foundation of prosperity and left us a 
heritage of wealth and abundance, and our own generation has 
carried forward the banner of progress with no slackening of 
speed. The American business man as well as the American 
fruit grower never hesitates to replace the old with the new, if, 
by so doing, he can increase his returns. American genius has 
led the world in working out improved methods to increase pro- 
duction, and in the horticultural field we are not behind in the 
origination of new and valuable fruits for the fruit growers 
orchard. 

This latter field indeed offers great and interesting oppor- 
tunities to the nature-loving genius of the horticulturist, and it 
is not at all surprising to find in the ranks of the A. P. S. the 
names of men whose contributions to science and big business 
have made them internationally famous. The farmer, the or- 
chardist, the nurseryman, the merchant, the doctor, the lawyer, 
the educator, the statesman, the author, and the naturalist, all find 
common ground in the pomological garden and therein commune 
with nature in the study of her charming mysteries. 

9 



I30 

Your Society, embracing, as it does, men and women en- 
dowed with such noble impulses and coming from all walks of 
life, can not fail to attract national attention to its work. The 
fruit grower is eager to adopt the new and improved methods of 
orcharding which you have worked out ; he is eager to put out a 
new orchard of some new or improved variety which your or- 
ganization recomrnends. 

The fruit grovver looks to you as a guiding hand in the con- 
duct of his business. The nurseryman does not neglect to note 
the results of each year's experiments which your members are 
carrying on in all parts of the United States. Every improve- 
ment made either in the bringing out of a new variety of fruit or 
by improved orchard methods, vitally effects the nurseryman for 
when you assist the fruit grower to make his plantings more 
profitable, you also assist the nurseryman to sell more trees. The 
commission merchants, the transportation companies, the fruit 
dealers, and many other avenues through which fruit trade passes 
have been benefited by the work that this society has done and 
will continue to benefit just so long as your efiforts are directed in 
the channels they now are. Your field of endeavor is not only ex- 
tensive but very fertile. 

You have achieved success, for the bounteous harvest of 
new luscious fruits speaks eloquently of your endeavors. Your 
labors, however, are just beginning for I feel sure that you recog- 
nize the tremendous possibilities that lie before you. 

Let me urge upon you that you give no less attention to the 
essentials of fruit growing and fruit marketing that today seem 
to be very much neglected in so many sections of this country. 
The fruit grower needs your supporting hand and advice in 
order to make his business more profitable. The fruit industry 
does not afTord the profit that it should because of the fact that 
scientific and practical methods are lacking. 

Our state agricultural colleges and the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture have done and are doing great good throughout the 
country, but one central organization such as yours is highly de- 
sirable and necessary for the successful development of the 
fruit growing industry. 

My heart is with you today and may God continue to bless 
your work. I would very much like to have met with you, but 
the distance and other vital matters make it necessary for me to 



131 

send my message. I trust that you will appreciate the fact that 
the American Association of Nurserymen is with you in all that 
you do. We feel a part of you and hope to assist in making the 
A. P. S. the dominant factor in promoting the fruit industry of 
American by urging every nurseryman in the U. S. to join your 
Society. Again I say, your success is our success. 



The President: We are now ahead of our program, and 
I propose we take an intermission before we go on with the 
program. 

INTERMISSION 

The American Pomological Society aims to be what its name 
indicates, really American, that is, international. The First Vice 
President is Profesosr Macoun of Ottawa, who has served this 
Society for many years with ability and devotion. We are very 
sorry that he is not here to help us this year. As far as I know 
only two people from Canada are in attendance at this convention, 
and fortunately they are both to present us with papers. 

The first one will be on "Commercial Fruit Growing in 
Canada," by Mr. C. W. Baxter of Ontario. Mr. Baxter, is con- 
nected with the Department of Agriculture and has had charge 
of the fruit growing statistics and similar work. 

I am obliged now to go to a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee and I will ask Mr. Gould to take the Chair. 



COMMERCIAL FRUIT GROWING IN CANADA 

C. W. Baxter, 
Ontario, Canada. 

I deem it a privilege to attend the i\nnual Convention of 
your Society and discussion with you for a short time some of 
the problems of the fruit industry. I am glad to have the op- 
portunity of publicly expressing my great appreciation, also the 
appreciation of the fruit growers of Canada, of the generous co- 
operation and assistance we have received from the fruit growers 
in the United States and from your Federal and State Depart- 
ments of Agriculture in our efforts to promote the fruit industry 



132 

of our Country. You are very generous in giving us the results 
of your many experiments along various lines and in forwarding 
direct crops and market information which we include in our 
Crop and Telegraph Market Reports. These reports are sup- 
plied free of charge to our fruit growers, shippers and dealers, 
thus enabling them to determine values and to find the most 
profitable market. 

The production of fruit in Canada as compared to the 
United States is very small and it is of great importance to our 
industry that we keep very closely in touch with fruit growing on 
this side of the line. It is also desirable that the fruit growers 
on this side of the line should keep in touch with activities in 
Canada. Therefore, we have a great deal in common and meet- 
ings of this kind afiford an excellent opportunity to get together 
and talk over the whole situation to our mutual advantage. 

I have been requested by your President to speak to you on 
the outlook for commercial fruit growing in Canada and I shall 
be glad to refer briefly to conditions during the past few years, 
present conditions and our outlook for the future. As you know, 
we do not grow as many kinds of fruit in Canada as you do on 
this side. Our colder climate will not permit it and, in order to 
make what I wish to say as clear as possible, I will divide the 
fruit grown commercially into three classes: first apples, second 
tender fruits and third small fruit which includes strawberries, 
raspberries, currants and gooseberries. 

Apples — As the distance between our Eastern Coast and 
the Pacific Coast apple producing provinces is approximately 
3,000 miles it is quite natural that there should be considerable 
variation in growing conditions and in the fruit. When the ex- 
tensive plantings in your North Western States and in British 
Columbia came into commercial bearing and the fruit was placed 
on the Eastern markets, not a few of our growers and dealers 
in the Eastern Provinces would refer to them as "nice looking 
apples but having little or no flavour." However, this is now 
history and it is generally recognized that there is no one state 
or province which can produce the best fruit. The variation 
in soil and climatic conditions makes' it possible to grow varieties 
especially adapted to certain conditions better in one particular 
district than the same variety grown under less favorable condi- 
tions. Thus is one state or province the conditions in one section 



133 

will vary from those in another not many miles distant. Because 
of the very great distance which separates our commercial apple 
growing districts and the variation in growing conditions, I think 
our situation will be better understood if we deal with each 
province separately. 

Commencing at the Atlantic Coast we have in the Province 
of Nova Scotia, the Annapolis and Cornwallis Valleys, which are 
perhaps better known as "The Land of Evangeline," where ap- 
ple growing is carried on to a greater extent than any other 
branch of agriculture. These valleys are especially adapted to 
the growing of this fruit and the close proximity to seaboard 
ofifers special advantages to the export markets of the United 
Kingdom and the Continent. In 191 1, as the result of increased 
efforts on the part of the growers and exceptionally favorable 
weather conditions. Nova Scotia produced a crop of approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 barrels — a record which has not since been 
reached. 

During the Great War, as we know, there were many things 
afifecting the fruit industry which were very discouraging to fruit 
growers. Fruit was considered a luxury and a non-essential and, 
while other Branches of Agriculture were being encouraged by 
increased demand and correspondingly increased prices, the dif- 
ficulties to fruit growers were increased and the export markets 
were closed to fruit. As Nova Scotia had for many years ex- 
ported the greater part of her crop to the United Kingdom and 
did not have a home trade connection with other provinces in 
Canada, these discouragements were felt more in that Province 
than in any other. The placing of an embargo on the importa- 
tion of fruit into the United Kingdom resulted in an almost total 
neglect of orchards in some provinces but the growers in Nova 
Scotia notwithstanding the discouraging outlook continued to 
care for their orchards with the result that they have had good 
crops for several years. 

Each year we find a greater number of growers practicing 
the best known methods of pruning, grafting and spraying, and 
the result has been very good average crops during the past three 
years of approximately 1,300,000 barrels of commercial fruit. 
A large percentage of the crop is marketed co-operatively. In 
one co-operative association there are between 1700 and 1800 
members, representing about 40% of the growers of the Prov- 



134 

ince. I will not take up your time to explain the workings of 
this organization but we are always glad to point to it as one of 
the best examples of what can be done by organized efforts. 
This I think is one of the most efficient and most economical dis- 
tributing organizations on this continent. 

The St. John River Valley in the adjoining province of New 
Brunswick is especially adapted to the growing of some of the 
best hardy varieties, including Mcintosh Red and Fameuse. 
This Province, at the Imperial Fruit Show held about a month 
ago in London, England, was awarded first prize in the "All 
Canadian" competitive section for both these varieties. The 
quantity has not yet been sufficient to supply the needs of the 
Province but as a railway has recently been constructed, formerly 
known as the St. John Valley Railway but now owned and 
operated by the Canadian National Railway System, we are con- 
fidently looking forward to this valley becoming one of the best 
apple producing districts in the Maritime Provinces. The com- 
mercial apple crop of New Brunswick in 1919 was 40,000 barrels 
and in 1920 was 30,000 barrels. The 192 1 crop has been esti- 
mated at 33,000 barrels. 

The Province of Prince Edward Island which, as you know, 
is situated in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated from the 
Mainland by the Northumberland Straits, is not a great factor 
in the commercial apple crop and a large portion of the fruit 
consumed is brought in from the adjoining provinces. It has, 
however, been demonstrated that the hardier varieties can be 
successfully grown there. This province is specially adapted to 
the growing of small fruits but on account of the difficulties of 
transportation fruit growing has not made any great progress 
during the past thirty years. The railway system of the Island 
is of the narrow gauge type, however, the more thickly popu- 
lated section approximating 40 miles, served by this railway has 
recently been changed to the standard gauge and it is expected 
that in the course of a few years the whole system will be stand- 
ardized. So that with improved transportation service which in- 
cludes the excellent ferry system, now in operation and which 
is operated the year round it is expected that fruit growing in 
that province will be greatly increased in a few years. 

Leaving the Maritime Province and traveling west about 
800 miles, we come to the principal apple producing districts of 



135 

the Province of Quebec, where the Fameuse and the Mcintosh 
Red varieties are grown to perfection. This province was un- 
fortunate in losing a large portion of the Fameuse trees and 
many trees of the other varieties as the result of the unusually 
severe winter of 1917-18, but, notwithstanding this severe loss, 
the growers are not discouraged and these orchards are being 
re-established. The demand for the Quebec grown Fameuse and 
Mcintosh Red in the Province of Quebec is such that the highest 
price paid for any variety has been obtained and it has not yet 
been necessary for the growers to look outside their Province 
for a market. 

The Province of Ontario, which is one of the oldest apple 
growing provinces in Canada and which up to a few years ago 
produced the greatest quantity, also suffered from the severe 
winter of 1917-18 and a number of the trees were killed. Had 
the fruit growers of Ontario followed the practice of the grow- 
ers in Nova Scotia and continued to care for their orchards dur- 
in the war years, prior to 191 7, the loss from the severe weather 
would undoubtedly have been less. This province during the 
past three years has produced the following commercial crops : 
in 1919, 879,000 barrels; 1920, 1,600,000 barrels, and the esti- 
mate for 1921 is 960,000 barrels. 

Unlike the Provinces of Nova Scotia and British Columbia, 
where apple growing is a specialized industry, the bulk of the 
apples in Ontario are grown on mixed farms and, on account of 
the higher prices which have been paid of late for other farm 
products, the farmer-fruit grower has not been giving much at- 
tention to orcharding. However, now that prices of these 
products have been greatly reduced in contrast to the slight re- 
duction in the price of apples, there is a greater interest being 
taken in orcharding and, while the process may be slow, never- 
theless we expect that apple growing will in the near future be 
carried on as a specialized industry in Ontario as it is in the other 
provinces referred to. 

In the Prairie Provinces apple growing is not carried on in 
a commercial way and our next and last commercial apple grow- 
ing province is British Columbia on the Pacific Coast. This 
province has produced this year 4,000 cars of apples or ap- 
proximately 3,000,000 boxes. This is about 100% more than in 
1920. The increase is largely the result of the increased growth 



136 

of the trees recently come into commercial bearing. The grow- 
ers in British Columbia like the growers in the North Western 
States have been compelled to adopt co-operative marketing. 
This province has now one of the most efficient co-operative 
marketing organizations in Canada and has established an ex- 
cellent reputation for reliable grading and packing in both the 
home and export markets. During the past year the distribution 
has been greatly widened. 

This will give you . some idea as to the conditions in the 
commercial apple growing provinces in Canada at the present 
time but in order to form a definite opinion as to the outlook it 
is necessary that we review the marketing conditions during the 
past few years. It will be remembered that in 1912 the United 
States and Canada had one of the biggest apple crops on record 
and the returns to the growers, generally speaking, were very 
discouraging. The conclusion reached by many was that there 
had been over-planting and this conclusion was strengthened by 
the fact that there had been extensive planting in the North 
Western States and in British Columbia and when these plant- 
ings came into bearing the price of apples would be so low that 
it would not pay to care for the orchards. Planting, therefore, 
practically ceased in 191 1. In 1914 we had another big crop 
and when the fruit was ready to harvest the markets were com- 
pletely disorganized as the result of war conditions. Later an 
embargo was placed against the export of apples to the United 
Kingdom. Our growers were very much discouraged and, as 
already stated, in some of the provinces the orchards were total- 
ly neglected. Therefore, having regard to the fact that planting 
practically ceased in 191 1 and many orchards since 1912 have 
been neglected, also the great loss of trees from the unusually 
long and severe cold during the winter of 191 7- 18 we are of the 
opinion that even under the most favorable growing conditions 
our maximum commercial apple production cannot exceed our 
greatest production of twenty-five years ago. 

The supply of some agricultural products may be increased 
or decreased in one or two years, but with apples this cannot be 
done as the plantings of today represent the crop of several years 
hence and the law of averages is again asserting itself. Today 
although the prices of many agricultural products have materially 
declined the price of the best varieties and grades of fruit are 



137 

being substantially maintained. We, therefore, feel that the out- 
look for commercial apple growing in Canada was never better, 
providing that we profit by our past experience and plant only 
varieties which the market requires and which succeed best in 
the particular district. We are not convinced that we have at 
any time reached the stage of over-production but that our dis- 
couragements, especially in 191 2, were due to lack of organized 
marketing facilities. The large cities and towns were over-sup- 
plied, while the smaller consuming centres, and we have many 
of them in Canada, were receiving a very small proportion of 
what they might consume. We are at the same time convinced 
that if we are to avoid a repetition of the unsatisfactory condi- 
tions met with in 191 2 and preceding years we must develop an 
efficient co-operative marketing organization in proportion to our 
increased production. Unless this is done our industry will be 
unbalanced. In fact we are so firmly convinced that our future 
success is 'dependent on centralized co-operative marketing that 
we hesitate to organize more independent fruit growers' associa- 
tions in Ontario until the independent associations now in ex- 
istence have established a Central co-operative marketing or- 
ganization. We fully expect that we will accomplish this before 
another crop is ready to market. 

Tender Fruit. In regard to- the growing of tender fruit in 
Canada, I may say that while pears and plums are grown in all 
the commercial apple producing provinces a very large per- 
centage of the total crop is produced in the Province of Ontario 
and in the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. With regard 
to peaches the history of commercial peach growing in Canada 
has convinced us that the area in which these can be grown with 
any degree of safety from winter killing is confined to the 
Niagara Peninsula in Ontario and the Southern parts of the 
Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. There are a few more 
districts in Ontario where peaches are grown, but the quantity 
can have very little effect on the market. Therefore, with ef- 
ficient marketing facilities provided peach growing in both 
Niagara district in Ontario and the Southern part of the 
Okanagan Valley in British Columbia should be a very profitable 
branch of fruit growing. The same conditions would apply to 
the commercial growing of grapes although British Columbia has 
not yet produced any great quantity of these. 



138 

Small Fruits. Small fruits, such as strawberries, rasp- 
berries, currants and gooseberries, like pears and plums, are 
grown in all commercial apple producing provinces but the larger 
portion of the total crop is grown in Ontario. In the Eastern 
Provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island strawberries form the major portion of the small 
fruit crop, the bulk of which is, as a rule, sold within the 
province. For several years prior to 1910, the prices received 
by growers were not satisfactory and it was difficult at that time 
to obtain sufficient help to harvest the crop, due principally to 
the exodus of our people to the Prairie Provinces. The result 
was that the acreage in 191 1 was considerably reduced and as 
labor difficulties continued and were increased during the war 
years there was a further reduction in acreage. The demand, 
however, continued firm and there was a steady advance in prices 
which probably reached the peak in 1919 and 1920. Notwith- 
standing the advance in prices it was not until the labor situation 
improved in 1919 that our growers were able to increase the 
acreage to any extent. In 1919 and 1920 the acreage was greatly 
increased, especially on the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver 
Island, B. C, where a number of our ex-service men have taken 
up small fruit growing with considerable success under Govern- 
ment assistance. During the past season the price of straw- 
berries and some other small fruit declined but the decline would 
not have been so pronounced had the jam and canning factories 
been able to handle even a small portion of their annual pur- 
chases. There has been a decided improvement in the marketing 
facilities for handling the small fruits during the past season and 
we are confidently expecting that this branch of the industry can, 
with profit, be considerably extended. 

THE FRUIT MARKS ACT 

The Canadian Fruit Marks Act applies to all fruit grown 
commercially in Canada, but was in its inception designed 
primarily to remedy certain evils which threatened the existence 
of the export apple trade. This trade was particularly important 
to Canadian growers as, especially in the early days owing to the 
comparatively limited local demand, it was necessary to look to 
distant markets to dispose profitably of the apples grown in the 



139 

large producing districts. But while the Federal Law was passed 
originally with the markets of the United Kingdom particularly 
in mind, it is recognized that the Regulations have strengthened 
the industry in all markets, local, inter-provincial and export, al- 
though the benefits have been particularly noticeable in long dis- 
tance trading when a reliable system of grading is more im- 
portant than in the case of local shipments where differences of 
opinion between shipper and consignee can be more easily ad- 
justed. 

A brief resume of our experience with Federal grading 
regulations may be of interest. Twenty-five years ago Canada 
was in danger of losing her export apple trade owing to the high 
percentage of consignments which were received on the British 
markets showing large quantities of over-faced and improperly 
packed and graded fruit. It was felt that the unsatisfactory con- 
ditions governing the industry were due largely to the absence of 
any regulations governing the packing, grading and marking, thus 
making it impossible to place any reliance upon the grade marks 
which appeared upon the barrels. 

As the returns to exporters were reflecting the lack of con- 
fidence felt by buyers in the United Kingdom and, as it was 
realized by those interested in the welfare of the industry that 
the trade could not be saved from retrogression without stand- 
ardization, the more progressive growers and shippers requested 
legislation providing for compulsory grading and marking, and 
in 1901 the Fruit Marks Act was passed. The object of the Act 
was to raise the standard of the commercial pack of fruit in 
Canada, the improvement of the export trade as noted before, 
being particularly in the minds of those framing its provisions. 

The administration of the Act was placed with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and a stafif of eight inspectors were charged 
with its enforcement. During the first few years of the operation 
of the Act the inspection was confined almost entirely to the 
ports of export, and almost immediately a marked improvement 
in the grading and packing of the apples offered for export was 
noticeable. Even as early as the second season the satisfactory 
results of its enforcement were being commented upon in the 
United Kingdom, one large fruit broker writing under date, 
January 10, 1903 : "In reference to the packing of apples in 
barrels, there can be no doubt that the passing of the Fruit 



140 

Marks Act (1901) has had a most beneficial effect in improving 
the grading and marking of fruit." References were also made 
to the Act in the British press, an article in the Glasgow "Herald" 
of December 29, 1902, reading in part: "Recent legislation in 
Canada has done much to remove complaints as to the marking of 
packages and of the quality of the fruit." 

As the advantages of the inspection service became ap- 
parent, growers, shippers and dealers urged upon the Depart- 
ment the necessity for an extension of the work to include the 
principal distributing and consuming points in Canada, and also 
to cover many other kinds of fruit grown commercially in this 
country. 

The definitions of grade in the original Fruits Marks Act 
were not very specific, and many points were not considered that 
have since had to be regulated. Amendments have been made 
from time to time therefore, but I would point out that these 
amendments have been made, in practically every case, only 
upon the recommendation of the fruit industry as the need for 
further regulation along any particular line became apparent. 
Thus grade designations, grade definitions, packing regulations, 
standardization of packages, etc., have followed in natural se- 
quence. This, together with the fact that the administration has 
been carried on in a business-like spirit, has meant that every 
forward step in our regulations has had public opinion behind it ; 
consequently the Act has never been one of those pieces of legis- 
lation, some of which we have even in Canada, that have been 
put on the Statute Book but are practically "dead-letters" so far 
as enforcement is concerned. 

From 1901 to 1912 the work of inspection was confined 
practically to the docks at Montreal, St. John and Halifax, and 
to the large consuming centres such as Toronto, Winnipeg, 
Regina, Calgary and Vancouver. The manner of inspection was 
to open and examine a number of packages from each lot, and 
if the fruit was not packed in accordance with the Act, a report 
was made to that effect and the packer prosecuted if, after thor- 
ough investigation, the facts warranted such action. While this 
method, which was the only practical one with the few in- 
spectors on the staff, undoubtedly had a deterrent effect on pack- 
ers and shippers who were anxious to avoid prosecution, it did 
not prevent the improperly packed and marked fruit reaching 



141 

the market. Also in the case of the less reputable packers and 
shippers, there was a tendency to run the risk of prosecution as 
the chances of detection were fairly remote, particularly in the 
case of export fruit, it being possible to inspect only a small per- 
centage of the apples for export, owing to the speed with which 
these are loaded from the cars into the steamer's hold — the in- 
spection being made on the dock as the loading was in process. 

In 191 3, therefore, some additional inspectors were ap- 
pointed, and the work extended in certain sections to the ship- 
ping centres in the producing districts. This change soon showed 
a material improvement, and by 19 14 this system of "inspection 
at point of shipment" had been adopted in all commercial fruit 
growing districts, and has been continued to date, so that this 
season practically the whole staff of over sixty inspectors are 
working among the growers and packers, not only inspecting the 
fruit after it has been packed, but giving instructions in the 
orchards and packing houses in the proper methods of picking, 
grading, packing and shipping fruit. Instead of waiting to detect 
false packing or grading after it has been done, the inspectors 
today are spending their time and energy in preventing the evil, 
thereby protecting the grower from commercial and financial loss 
in marketing his fruit and, in addition, protecting the consumer, 
and establishing greater confidence in the trade. This is particu- 
larly valuable in the case of export and inter-provincial ship- 
ments, as the inspectors endeavor to give special attention to all 
requests for the inspection of long distance shipments. 

As the packing season is short, it is impossible for the in- 
spectors to visit every orchard, and consequently a great many 
lots are inspected at the shipping station. If fruit is found not 
up to grade the inspector at once communicates with the packer 
and requests him to examine the shipment, giving him a practical 
demonstration in grading; the packer, if circumstances warrant 
it, is then given an opportunity to reduce the grade before his 
fruit is shipped. If the grade is not lowered in accordance with 
the quality by the packer the inspector may mark the words "Be- 
low Grade" on the package or he may efface the false mark and 
place the proper grade mark thereon. 

Of special value in the case of inter-provincial shipments, 
particularly to the Prairie markets, is an arrangement made the 
past few years by which officers of the Branch are authorized to 



142 

give any shipper desiring it a copy of the report referring to his 
fruit, which is often attached to the bill of lading by request of 
the consignee. Such a report does not vouch for the contents 
of the car, but for those packages only which have been actually 
inspected and marked with the inspector's stamp, but dealers 
have demonstrated their willingness to purchase cars on the 
strength of these reports. 

Since 1918 the inspectors at such points as Vancouver, Win- 
nipeg, Toronto and Montreal have also been authorized to in- 
spect rejected cars, and give a report to the consignee or con- 
signor as to the condition. In the past serious loss and waste 
of fruit and vegetables have been incurred through consignees 
refusing to accept cars, necessitating the re-consignment and pos- 
sibly a second rejection or a forced acceptance at a greatly re- 
duced price. The principal reason for undertaking the inspection 
of such cars, which was started during the war years, was to 
facilitate prompt delivery, thus avoiding unnecessary waste of 
food. This service has also assisted materially in insuring 
prompt settlement of disputes between shippers and consignees, 
and has proved particularly valuable in inter-provincial trade 
where, the disputing parties being a great distance apart, one or 
other was very often at a disadvantage. The report of an im- 
partial inspector has frequently been the means of effecting a 
prompt settlement. 

In the early fruit inspection days apples were the principal 
fruit dealt with, but during the past few years all kinds of fruits 
grown commercially in Canada, and also some vegetables, have 
been inspected and as noted, special attention is given to long 
distance shipments. Special work in connection with our inspec- 
tion service is also done by the Transportation Division of the 
Fruit Branch of the Federal Department of Agriculture. This 
Division was organized a little over four years ago in response 
to the request of growers and shippers throughout the Dominion, 
transportation problems going hand in hand with long distance 
trading in perishable products such as fruit and vegetables. 

While it is recognized that the Fruit Marks Act has been an 
important factor in improving the Canadian fruit industry, and 
particularly the export apple trade, we realize that there is still 
room for improvement in the Act, and I may say that a strong 
feeling has been growing in regard to the need for more definite 



143 

grade definitions, particularly with respect to the size and colour 
of apples. It has also been suggested from certain districts that 
grades should be defined specifically for some of the tender fruits. 
Further amendments are to be expected, therefore, but this is 
quite in order as it was never intended that the Fruit Marks Act 
should be stationary, but it is expected to evolve with the grow- 
ing needs of the fruit industry. 



The President : We look to Canada for so many elements 
of leadership because they have men who know^ and who can 
answer your questions authoritatively. 

I may say that by arrangement we have transposed the 
papers of Mr. Davis and Dr. Chandler. Mr. Davis' paper will 
come tomorrow, and Dr. Chandler will read his this afternoon. 

After we have had Doctor Chandler's paper there will be 
some rather important departures to be brought to your attention 
by the Executive Committee. 

Are there any questions you wish to ask Mr. Baxter on the 
Canadian question? 

H. P. Gould: Is there any charge or fee for inspection? 

C. W. Baxter: No, we make no charge. We cannot in- 
spect all the fruit that we are asked to inspect, but on the whole 
it is ver)^ satisfactory. If a man wishes to have a copy of the re- 
port to attach to the bill of lading, and if he will make request 
•twenty- four hours in advance we are usually able to accommo- 
date him ; but during the great rush we have not been able to 
do this because it would require a small army. But on the whole 
our shippers have been entirely satisfied with the service, for 
which there is no charge. 

F. P. Downing (Indiana) : Is there any conflict between 
the standard package laws of this country and Canada? 

C. W. Baxter: Mr. Downing very kindly sent me a copy 
of this Bill he referred to. I received it just before I left home 
and looked it over on the train. I see it is proposed to prohibit 
the selling of fruit in the United States unless it is packed in 
packages described in that Bill. We have not gone so far as that. 
We say that all fruit packed in Canada for sale in Canada must 
be packed in specified packages of certain capacities and dimen- 
sions. I w^ould not say that at the present time there is any con- 



144- 

flict there because we do not put any restriction on packages com- 
ing into Canada. How long that will last I do not know. Last 
year when we had a surplus of strawberries and you needed them 
we were deprived of shipping twenty-five car-loads from one 
Province because our standard box is four-fifths of a quart and 
your markets demand a full quart box. I believe that our grow- 
ers are coming to the point where they want to adopt the same 
box you have and I think before another season comes around 
they will do it. 

Two years ago we adopted a standard barrel. We were 
just waiting for the United States to adopt a standard barrel, 
and. as soon as you did, we did. We have adopted standard 
boxes. I do not believe that you have locally adopted standard 
boxes, but we have what is known as the Oregon box. That is 
our standard and it is the standard in Great Britain, known as 
the British standard. We hope you will not be long following 
suit. At the present time there is nothing to prohibit the im- 
portation of fruit in your packages except with regard to the 
marking. If apples, peaches or pears are imported in closed 
packages bearing grade marks inconsistent with our grade marks, 
they must be completely erased and the importer must put his 
name on the box in order that we may fix the responsibility for 
the grading. That is the only restriction at the present time on 
import business. Prior to 191 8 we required that only for pears 
coming into Canada in any other boxes than our standard, and 
these boxes had to be marked "short." But this was not satis- 
factory and was discontinued. 

A Member: What does a bushel of apples weigh in 
Canada ? 

C. W. Baxter: I have never yet been able to determine 
what a bushel of apples should weigh, because a bushel of small 
Baldwins compared with a bushel of large ones would show a 
difference. I should say a barrel of Ben Davis or Snow apples 
would weigh about 150 pounds, while Baldwins or Russets would 
weigh about 180 pounds. But we have not attempted to fix the 
weights for fruit. What we have done in standardizing pack- 
ages is to fix the capacity of our packages, and to secure the price 
that package must be full. We have found the fixing of weights 
for fruits and vegetables is unsound. 



145 

We have a bill started at the last session for the compulsory 
grading of potatoes and' onions, and that bill was prepared as a 
result of a Dominion conference representing the potato and 
onion industry of Canada. They adopted a resolution and re- 
quested that the resolution be enacted. They made provision for 
the repeal of our present law which says that a bushel of turnips 
must weigh so much, and a bushel of carrots so much, and in- 
stead of that adopted a unit of one pound as the basis of all sales. 

F. P. Downing : I think Mr. Baxter is absolutely right as 
to the stand they are taking in Canada — standardizing the pack- 
ages on the basis of volume, not weight. We have in this country 
a volume bushel and a weight bushel, and confusion is the result. 
I think the members of this Association should ask our legis- 
lators to repeal a lot of these foolish weight laws. In some 
States they say 44 pounds of apples to the bushel, and in some 
States 45, and you know there is a wide variation in apples ac- 
cording to the variety and according to the season of the year. 
It is impossible to standardize capacity in terms of weight. That 
is why I think every member of this Society should get back 
of the proposed bill to standardize packages. 

V. H. Davis (Port Clinton, Ohio) : I want to emphasize 
what was said in regard to weight and capacity because I do not 
believe there is a fruit grower in Ohio or any other State that 
does not appreciate the utter absurdity of trying to put the same 
number of pounds of these different varieties of fruit into the 
same size packages. It does not work out. I do not know just 
how to better it. but when you see how inconsistent the State and 
National governments have been in regard to this matter it does 
seem that it is time an organization of this kind took some stand. 
The western box people appreciate the fact that they cannot get 
48 pounds of apples into a bushel box, and they only guarantee 
40 pounds. When it comes to peaches we can get 48 to 55 
pounds, and we can guarantee 48 pounds and be safe. Why have 
it 48 pounds in this State and 44 in adjoining States? 

C. W. Baxter: Just to illustrate the point made by the 
last speaker. For some time we had a law which required that 
a barrel of potatoes shall weigh 165 pounds. If a barrel is made 
big enough to hold 165 pounds of large potatoes, that same bar- 
rel, when containing small potatoes would not be filled by some 

10 



146 

eight inches, which meant that in expressing that barrel (most 
of our potatoes are handled that way) the potatoes would be 
bruised. It is not practical. I think that is the best illustration 
of the unsoundness of defining capacity by weight. 

V. H. Davis : In southern Ohio a few years ago we hap- 
pened to find most of the buyers buying Rambo apples by the 
barrel. They bought Ben Davis and Ganos by the hundred 
pounds, but they sold them by the barrel. You can readily see 
why if you know the difiference in weight of the two varieties. 

The President : Tomorrow morning we will take up some 
papers dealing with college work in research and teaching as it 
bears upon this pomological situation. The first paper is by Dr. 
W. H. Chandler, who cannot be here in the morning but who is 
here this afternoon. He is Vice Dean of Research in the College 
of Agriculture at Cornell, and we will be glad to hear his paper- 
on "The Prospect for Research in Pomology." 



THE TREND OF RESEARCH ON POMOLOGY. 

W. H. Chandler, 

Cornell University 

The earlier teachers of horticulture in the agricultural col- 
leges were generally rather well trained in Botany and were in- 
clined to form opinions concerning best practices by reasoning 
from the botanical or physiological nature of the trees. They 
were also inclined to lean rather heavily upon the agricultural 
chemist, particularly in their research. The number of publica- 
tions suggesting cultural practices, such as fertilizer treatments 
based upon the result of analysis of tree tissues, is considerable. 
It is needless to say that conclusions based upon such studies 
were not always correct. Even with the present great increase 
of our knowledge of plant physiology it is not always safe to 
base recommendations as to orchard practices upon physiological 
knowledge alone. In fact, it will certainly be very long before 
physiological knowledge is sufficiently complete that one can 
know all of the principles involved in an orchard practice. It 
should be said for those workers that at that time few, if any, of 



147 

the colleges had facilities for extensive experimentation with 
orchard problems. 

Somewhat later a rather large number of field experi- 
ments upon orchard problems, particularly in orchard soil man- 
agement were begun. The results of these have been appearing 
in print during the past fifteen years. It is fair to say that they 
have not fully satisfied the hopes of workers in the subject. That 
the results of different experiments should be conflicting was to 
be expected since soil and climatic conditions were not the same. 
One result of these field experiments probably no one had an- 
ticipated, that is the very large experimental error involved. In 
very few, if any, of the experiments are conclusions justified 
where the differences are no larger than 25 percent, in fact, in a 
majority of cases a difference of 50 per cent would hardly justify 
conclusions, and with some a difference of 100 percent is not 
significant. In other words, with some experiments where a 
given treatment has seemed to double the yield, it is not at all 
certain that the difference in the yield of the two plots is due 
to the difference in treatment. 

On account of these difficulties with field experiments there 
is among workers now a tendency to give them little value and to 
attempt answering practical problems by means of physiological 
studies, that is studies in the nature and response of the trees. In 
spite of earlier failures it seems certain that such studies are very 
valuable, and no doubt in many cases trustworthy answers to cul- 
tural problems may be secured in that way without resort to field 
experiments. For example, we often find it safe to assume that 
if a certain treatment will control a disease or insect the treat- 
ment will be profitable. At least, with many diseases and in- 
sects careful experiments to determine whether or not the cost 
of control is equal to the return from such control is not neces- 
sary, because the cost and returns can be estimated with sufficient 
accuracy. This, of course, could be true only where the returns 
were much greater than the cost. In the same way, if it should 
be found that less pruning when the tree is young would increase 
the yield it would hardly be necessary to conduct an experiment 
to determine whether or not such a practice is profitable for the 
cost in that case is reduced, while the returns are increased. No 
doubt there are many opportunities to secure results of practical 



148 

importance by merely learning more about the nature of the tree, 
and without the use of field experiments. 

The conclusion, however, that field experiments are of little 
value seems hardly justified. In fact, a careful survey of the re- 
sults of the experiments that have been done will, I think, con- 
vince any one that the contribution has been large. Thus, we have 
rather conclusive proof that in the American orchard potassium 
and phosphorus are so seldom present in the soil in insufficient 
quantities for the best production of fruit trees that, the prob- 
lem as to these elements is, at least, a minor one. On the other 
hand, while we formerly applied nitrogen with some fear that it 
might stimulate vegetative growth to an injurious extent and thus 
reduce f ruitfulness, we have found that this very seldom happens 
and, as a matter of fact, nitrogen is the element that can most 
often be applied with profit. Further, we have learned that while 
the soil must be low in available nitrates before apple or pear 
trees, or blackberry or currant plants in cultivated orchards will 
show response to applications of nitrogen, peach, cherry, and plum 
trees, and raspberry and gooseberry plants are much more likely 
to show a response. By field experiments we have learned, not 
only the injurious effect of sod on trees, but that by the use of 
nitrogen that injurious' effect can be largely overcome. We have 
further learned that nearly all orchardists have been pruning all 
young trees too severely and thus delaying the time when the 
trees should be expected to bear profitable crops, and that sum- 
mer pruning does not stimulate f ruitfulness, but the reverse. We 
have also learned, with reasonable certainty, from experiments 
that alternate bearing of fruit trees cannot be prevented by thin- 
ning, and that thinning can be expected tO' be profitable only 
through the influence on the crop thinned, or through its effect 
on tlie growth of the tree. No reference is made to valuable con- 
tributions of field experiments in spraying because those have 
been made largely by plant pathologist or botanists and en- 
tomologists. 

We can be certain, however, that in the future field experi- 
ments will be of a different type. First the problems investigated 
will almost certainly be of a more limited nature. We shall 
hardly expect reports of experiments concerning such general 
problems as the relative value of tillage and the sod mulch. In 
tillage we should expect to see problems investigated as to the 



149 

value of continuous tillage through the summer, let us say until 
September, as compared with ceasing tillage as early as July first 
or even earlier. In fact, a study might very profitably be made 
as to whether or not any tillage after the spring plowing and 
leveling of the soil is profitable. Even more specific problems as 
to whether or not ceasing tillage in June or earlier in order to 
permit the growth of a heavy cover crop actually reduces the 
moisture supply in late summer, that is whether the increased 
humus supply may not, by increasing the water holding capacity 
of the soil, increase the water supply more than late cultivation 
would. We should also learn by field experiments whether, when 
for unavoidable reasons the spring plowing has been delayed until 
after the fruit has set, or failed to set, and the season's growth 
has nearly been made, it is better to plow it then or wait until 
the following spring. 

Similar, in the study of pruning, the relative value of specific 
types of pruning will probably be studied rather than such gen- 
eral problems as the relative value of much or little pruning, or 
summer and dormant pruning, though this last question can hard- 
ly be considered settled. Of even greater importance and re- 
quiring more detailed study is the problem as to the age of each 
kind and variety of fruit when for a given climate renewal prun- 
ing will begin to be profitable. 

Experiments in the field will also be done with very much 
more care than was thought necessary at the time the earlier field 
experiments were planned. These earlier field experiments have 
given us valuable results only because in the problems studied the 
differences were very large. As we narrow the problems down 
to questions involving more minute details of orchard practices we 
must so refine our experimental methods that smaller differences 
will be significant. Several methods of reducing experimental 
error suggest themselves. First, there should be several plots re- 
ceiving each treatment ; these plots being distributed evenly over 
the experimental area. Thus, Batchelor and Reed found that the 
probable error on i6 trees was but half as great when each treat- 
ment was given to 4 plots of 4 trees each (these plots being dis- 
tributed evenly over the experimental area) instead of to one plot 
of 16 trees. These authors found that there is little reduction in 
the experimental error by having more than 8 trees in the plot; 
the better plan is to have many small plots receiving each treat- 



150 

ment. Second, where trees of bearing age can be used in an ex- 
periment, perhaps the most important improvement in our ex- 
perimental method would be to give all of the experimental area 
uniform treatment for a period of two to four years, after which 
the different plots would receive the treatments called for in the 
plan of the experiment. The plots could then be so arranged 
that the average yield for each plot during this preliminary period 
would be nearly the same, or if the experiment should be one 
requiring symmetrical arrangement of the plots the average yield 
of each tree during this period may be used in estimating the 
probable yield afterward, if the treatment had not been varied, 
and therefore in estimating the increase or decrease in yield due 
to the treatment. Third, where the problem concerns young 
trees the error due to the variations in the soil could be greatly 
reduced by planting the trees closely so that the experimental plot 
could be smaller' and the possibility of introducing soil variations 
therefore smaller. By this method, too, the young trees could be 
dug up or cut off and weighted, or at least a part of them could 
be. It is not necessary to emphasize the fact that the weight of 
a tree is a much more accurate measurement of growth during a 
period of years than either trunk girth or twig measurements, 
this last being nearly worthless. 

It is highly probable, however, that an increasing proportion 
of the research with fruit trees in the future will be physiological 
studies, that is studies pursued in the hope of learning more about 
the fundamental nature of the tree itself, or of the fruit. The 
phase of pomology in which our knowledge is now growing most 
rapidly concerns the storage of fruits and these problems are now 
being solved largely by physiological methods. Thus, studies in 
the respiration of fruits and the chemical substances formed by 
respiration at different temperatures is of the greatest importance 
concerning the influence of storage temperatures on flavor. You 
may expect to see very few bulletins reporting simply results of 
various storage temperatures of fruits with no effort to explain 
how the temperature influenced the keeping. More fundamental 
details will be studied in order that the results may be more safely 
applied to different conditions. 

Such fundamental studies of the trees seem as necessary for 
safe conclusions as to cultural problems. The emphasis that 
Kraus and Kraybill give to the relation of carbo-hydrates and 



151 

nitrogen in the tissue is certain to interest many workers. We 
are interested to know what eiTect on fruit bud formation a high 
proportion of nitrogen with a low proportion of carbo-hydrates 
may have, and we shall want to know this for every portion of the 
growing period. Thus, we are learning that increasing the 
nitrogen content of the soil very seldom, or under practical condi- 
tion.s almost never, results in reducing fruitfulness when a period 
of several years is considered. It seems possible, however, that 
the proportion of nitrogen might be injuriously increased for a 
short period by indirect influences. Thus, let us say, the spring 
plowing of the orchard has been delayed until late in the period 
of rapid growth. The nitrogen supply being low until the plow- 
ing is done growth will be checked. The leaf surface of the trees 
will be reduced and, therefore, the possible carbo-hydrate supply. 
Then if the plowing is done and the nitrate and water supply 
increased, the available carbo-hydrate supply might tend to be ex- 
hausted or greatly reduced just at the time when seasonal con- 
ditions are most favorable for fruit bud formation. I do not 
say that this would happen, but it seems to be a possibility and I 
think that workers will continue to be interested in the carbo- 
hydrate nitrogen ratio until its possible influence through all 
cultural treatments upon all varieties is known. Probably many 
other physiological problems of the trees will have much atten- 
tion. Thus the rest period of the trees will have much more ex- 
tensive study. We want to know, not only its nature and the 
factors that influence it during the dormant season but, perhaps 
even more, its nature during the period after the terminal buds 
are formed and while the leaves are still active. We shall want 
to know just how difficult it is to take the plant out of the rest 
period during the late summer and what effect various treat- 
ments during that time may have. Thus, if nitrogen is applied 
after the tree has gone into the rest period, (that is into a condi- 
tion in which new top growth will not be stimulated by a favor- 
able water and nitrogen supply) what effect does that have upon 
the carbo-hydrate supply in the tree? If an increased nitrogen 
supply during the summer portion of the rest period does not 
stimulate top growth does it cause an increased root growth dur- 
ing the summer in which it is applied ? What effect does an in- 
creased nitrogen and water supply during that period have on 
the ripening of the wood? Is the rest period as fixed for cam- 



152 

bium as for the buds? These are specific examples out of many 
physiological problems that will engage the attention of the 
scientist in pomology'. 

It seems certain that the pomologist will come to view his 
problems more nearly from the point of view of the fundamental 
scientist and to attack them in that way. Both because of his 
need for a broader fund of knowledge to present to his students 
and because of his own inclination, he will be anxious to have 
as complete knowledge as possible concerning the nature and be- 
havior of his trees regardless of whether or not that knowledge 
may be of practical value. The fruit grower need not fear, how- 
ever, that such a change will mean less interest in his problems 
or less beneficial results. It is not possible to know what in- 
formation may prove to be of greatest practical value. Certainly, 
practical field experiments can be the more wisely planned, and 
more wisely interpreted, the greater the available supply of 
knowledge concerning the fundamental nature of the trees or 
plants. "The greatest contribution to the fruit grower, and prob- 
ably to the farmer generally, that has been made by the scientist, 
has been in the control of diseases and insects and this has been 
done by the botanist or the entomologist whose point of view 
was generally that of the scientist seeking the truth for sake of 
truth. It is becoming increasingly clear that only the highly 
trained scientist, who has come to seek the truth because truth 
to him is more worth seeking than anything else in the world, 
possesses the patience or the insight necessary to solve the dif- 
ficult and complicated problems of the fruit grower and the 
farmer. 



The President : This is a very stimulating paper looking 
to the future. Are there any questions ? 

W. C. Baird (Ashtabula, Ohio) : Speaking of the forma- 
tion of the bud, is it not formed early in the spring? 

Dr. W. H. Chandler: The bud may begin as early as 
June, but that same thing may not begin until September. There 
is a period from June to September in which the fruit bud forma- 
tion is beginning in the young buds. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: I have a question of the Constitution 
and By-laws now to bring to your attention. You must remem- 



153 ., 

ber that the Constitution of the American Pomological Society- 
runs back into the beginning of things so far as this organization 
is concerned, and we are now in our seventy-fourth year. With 
the changing standards it is only right that we should modify our 
Constitution and By-laws. Certain changes have been made the 
last two sessions and certain others, it seems to me, now need to 
be made. 

In Article VII of the Constitution as it now stands — Of- 
ficers and Executive Committee — the first paragraph reads as 
follows : 

"The officers of this organization shall consist of a 
President, first and second Vice-Presidents, one of 
which shall be from Canada ; Secretary-Treasurer and 
Executive Committee consisting of the President, first 
and second Vice-Presidents and seven additional mem- 
bers, six of whom shall constitute a quorum." 

You will notice that the four officers mentioned are not ex- 
officio members, they are real members of the Executive Com- 
mittee. The seven elected members are in addition to these four, 
so that there is an executive body of eleven members, and a ma- 
jority of six constitutes a quorum. This is too large a body to 
constitute a quorum. I do not think any national society could 
operate and work effectively on a basis of having to secure a 
quorum of six. You cannot get them together, particularly if the 
Executive Committee represents many parts of the country, as 
the present Executive Committee of this Society does. On the 
other hand, it is important that the Executive Committee should 
be large and representative. It does not follow, however, that 
the ad interim business of the Society should be handled by the 
full Executive Committee. The question is, shall the Executive 
Committee be reduced in numbers, or shall it increase its repre- 
sentative character, and shall the quorum be reduced to three or 
four? The members of the Executive Committee here present 
have discussed this question and they have a recommendation to 
make. 

They would like to make the Executive Committee some- 
what more representative by increasing its size. Instead of hav- 



154 

Ing seven members to be elected by the Society, there should be 
eleven, and the four officers — President, two Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretary-Treasurer — shall be members of the Executive 
Committee ex-officio, having a vote ; it shall be incumbent upon 
the Executive Committee to select a body of three from its 
number who shall carry the business incumbent on the Executive 
Committee, subject to the approval of the Committee. Probably 
it will not be difficult always tO' find three persons near enough to- 
gether so that the Secretary, sometimes the President, could meet 
with them. 

H. P. Gould : I move that Article VII of the Constitution 
be amended to read : The officers of this organization shall con- 
sist of a president ; first and second vice-president, one of whom 
shall be from Canada; a secretary-treasurer; and an executive 
committee which shall consist of eleven members and the officers 
ex-officio. The executive committee as soon as possible after 
election shall choose from among themselves a board of man- 
agers of three who shall conduct in the absence of the executive 
committee the ad interim business of the Society. Six shall con- 
stitute a quorum of the executive committee and two of the board 
of managers. 

(Motion seconded and carried) 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : There are one or two other matters in 
the By-laws that I should like to bring up. By-laws No. 5 reads : 

"A Chairman of Fruit Committees for each State, 
Territory and Province, and a General Chairman over 
all, shall be appointed annually. It shall be the duty of 
such Chairman to appoint four additional members of 
his committee, and with their aid and such information 
as he can procure, to forward to the General Chairman 
one month before each annual meeting, State Pomo- 
logical reports, to be condensed by him for publication." 

This goes back to the time when there was no reporting 
service, when there were no great State societies gathering in- 
formation, and no experiment stations or public service depart- 
ments for agriculture. At present, this method is antiquated. 
If we operated under it we would now have forty-eight State 
chairmen, the District of Columbia would make forty-nine, nine 



155 

Canadian provinces would make fifty-eight, to which four would 
be added. This is practically the same as the By-laws of 1854. 
It does not work ; so I would like to have this By-law stricken 
from the list. 

Prof. J. C. Bl.\ir (Illinois) : I move that the said By-law 
be stricken from the list. 

(Motion seconded and carried). 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: By-law No. 6 reads: 

"A Standing Committee on New Fruits of Ameri- 
can origin, consisting of eleven members, shall be ap- 
pointed by the President immediately after his election. 
It shall be the duty of this Committee to report annually 
on new fruits of American Origin, and also to examine, 
and before the close of the session to report on, all new 
seedling varieties that may be exhibited and to make 
an ad interim report on those that were exhibited in an 
unripe condition at the meeting of the Society, but had 
subsequently attained a state of maturity ; and on such 
other seedlings as may have been submitted to their 
inspection during the Society's vacation." 

Let me read you the Constitution of 1854. (Reads). We 
ought to have a Fruit Committee, but we are not doing business 
in the old way now, we do not have biennial sessions, and we 
are not concerned primarily with exhibiting varieties. What I 
should like to see here is the first line of this By-laws retained 
with a change in the number — the committee to consist of five, or 
three if you wish. 

C. H. Waid (Ohio) : I move that the change be made and 
that this committee be three instead of eleven. 
(Motion seconded and carried) 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: The seventh By-law reads: 

"A Standing Committee on Foreign Fruits, consist- 
ing of eleven members, shall be appointed, whose duties 
shall be similar to those of the committee in By-law 
six." 



156 

I will also read the Constitution of 1854. (Reads). The 
argument is the same here, and I think the same change should 
be made — the committee reduced to three. A committee of 
twelve members is likely to have four times the inertia of a com- 
mittee of three. This would also apply to By-law No. 8, and I 
think the Standing Committee on Tropical and Sub-tropical 
Fruits should consist of three members. 

Prof. J. C. Blair: I move that these By-laws be modified 
according to your statement. 

(Motion seconded and carried). 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : By-law No. 9 provides for "A Standing 
Committee on Nomenclature consisting of seven members." Inas- 
much as about an hour ago a committee of three was appointed, 
I would like to have this changed. 

Dr. C. a. Bingham : I so move. 

(Motion seconded and carried). 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: We are through with our program and 
are now ready to adjourn until six-thirty, when we will get to- 
gether for a feed at the Nicholas Building. That will be a meeting 
of the American Pomological Society and it will legally transact 
business. 



Adjournment until six-thirty. 



THURSDAY EVENING SESSION 

Following the supper in the dining room of the Chamber of 
Commerce, there was informal discussion. Dr. L. H. Bailey pre- 
siding. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : You will remember the committee re- 
ported on the President's Address, and I think this evening would 
be a good time to discuss it. Of course I do not know what part 
of the report you wish to discuss, but let us start in an informal 
way with whatever comment you wish to make. 

H. H. Hardie (Hudson, Michigan) : I think Mr. Crane- 
field has something of interest to tell us. 



157 

Mr. Frederic Cranefield: I felt in talking with some of 
the committee yesterday that the membership really ought to 
know what the Executive Committee had accomplished, or at- 
tempted to accomplish, during the past year. I hope you will 
pardon me if I go farther back tTian that. 

My mind goes back to the meeting of the American Pomo- 
logical Society held in St. Louis three or four years ago, at which 
time the Society was as near dead as could be. There was just a 
breath of life left in it, that was all. At that time the Society for 
Horticultural Science saved the day. A number of professional 
horticulturists were there in connection with the larger meeting 
— this is ancient history, but it leads up to the point I want to 
make. A meeting was called one evening and a number of these 
horticulturists were present — about fifty. Whether they were 
all members of the American Pomological Society I do not know ; 
but there was a re-organization, and some life breathed into 
this ancient and honorable American Pomological Society with 
tradition and history back of it, but not much life. The consti- 
tution was revised at that time, and later, as I recall it, Dr. Bailey 
was elected President and other officers and committees ap- 
pointed, one a committee to revise the constitution, and they re- 
vised that constitution to a f are-ye-well — did a lot of things to 
it, but as it transpires today, not quite enough, so we finished the 
job today and eliminated dead matter, etc. But the Society, 
through its Executive Committee, functioned fairly well the fol- 
lowing year. The committee met at least threei times in Colum- 
bus to discuss ways and means of making a bigger and better 
Pomological Society and we finally arrived at some conclusion 
about the things we w^anted to do — the things that should be 
done and could well be done by a Society of this kind. We were 
progressing step by step. 

Then came the meeting of the American Pomological Society 
at Columbus last year when we adopted the revised constitution 
as you have it today, providing for a working body and eliminat- 
ing the old Vice-President idea. 

But there was one thing always in the way, one stumbling 
block to our further progress. We could talk, and did talk, and 
then talked some more about things we wanted to do, that ought 
to be done, but we found no money with which to do these things 
and that was the greatest need of all. 



158 

Then followed the meeting in Chicago of the Executive 
Committee, and at that time it was thought to discuss the matter 
with the American Farm Bureau Federation to see what could 
be done in that regard, and it resulted in the calling of a con- 
ference of fruit growers from different parts of the whole coun- 
try to meet in Chicago under the auspices of the Farm Bureau 
Federation and financed by the Federation. At that time the 
American Pomological Society saw that through its Executive 
Committee it should pool its interests, as it were, with this new 
conference. That conference resulted in a committee of twenty- 
one being appointed by the Farm Bureau Federation to study and 
consider means and methods of marketing fruits, and it seems 
to me at this point that we should know rather definitely, if pos- 
sible, the scope of that committee's work — what the- committee 
intends to do, how far they expect to go in this question of col- 
lecting data and information concerning the marketing of fruit, 
before the American Pomological Society undertakes any work 
of that kind. 

That is as clear an outline as I can give of the things that 
have been done, or I might better say, the things that have been 
attempted in the past year by the officers and Executive Com- 
mittee of the American Pomological Society. 

H. H. Hardie (Michigan) : I would like to supplement 
what Mr. Cranefield has said by saying that at the time of this 
meeting in Chicago we had almost decided to take up this ques- 
tion of marketing American fruits ourselves ; but the farther we 
got into it the more we saw that it was too big a proposition and 
we were afraid of starting something that we could not finish, 
so when the Farm Bureau came along and took the matter out 
of our hands we were very glad because we felt it was too much 
of a job for us. 

As I understand it, the American Pomological Society, up 
to the time Mr. Cranefield mentions, was largely a society of ex- 
perimenters, who no doubt did a very good work in this way ; 
but I have come to the belief that unless this Society can make 
itself of real value to the fruit growers of the country we will 
have missed our opportunity. In other words, this American 
Pomological Society is handed over to us with a very good 
reputation, but it is liable to be like the girl coming over from 
Ireland if we don't watch out. 



159 

This girl was coming over, and on the same steamer was art 
old man from her home town. He asked her if she expected 
anybody to meet her, and she said she did not, but that she had 
a good recommendation, only she had lost it — could not find it 
anywhere. This man said, "Don't let that worry you, I'll write 
you another," and this is what he wrote. "Mary Hogan when 
she left Ireland had a good reputation, but she lost it on the 
way over." 

We do not want to lose our reputation "on the way over," 
and I do not think it will be necessary. I think we can make this 
American Pomological Society of real worth. But I am more of 
a business man than a fruit grower. I play with fruit and suflfer 
with my business. But there is one thing that we all know — 
that the first thing you must have is money. You figure how 
much you want, how much you might need, then multiply it by 
ten — and then you will not have enough. 

The next thing we must have is organization. That is al- 
most as necessary as money. 

The next thing is business, and then you have a successful 
going concern. These are the three things we must have. This 
is a business organization. We must have capital, organization 
and business. The capital is pretty hard to get. If everybody is 
as poor as I am it will be very hard to get. However, the money 
can be raised in some way. The Rex Spray Company has been 
very generous to do what they have just done. No doubt the 
spray pump manufacturers will do what they can ; no doubt the 
package men and nurseries will do something; but suppose they 
did ofifer to pay all the expenses of the American Pomological 
Society — a paid secretary and all that — it would not be a suc- 
cess. It will never be a success until you get a membership. 

We were talking a minute ago about how many fruit grow- 
ers there are in the United States. One man said 100,000, an- 
other said 500,000, and another 800,000. Suppose there were 
500.000, do you know how many members we have? We have 
less than a thousand. That is not enough. My idea of the 
business is that you first of all must have money, and still you 
must have something that will sell, you must be able to give a 
man his money's worth, and if I know anything about fruit grow- 
ing I know that you have to give him about ten dollars' worth 
for two dollars. And I think we can do it. I think this Ameri- 



i6o 

can Pomological Society can gather statistics and information 
that the fruit grower needs «and which will be worth ten dollars 
to him, and sell it for two dollars. Of course you have to have 
money to start with, but I think you can get these allied indus- 
tries to furnish enough money to put on a campaign to get mem- 
bership; but the fruit growers must be the fellows to support 
this organization, and not the allied industries. What we need is 
not so much the fruit grower's money, as his membership and his 
interest. That is my plan to make the American Pomological 
Society worth while to the fruit growers. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: Are there any further discussions? Do 
you wish to say anything about this report of the committee? 
Of course that is not particularly before you, except that it was 
suggested on the floor today that we might discuss it tonight. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene: I believe Mr. Gould, the chair- 
man of that committee, had about ten points in the report, and 
I am wondering if it would not be a good thing to have him state 
what these ten points are that the committee recommended in 
connection with the President's Address. 

H. P. Gould: In the first place, the report was adopted as 
<-' whole. The first thing that was presented and which might 
call for discussion had already been touched upon — that of a 
full-time paid secretary. The committee commented on this as 
an essential feature and its recommendation was that the Execu- 
tive Committee be especially charged with the matter of securing 
funds so that a full-time paid secretary may be employed. 
Whether you desire to discuss that further or not is of course 
the point to be decided. 

May I say, however, in this connection, that the reason why 
the committee suggested that it be left to the Executive Commit- 
tee was because of the fact that we knew the Executive Commit- 
tee had given quite a little attention to this very thing during the 
past year, at least to the matter of raising funds, and a full-time 
paid secretary can be easily arranged for if we have the funds. 
Feeling that the Executive Committee had that matter in hand 
and that they knew the situation better than any special com- 
mittee could know it, and also that they appreciate the need prob- 
ably more keenly than the average member of the Society, and 
further that they had given some attention to this matter of se- 
curing funds, we felt it would be wise to have this matter remain 



i6i 

in the hands of the Executive Committee as their job, or a part 
of their job. Perhaps some of you have a hundred thousand 
dollars that you wish to endow the Society with, or you may 
know someone who is making his will and would like to do that 
sort of thing. 

This is the recommendation of the committee. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : That has been the trend of the Execu- 
tive Committee meetings for the past two years, and while direct 
progress does not seem to have been made, as a matter of fact 
many plans have been investigated and we know some of the 
things that will not succeed. It requires some years to get these 
things started. I am not discouraged, although I had hoped we 
would have an endowment before this. But of course we want 
the opinion of the audience just the same. 

H. P. Gould : The second point had to do with the work 
of the Secretary as that office is now constituted, the suggestions 
being based on the President's reference in his address to our 
appreciation of the work of the Secretary. We know the Secre- 
tary is busy with his work, the work of Secretary being simply 
an added burden. With the issue of the monthly or bi-monthly 
letter, which I think has been definitely adopted as a part of the 
regular work of the Secretary, it seems to the committee that the 
Secretary'-s office is being pretty well loaded up with work which 
has to be done as a voluntary contribution to the Society, so our 
recommendation was "that a committee be provided to assist the 
Secretary, as he may direct, in the preparation of material for 
the monthly or bi-monthly letter to members, and in other ways. 
This recommendation in part anticipates one in the latter part 
of the President's Address where he suggests the appointment by 
the Society of advisors to the Secretary on publicity, consumption, 
planting, marketing, cooperation, affiliation, etc. These two 
features — advisors and special assistants — may well be con- 
sidered together." 

It is a question of providing a committee, or some other con- 
stituted body, as a means of assisting and advising the Secretary 
in carrying on the work of which he has charge. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: May I say a word in this connection? 
Of course we want the Secretary to be paid a sufficient salary to 
make it attractive, and so that it will be a permanent matter. 

11 



i6^ 

Just now we have not the funds for that. We are fortunate to 
have a Secretary who is wilHng to carry on this work for a year 
without remuneration . on his part, and I think if we had a 
thousand dollars extra the Secretary could carry on his work and 
the other work fairly effectively, because a young woman has 
been trained this year who can take care of part of this corre- 
spondence. The Secretary reported that they sent out 12,000 
pieces of mail this last year, and that is no small matter. The 
young woman who has been helping in this work would be avail- 
able and a good part of this routine work could be put directly 
into her hands, under the general supervision of the Secretary, 
so that it would not be so much of a burden to the Secretary as 
you might think at first hand. Of course the management of all 
this does add to his work, but he is willing to assume it if it 
means that this Society is a going concern. If we had about one 
thousand dollars in addition to what we had last year it would 
enable us to employ the necessary help. 

The other suggestion is that we have a series of advisors, 
and inasmuch as there has been some question as to the status of 
these advisors, let me explain what was in my mind when making 
the suggestion in the first place. I did not think of having an 
ofifiicial body in any way competing with the Executive Commit- 
tee. These were not to be officers of the Society, but my idea was 
that certain members would be designated as advisors to the 
Secretary. Suppose he is getting information on markets, some 
particular person in the Society "who is skilled in that direction 
he would feel free to call upon for help and advice ; and on the 
other hand, that person would feel free to offer his advice with- 
out being asked directly. The Secretary may follow the advice 
or he may not. In putting on a publicity campaign as to the con- 
sumption of fruit there would be some person who has had 
special training in that direction, who may be publicity agent for 
some concern, or advertising man, who knows the way to reach 
the people, and the Secretary would call on him for advice ; but 
that man could freely offer advice without being called on. 

And so on the question of relationships, I had in mind to 
help the Secretary, not to burden him. It would safeguard him 
also against mistakes which might be made in the office, and he 
would not feel that all the responsibility is on him. There could 
be as many advisors as there are subjects to be considered, and 



i63 

certainly in every field there would be someone who could offer 
his advice to the Secretary with great benefit. 

H. P. Gould : In this connection I would like to call atten- 
tion to the fact that we adopted the President's recommendations 
as our program, so we are simply commending this sort of thing. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: We commended this when we adopted 
the report of the committee, but no procedure has been taken 
whereby these advisors are to be appointed or elected. For my- 
self, I should prefer that they be chosen from the membership 
by the members from the floor. If there are any suggestions to 
the contrary it might be well to think upon the matter over night 
and tomorrow take it up and call for names. This is not su com- 
mittee — they are simply advisors to the Secretary on whom he 
can call. 

C. W. Baxter: It might be interesting to the members to 
know that we in Canada have been seriously considering some- 
thing along similar lines. As I mentioned this afternoon, we 
have periodically called a Dominion conference of fruit growers. 
They are invited as guests of the Government, and we term it a 
Fruit Growers' Parliament. They are free to criticize the action 
of the Department, and to adopt resolutions having to do with 
the various activities, and I think I am safe in saying that every 
resolution adopted at any of these conferences has been acted 
upon by our Government. We have felt that there is need for a 
national organization. At the conference in December the matter 
was considered, but no definite action taken beyond electing a 
provisional Board of Directors, and many difficulties were over- 
come at that time, but evidently this Board of Directors did not 
feel it necessary to proceed. We have made great advance since 
that time and we believe that there is great power in numbers. 
If we have something we wish to present to the House of Com- 
mons in the way of legislation we like to have behind that all 
the force of the industry in Canada. 

I happen to have in my pocket just a rough draft — this 
thing has not been presented to our people — but I put this in my 
pocket with the hope of being able to discuss it with some of my 
confreres in the Provincial Government. We have put down as 
the name, the Canadian Fruit Council. 

I was interested in what Mr. Hardie said as a business man 
— that you must have something to sell. This is what our pro- 



i64 

posed Fruit Council would have to sell and the things they hope 
to attain. 

"The object of the Fruit Council shall be the advancement 
of all matters tending to the improvement of the fruit industry 
in Canada, including production, grading, packing, transportation, 
storage, marketing, etc., (a) by initiating, fostering and assist- 
ing in obtaining such legislation and regulations as will be bene- 
ficial to the industry; (b) by emphasizing through inter-provin- 
cial cooperation the importance of the fruit industry and ob- 
taining for it the position it deserves as an important branch of 
agriculture." 

We feel that we have not had in the past the recognition 
that the industry deserves. The product has been considered a 
luxury, a highly specialized industry, and we feel that it is es- 
sential to the welfare of the nation and the people. We also feel 
that the few deaths during the Great War was due largely to the 
fact that fruit was plenty at all times. We hope to have greater 
recognition. 

"By encouraging the greater distribution of fruit and by 
systematic advertising to educate the general public as to the food 
value of fruit. 

"By encouraging the adoption of uniform grading and pack- 
ing regulations. 

"By cooperating with the railroad, express and steamship 
companies in securing the best possible facilities for transporta- 
tion and a just equalization of charges. 

"By cooperating with any agency working in a national way 
for the improvement of marketing methods and for a most equit- 
able distribution of the fruit crop. 

"By carrying on any undertaking which may seem to the 
Council should be carried on in the furtherance of this business." 

These are our ideas, in rough form. As to the members of 
the Council we feel that a big committee would be burdensome 
and less effective than a smaller one, and we propose that this 
Canadian Fruit Council shall consist of thirteen representatives. 
Eight of these shall be producers of fruit; two dealers in fruit; 
one representing the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta ; one the remaining provinces ; one a manufacturer of 
fruit packages, one a nurseryman, and one a representative of 
the canning and jam industry. Of the eight producers two shall 



i65 

be from the Province of British Columbia, two from Ontario, one 
from Quebec, one from New Brunswick and Prince Edward's 
Island, and two from Nova Scotia. 

Then we have our constitution and by-laws, which are much 
the same as any commercial organization. 

The question of finances was taken up and we have this out- 
lined. In order that the Canadian Fruit Council shall secure 
funds sufficient to carry on its work each association or interest 
represented shall pay to the treasurer of the Council on February 
1st of each year the sum of $ioo for each representative so ap- 
pointed, and each interest such as package manufacturers, nurs- 
erymen, etc., shall be assessed one-tenth of one per cent, of its 
annual turn-over, such assessment to be paid to the treasurer of 
the Council. 

These were our ideas as to how we might promote an or- 
ganization of this kind. It is not new. We have our dairy in- 
dustry working along similar lines. We do not know yet how 
we will succeed, but we are hopeful. 

H. H. Hardie: How much do you figure your program will 
cost you a year? 

C. W. Baxter : We have not figured that yet, but not less 
than $10,000. W^e figure we cannot hope to make the organiza- 
tion successful without an active and efficient secretary, and we 
would have to pay him $4,000 to $5,000 a year. 

M. B. David (Ontario) : The Dairy Council has $12,000 
to $14,000. The first year they had their meeting someone guar- 
anteed $10,000, but that was not enough. 

H. H. Hardie : I do not know how the fruit production in 
Canada compares with the United States, but it certainly is less 
than one-fourth. They over there are starting out with a proposi- 
tion that costs them $10,000, and we are trying to handle the 
United States for $1,000 or some such small sum. You cannot 
do it. This organization ought to have five thousand members, 
say at $2.00 a year, that would be $10,000. That is a conserva- 
tive mark. I believe we can do it. I believe we can get five 
thousand members, and we ought to have them. We must have 
a sufficient proportion of the fruit growers of America to cut 
some figure and give us a voice in matters of legislation if we 
expect to accomplish anything. 



i66 

M. B. Davis: Last night while we were discussing the re- 
port of the committee we discussed the question which you 
handed over to your Farm Bureau, the question of fruit packages, 
and it seemed to me that that was one place where this Society 
should be functioning. We should act as a national mouthpiece 
for every fruit growers' organization in the United States. It 
struck me that that was what this Society should do — get all the 
fruit growers' associations together and have the Society become 
partically a delegate Society, a national Society to act on matters 
of national import for all the fruit growers in the United States, 
and certainly the subject of packages is not only of national, but 
international, importance, as Doctor Bailey pointed out this after- 
noon. I think that work which has been handed over to the 
twenty-one members of the Farm Federation is something that 
ought to come back to this Society as soon as we can get under 
way. If you can function on that then you will have some reason 
for existence, but unless you can function as a national or an in- 
ternational organization representing' the interests of all the fruit 
growers, I do not see any line of endeavor that this organization 
can really take unto itself. I think when you let that one thing 
slip through your hands you missed an opportunity. 

C. H. Waid (Toledo, Ohio) : No doubt this matter will 
come up tomorrow in connection with Mr. Farnsworth's report, 
but I think perhaps a word here might be in place. As I under- 
stand, the relationship that will exist between the American Farm 
Bureau and this organization will be something like this — that 
this organization will recommend things they want to see put 
through, such as certain rules covering packages, etc., to the 
American Farm Bureau because it can be of greater service, hav- 
ing such a large membership back of it, in securing Congressional 
action. I believe the two organizations can work together in that 
capacity, but I agree with Mr. Davis that it is well for this or- 
ganization tO' be the mouthpiece for the fruit growers and indicate 
their wishes along such lines. 

T. B. West (Perry, Ohio) : It is just suggested to me that 
the nurserymen should get into this game. Our hearts are with 
you and we wish you well — even if you do intimate that we 
charged you too much for trees the last year or two. Our in- 
terests are identical with those of the fruit growers in this coun- 
try. I think an appeal to the nurserymen of the country to give 



i67 

a little publicity in their literature, in catalogs that are sent out, 
appealing to their customers and patrons to become members of 
this Society, would be a good thing, and I believe the nurserymen 
would respond heartily to the suggestion. I think it would be a 
practical way of getting in touch with a great many fruit growers 
of the country. 

Paul C. Stark : I do not know whether Mr. West was at 
the meeting in Chicago of the American Association of Nursery- 
men, but they went on record last year at that meeting as being 
in favor of boosting the American Pomological Society in every 
way possible, trying to get all their members to become members 
of the American Pomological Society, because they realized what 
it meant to the nursery industry indirectly. Anyone who heard 
the paper I read for President Cashman will realize that this 
association is receiving help from them. 

There is one thing that Mr. Hardie mentioned, and some- 
thing similar came up in one of the executive meetings, and that 
is the fact that you must show your prospective members that 
they are going to get some real benefit out of this organization — ■- 
far more than two dollars' worth. I am a nurseryman, and also 
an orchardist. I have a young orchard coming on, and I am 
vitally interested in everything that shows new development in 
the orchard field. We have forty-eight States and there are ex- 
periment stations in every State, more in the agricultural colleges, 
and besides that we have our big departments of agriculture that 
are continually putting out bulletins ; but of the 500,000 fruit 
growers there are very few who really have an opportunity to 
see what is coming out of these experiment stations, colleges and 
departments of agriculture. They are busy men and it is hard to 
get these bulletins, and they are too busy to read the bulletins when 
they do get them. That will bring up a point we discussed this 
afternoon. We should, as a national organization, be the mouth- 
piece of the fruit growers of America, and if these bulletins and 
articles giving the experiments that are being carried on through 
the country could be condensed in this monthly bulletin, maybe 
just a summary of the different articles and bulletins, it would be 
invaluable to the orchardist and he would have time to read it — 
and would read it. That is one of the things we can sell to the 
fruit growers and show them they cannot get along without this 
information. There are a good many more similar activities, but 



i68 

that is one thing that would interest me very much as an or- 
chardist and it would take more than ten dollars a year to keep 
that away from me. I think the more publicity we can get from 
nurserymen and spray manufacturers and other manufacturers 
sending out little pamphlets giving the advantages of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society, the more members we will get. Speak- 
ing for the nurserymen, I think they will be glad to do everything 
in their power to get this information to the fruit growers and 
get more members. I think there is a fertile field. 

H. H. Hardie: It goes without saying that the manufac- 
turers of sprayers, of packages, the nurserymen and all the allied 
industries would be very glad to send out circulars of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society and do all they can to promote the inter- 
ests of the Society, and we can do a lot, because there are 
thousands of pieces of mail sent out every day by the allied in- 
dustries. But the question that strikes me is. What are we going 
to do with this Society. Are we going to be satisfied with 500 
members paying $2.00 a year, getting along with a Secretary 
who is over-worked and getting nothing, or are we going to try 
to make a healthy, useful organization? It seems to me we ought 
to set a mark and work to it. 

F. P. Downing (Indiana) : If you are going to make a 
campaign for membership you must do as the manufacturer does 
when he goes after business — you must use a follow-up system. 
You must get right out and dig for these members. They will 
not come to you. It seems to me if we could have the proper 
machinery for distributing these letters and making a direct ap- 
peal to the fruit growers and the allied industries, there is no 
doubt but what we could get a membership of five thousand, or 
even ten thousand. 

Speaking for the package manufacturers, this is^the first time 
I ever had an opportunity to attend a meeting of this organiza- 
tion, and I doubt whether there are a half dozen of the fruit 
package men in this country who know of this organization. We 
have a national organization, we have a paid secretary and a paid 
traffic manager. Our secretary gets out a bi-weekly letter, and I 
know he would be glad to call attention to the objects of this 
Society — I know that will be done. When I go back I intend to 
make a report and I know something of what this Society stands 
for. We have in the neighborhood of 1,200 members in our or- 



169 

ganization — there are probably 400 or 500 package manufac- 
turers in this country, and if they knew what this Society stands 
for I have no doubt they would be glad to join and lend you 
their moral and financial support. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : These expressions are certainly very en- 
couraging. These matters have been discussed by the Executive 
Committee and at least one man has been sending out literature. 
Let me call your attention to the Secretary's report, showing that 
something has been done in this direction, although it is very 
small compared with what ought to be done — twelve thousand 
pieces of mail last year. The Secretary did not take his office 
until after the meeting last year, so some work has been done 
along this line. Biit just such ofifers as have been made here will 
be of immense help. 

V. H. Davis (Ohio) : It seems to me that Mr. Hardie has 
well stated the case. We must have something to sell people 
before we can start with a program, and after that it is largely a 
matter of financing. It has occurred to me. however, that if we 
go before the fruit growers with a two-dollar program we will 
get a two-dollar response. It would seem to me, too, that we 
ought to be able to learn something from the experience of the 
Farm Bureau people during the last year or to^ and also from 
the commercial clubs of the various cities during the last ten or 
fifteen years — that when the membership dues have been made 
worth while and a program that is worth while attempted, 
the result has been that the membership has rapidly increased in 
spite of the increased dues and something worth while has been 
done. We all know that the Farm Bureau has gotten immeasur- 
ably farther with the $10.00 program than they could ever have 
gotten with the $1.00 program, as they started out. As we all 
know, it is a powerful organization, and it is because it is properly 
financed. It would seem to me that if the fruit growers of this 
country are not sufficiently interested to put $5.00 into this or- 
ganization, then I do not think it will ever be successful on a 
$2.00 basis. I do not care whether we have one hundred mem- 
bers or ten thousand, the principle will be the same. I believe we 
will be much more likely to get ten thousand members at $5.00, 
or even $10.00, than on the $2.00 basis. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : It is to be remembered that we lose 
money on every membership if we are to put on the program we 



170 

have outlined. The annual report, these monthly or bi-monthly 
letters, the fruit catalog — the mere cost of printing and compil- 
ing costs more than $2.00, and the more members you have the 
more money you lose from that point of view but of course it 
enables you to get money elsewhere, and we want all the mem- 
bers we can get. But from the financial point of view we cannot 
make it work out, so tliere must be other funds aside from the 
membership dues, which are not very high. 

B. G. Pratt (New York) : May I ask whether a regular 
prospectus has ever been gotten out for the Pomological Society? 
As Mr. Hardie says, we must have something to sell and we must 
tell people what we have to sell. So many people have said they 
do not know anything about the American Pomological Society. 
When we start in a new business we lay out a prospectus of 
what we expect to give for value received. If we ask $2.00, or 
$5.00, or even ^10.00, we should be able to tell the general public, 
intelligently and as briefly as possible, what the American Pomo- 
logical Society proposes to give them. 

I want to second what has been said by other manufacturers, 
that we will take pleasure in circulating any amount of literature 
in regard to the American Pomological Society that they will 
furnish. We will see that it gets into the hands of the fruit grow- 
ers, for we believe there is a wide field of usefulness for this 
society. 

Another thing occurs to me — would it not be proper to have 
a member of the American Pomological Society present at every 
one of our horticultural society meetings once a year to let them 
know what the American Pomological Society is and what it 
stands for. In that way we might be able to get the cooperation 
of every horticultural society in the country, which we should 
have. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : Mr. Pratt asks about a prospectus. We 
have a prospectus this year setting forth the aims and objects of 
the Society and the basis of membership. The Secretary sent out 
8,000 this year and I sent out several thousand myself last year. 
That was a beginning. 

With respect to the appeal to the different societies, we had 
last year one man who was to look after that phase of the work, 
Prof. Shaw of Maryland, and in the report of Secretary Lake 
you will find an account of his activities and the result thereof. 



171 

We have had the American Pomological Society presented at a 
number of these meetings. The difficulty is to find means to pay 
the expenses of the man sent there, and persons who have been 
members of the American Pomological Society in times past, un- 
less they have been in touch with the meetings recently, are really 
not able to represent the Society. Correspondence has been had 
this year between the Secretary and the President's office as to 
the persons who would represent the Society at subsequent meet- 
ings, but we could not find those persons, and we have not the 
funds. Mr. Cruickshank has represented us this year at the 
Michigan meeting, so the work has already been begun, but the 
importance of it has been well emphasized by Mr. Pratt and I 
wish we had a membership on which we could call and the money 
to pay their expenses. We cannot send anyone to California, but 
if there was someone in active association with that society he 
could speak for us. But if we had a member who was in touch 
with the Society ten or fifteen years ago he would not be thor- 
oughly acquainted with the progress we have made up to the 
present time. 

Paul C. Stark : Mr. Davis brought out the point of in- 
creasing the dues. I wonder if it would not be a good idea to 
hear from some of the members present as to what they think of 
that proposition. Of course some times it is inadvisable to in- 
crease dues, but it might be well to discuss that, for if we could 
get as many members at $5.00 as we have at $2.00 it would give 
us a whole lot more money. I do not know but what he is right, 
that we might get more members if we put out a good strong 
prospectus as to what we will give the people. 

H. H. Hardie: I think what the President said is germane 
to this matter. He says we will lose money by going on with 
what we have been giving for $2.00. If we are selling something 
for $2.00 and losing money, we must first find if we cannot cut 
our cost, and if not, then raise the price. 

Prof. J. C. Blair (Illinois) : I have been a member of the 
American Pomological Society for twenty-nine years. I think 
I attended the first meeting in December, 1892, and at that meet- 
ing and at subsequent meetings we have had some of the finest 
people on the North American continent to speak to us ; but 
throughout all these years we have run the institution on a cheap 
plan. It has been said here that it is a $10.00 program, then why 



172 

do we go along on a cheap scale. Why do we not, as business 
men, put the American Pomological Society on a steady, working, 
going basis, financing it in the way it should be. Let us make it 
at least a $5.00 proposition. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: The membership fee was only $1.00 for 
about seventy years, and two years ago when it was raised to 
$2.00 many persons questioned whether that could be carried. If 
you want to make it $5.00 I will support it, but there are some 
fruit growers who are not interested in the sale of commodities 
and therefore might not receive any greater benefit. Of course 
there are many fruit growers who will pay $5.00. 

W. S. Perrine (Illinois) : It seems to me we ought to pay 
$10.00 rather than $5.00. I belong to an organization in Illinois 
where the annual membership is $20.00, and if we can pay $20.00 
to a State organization we ought to pay $10.00 to an international 
organization like the American Pomological Society. So I am 
strongly in favor of putting it up to $5.00, and more in favor of 
making it $10.00. 

R. A. Simpson (Indiana) : I am like Mr. Perrine and Pro- 
fessor Blair — I would rather see it a $10.00 proposition than 
$2.00. I would feel I was more likely to get my money's worth 
than at $2.00. We would not spend so much time on how to 
finance the Society, and have more time to put on the best pro- 
gram we could get. 

Prof. W. S. Brock (Urbana, Illinois) : I am a fruit grower 
and belong to the same association Mr. Perrine speaks of, and we 
pay $20.00 for the privilege of sitting in the meeting each year, 
and I believe I have an opportunity to get more information than 
nine-tenths of the men who belong to the association, because 
of the fact that I belong to the experiment station and college. 
But I think between now and January ist I can deliver 100 mem- 
bers into the American Pomological Society at anything under 
$20.00. I will guarantee to deliver that many. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : Who will agree to deliver another 
hundred ? 

W. C. Reed (Indiana) : I have been a member of the 
American Pomological Society for over thirty years and possibly 
I have missed two or three years in that time. I really never felt 
I got a great deal out of it except the meetings I attended. But 
if you are going to put on anything like the program mentioned 



I 



173 

I think you will get a great many more members at $10.00 than 
at $2.00. I would glady give $10.00 a year if you carry out the 
program outlined. 

Gail T. Abbott (Medina, Ohio) : I am not a fruit grower 
and anything I would do or say would be representing the fer- 
tilizer interests, but I do not think there is any question as far as 
they are concerned that they would back any program that has 
been mentioned so far. I think if we stick anywhere it will be 
with the individual growers. I do not 'think there is any question 
about the allied interests. 

Dr. L. H. Bailfa- : Of course we do want this to be a grow- 
ers' society and those who are interested in the production and 
sale of fruit, not all the others who are accessory thereto. Are 
there any growers here who wish to say anything? 

Mr. Landfear (Ashtabula, Ohio) : While I may appear to 
be one of the older members of the Society, I am one of the 
youngest, for I have just paid my two dollars, and when I did 
so I wondered how in the world they could afiford to run an or- 
ganization of this kind for two dollars. The first thought was 
that they could not give much for $2.00. But I feel, while I am 
the youngest member, that the dues should not be less than $5.00. 
or even $10.00. 

C. H. Waid (Ohio) : I am a grower, as well as interested 
in other activities. I have watched the movements of the Ameri- 
can State Farm Bureaus very closely and have been much im- 
pressed by the fact that the men who refused to give one dollar 
for membership in that organization gladly gave ten dollars. I 
have also watched the development of other organizations of a 
national character such as this, and I find the most of them have 
more difficulty on the small fee basis. In view of the fact that 
this organization has not been able to get a membership on a small 
fee it seems to me it would be wise to attempt a larger fee. I 
do not know whether it is in order or not, but I like to see action, 
and I am ready to move that it is the sense of this gathering that 
the fee of this organization be placed at $10.00. I am willing to 
increase mine up to that amount. 

(Motion second.) 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : That is a radical change, one that it 
would be well to consider with care. This body here represents 



174 

a rather selected group. What about the other five hundred that 
are elsewhere ? What effect will it have on them, not feeling the 
impulse of the meeting here? I am not opposed to this, but you 
must consider it on all sides. The Society has agreed that this 
shall not be a trade organization, and the higher fees are those 
that are particularly applicable to trade organizations which are 
engaged particularly in buying and selling and in combating other 
enterprises which have direct relation thereto. 

This motion is before you now — a motion to increase the 
membership fee from $2.00 to $10.00. 

W. H. Lloyd (Cleveland, Ohio) : I believe if we could even 
find the money to finance a permanent secretary for six months, 
he would be able to show results such that there would be no 
question as to where the money is coming from. 

H. G. Ingerson (Ohio) : I have been using my pencil, and 
I figure that we have at least thirty State organizations and if we 
had thirty-five men out of each of these organizations it would 
give us one thousand members, which at $10.00 each would give 
us some money to start on. I believe that in Ohio we can get 
thirty-five men, and if Michigan would do the same, and the other 
States, we would have something as a start. 

H. H. Hardie : I think I can guarantee to get one hundred 
men in Michigan at $10.00 each. 

B. G. Pratt: I am a life member of the American Pomo- 
logical Society, and I think there are enough right here to put up 
$100 for life memberships to guarantee that this will go through. 
I will be one of those. 

Prof. W. Paddock (Ohio State University) : It strikes me 
that the people who are doing most of the talking in favor of 
$10.00 are either manufacturers or nurserymen — they are not 
fruit growers or college men. Of course the college men could 
pay $10.00, for they get wonderful salaries, but I have been won- 
dering whether a ten-dollar fee would not be pretty severe on the 
great bulk of fruit growers who are in moderate circumstance 
and have moderate incomes. Rather than have a limited mem- 
bership would it not l)e better to have an organization that would 
appeal to the whole fruit growing fraternity of the continent? It 
strikes me that way. 

Then again, the American Pomological Society, to tell the 
naked truth, has not amounted to a whole lot in the last fifteen 



175 

years. I do not feel that we have gotten a great deal out of it. 
Perhaps I am behind the times, but I did not get here until late 
this afternoon and I have not heard any declaration of principles 
as to what you are going to give these people for their ten dollars. 
If I am too late it might be a good thing to hash that over. 

I can imagine where this Society might be worth a whole lot 
more than ten dollars, but if we are going to interest a lot of Ohio 
growers that I would like to see interested in this scheme, friends 
of mine, I can tell you that to the man who had a big crop a year 
ago and did not get anything out of it and did not have any crop 
this year, ten dollars is a pretty good-sized lump of money to put 
into something that they are not sure will benefit them. I do 
not like to throw cold water, but it strikes me that ten dollars is 
pretty steep. 

Prof. L. H. Taft (Michigan) : I hardly know how we can 
handle this question. I have had the experience of taking in the 
memberships for a number of years, and I recall that at St. Louis 
a few years ago some ten men there pledged one hundred members 
from their States at $2.00. We have not received one hundred 
members altogether, even at two dollars. It is a question of what 
we can furnish the members in return for their fees. If we can 
make it worth while to become a member at $10.00, we can bring 
it up to that fee. Many of our members are paying $10.00 a 
year for Farm Bureau membership and I think they would feel it 
pretty heavy to be asked to pay ten dollars here. If, however, we 
can show them another year that it is worth ten dollars, I think 
we can get it. 

Paul C. Stark: When I asked for discussion of Mr. Davis' 
discussion I had in mind that it would be a good thing to have a 
larger fee — as large a one as we could get by with and get in a 
good many members. Mr. Pratt has said he would take a life 
membership at $100, and speaking for our company I will make 
it another $100, and I think quite a number of the allied industries 
will do the same things That will help to finance the thing for a 
while, but I believe it would be a mistake to make the dues $10.00 
right now, although I am in favor of $10.00 next year. I believe 
$5.00 would come nearer to holding the orchardists, and then let 
as many of the allied industries and larger orchard men take out 
life memberships. That will give us quite a little money to begin 
with. 



176 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: Will you read the concluding recom- 
mendation of the ten made in my address yesterday morning? 

H. P. Gould : The tenth recommendations is : "That we 
here and now raise a supplementary fund, above the usual income 
of the Society, to put through the new work. > Are there twenty 
persons and firms ready to contribute fifty dollars each? The 
contribution would be charged to the advertising appropriation of 
the firm. Or are there ten persons and firms who will contribute 
fifty dollars, and twenty who will contribute twenty-five dollars? 
Or are there one hundred who will give ten dollars." 

The President : I want to call your attention to a phase of 
this situation which has not been mentioned. We are here as com- 
mercial fruit growers, but we have taken action already in this 
convention to interest the amateur by trying to increase the plant- 
ing of fruit in all areas where it is possible for the purpose of 
increasing the home-making value of growing fruits. If we are 
to do that it means appealing to the amateur as well as to the 
commercial man. Will he pay ten dollars ? 

C. H. Waid: In view of the fact that I made the motion I 
would like to say that I had in mind that it was a radical step. I 
also had this in mind, that there would be certain ones who would 
pay this fee and perhaps get the organization on a good financial 
basis. However, I can see plainly that it might have a tendency 
to keep some of the smaller men out, although the one dollar 
and two dollar fees have kept out ninety-nine out of one hundred 
so far. So if this Society thinks it better to have this $10.00 
membership made a little donation, leaving the present fee as it is, 
that would be perfectly satisfactory. I will be willing tO' with- 
draw my motion. My idea was that if we could get enough 
money to put the Society on a good financial basis we could show 
the small growers that it isl worth while to come in. 

H. H. Hardie : We have a resolution, duly passed, leaving 
the financing of this organization to the Executive Committee, It 
seems to me the Executive Committee can get after these allied 
industries and get the money. I think it is up to the members 
here to fix the fee, but the plan of raising money as I understand 
it is left to the Executive Committee. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: That was the action of the convention. 



177 

H. H. Hardie: If Mr. Waid has withdrawn his motion I 
move that the annual fee be five dollars. 

(Motion seconded.) 

- Dr. L. H. Bailey : The Secretary has whispered in my ear 

i — suppose the fee was ten dollars and the Secretary was not able 
to deliver ten dollars worth? But the larger question is as to the 
purposes of this Society. I think the fee ought to be raised, if 
not this year another year. I am not sure about this year. The 
question is, shall we make the fee so large as to make this purely 
a professional and commercial organization, missing the larger 
aims of the Society? We must not be misled by certain other or- 
ganizations who are able to pay high fees. I belong to a society 
in which the fee is $25.00 a year and I am glad to pay it ; but this 
is quite another proposition. 

W. W. Farnsworth (Ohio) : I realize the force of Mr. 
Waid's statements, and I realize also the truth of what the Chair- 
man has said — ^that this is a different proposition. My at- 
tendance at this Society dates back thirty years and I realize that 
a great many men who have loved and labored for this Society 
are men of moderate means but high ideals. I realize also that 
the force of this Society is not altogether a full treasury, and 
while I have no objection to the commercial interests taking as 
much of the financial burden as they care to, I would be very 
sorry, indeed, to see any fee placed upon the membership which 
would keep anyone out. I feel that two dollars is too small, but 
I do not believe we ought to make any further upward movement, 
especially now when the average fruit grower does not boast of a 
very full pocketboak. 

Mr. Gourley (Ohio) : I have taken it upon myself on sev- 
eral occasions to talk to fruit growers' associations and ask for 
memberships in the American Pomological Society, and perhaps 
one or two would do so, but there was no general response. It 
seems to me that we must have this pretty clearly worked out, do 
something that is concrete, and give something for this money. 
Unless we can do that it is a question whether we are justified in 
adopting anything very radical in the way of raising our dues. 
Of course the thing to do would seem to be to make the Associa- 
tion worth while. Various things have been suggested. If we 

12 



178 

could go before Congress with something tangible, if we could do 
something as to package standardization, or a uniform law for 
grading and packing of fruit, something of that sort would draw 
considerable attention, and perhaps considerable fire, to the So- 
ciety and it thereby would gain strength. When the Farm 
Bureau raised its fee to ten dollars they had an organization by 
which they could do considerable work which they could not have 
done before. But there seem to be one or two here who do not 
have very clearly in mind the exact things the Society is going to 
do. They all should know bcause there are only a few of us 
here and when we go from here there will be a great many 
questions asked — how did the meeting come out, is it a going 
concern ? Personally, I feel very much encouraged in comparison 
with last year, when there seemed to be a lack of purpose and 
policy. Now these things have been outlined more clearly and 
we know better what the Society is attempting to do. But I 
think a moderate course would be better and that perhaps five 
dollars is best for the present. 

T. B. West: When does this become effective, this year or 
next? 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : That depends on the action. 

T. B. West : I did not understand whether it would take ef- 
fect this year or* next. I think without question the fee ought to 
be five dollars. All of us ought to be willing to pay five dollars 
to belong to this Society whether we get anything out of it or not. 
A society of national scope with a fee of only two dollars looks 
cheap to me. If you make a fee that they are willing to pay and 
then show the members you are doing something for them you 
will build up the strength of the Society. I think nearly every 
fruit grower in' Ohio can pay five dollars and is willing to do 
it and I hope in the future we can raise it to ten dollars. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : The Secretary has a suggestion to make. 

The Secretary : I have certainly been interested in this 
discussion. It is necessary to have money in order to do anything, 
but I suggested to Doctor Bailey a short time ago that at the 
present time the Secretary, whether myself or someone else, has 
to do something else as his own business and do the work of the 
American Pomological Society when he can get a few hours, 
which means that he will not be able to give to the membership 
as much as he would like to and as much as they ought to have. 



179 

I would therefore make a motion that the fee be two dollars for 
1922, or until the next meeting, with the recommendation that 
at that time it be increased to five dollars. I make this as an 
amendment to the other motion. 

(Amendment seconded.) 

Vote on the amendment; lost. (Vote on the original motion, 
that the fee be five dollars; carried.) 

W. C. Reed (Indiana) : What do you want to do about life 
memberships. Do you want to change that, or do you want to see 
how many life memberships you can get here at one hundred 
dollars? 

H. H. Hardie (Michigan) : I move that the life membership 
fee be left at fifty dollars. 

(Taken by consent.) 

W. C. Reed: In order to finance the Society I would like 
to join nineteen others in taking out life memberships at fifty 
dollars each. 

(The final subscriptions were) : 

B. G. Pratt $50 00 

W. C. Reed 50 00 

Paul C. Stark 50 00 

H. H. Hardie 50 00 

L. H. Bailey 50 00 

J. E. Smith 50 00 

Toledo Rex Spray Co 100 00 

W. Paddock 10 00 

J. H. Gourley 10 00 

W. H. Lloyd 10 00 

W. S. Brock 10 00 

C. H. Waid 10 00 

R. B. Cruickshank 10 00 

L. V. Doud 10 00 

L. H. Bailey: If there is nothing further in this line we 
will take up the next item of thi^ report. 

H. P. Gould : The matter is still undecided about advisors 
to the Secretary. I do not know whether this matter should be 
discussed and carried through tonight or handled in some other 
way. 



i8o 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : I should think those persons should be 
named from the floor. 

J. H. Gourley: I move that the President appoint these 
men. 

(Motion seconded, then an amendment offered that the 
President and Secretary make the appointments. Amendment 
accepted and amended motion carried.) 

H. P. Gould: The next item is membership. 

"3. Membership — regular and collegiate. At 
present any campaign for new members rests with the 
Secretary. That of itself is a heavy burden, if the work 
be effective. A committee of really interested members 
could doubtless accomplish much. The work of such a 
committee should be directed by the Secretary. We 
recommend that a committee be appointed, with the Sec- 
retary as chairman, and that this committee be in two 
parts, one to cover regular, the other collegiate member- 
ship." 

"4. Medals, awards, etc. Our recommendation is 
that a standing committee on awards be appointed and 
that this committee be charged with the awarding" of the 
Wilder medal and- all others that may from time to time 
be given by the Society ; further, that this committee be 
charged with the canvassing of the entire situation to de- 
termine what other awards, medals, etc., ought to be 
given by the Society, if any, in addition to those that are 
now given from time to time." 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : We now have a committee consisting of 
F. G. Charles, J. W. Crow, and B. D. Drain, and two of them are 
working on this very problem, working out the details of the judg- 
ing contest tomorrow. It would be perfectly agreeable to us, as 
long as the members of this committee are not here, to ask them 
to get memBbrships in the collegiate branch. 

H. P. Gould: The matter of medals and awards has been 
handled and a committee appointed, so we can go to the next item. 

"5. Increase in consumption of fruits. Our Presi- 
dent recommends the issuing of bulletins by all the ex- 
perimental stations, colleges, departments of home eco- 



i8i 

nomics, etc., in which are set forth the value of fruit in 
the diet. We heartily endorse such a program, but this 
committee would place special emphasis on the work of 
the home economics departments in the colleges, and also 
on the work of home demonstration and other home ex- 
tension agencies. These are the people who are reaching 
those who put food on the table. We recommend especi- 
ally that, whatever else be done, the Secretary's office ad- 
dress a special letter to these agencies asking them to 
stress as much as possible the use of fruit in the home 
and perhaps referring them to the literature already 
available." 

The President's recommendation was that all the experiment 
stations and colleges be requested to issue one bulletin'each during 
1922 setting forth the value of fruit in the diet, and allied matters. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : I made that suggestion for the purpose 
of getting publicity on the use of fruit and fruit products. I do 
not know that any action is necessary as this is the program out- 
lined by the Society. It is up to the Secretary's office — we want 
him to earn his salary — to correspond with these different 
agencies and see if they will take on such publication activities. 

H. P. Gould: If the committee had known when it made 
these recommendations what it knows now, it would not have 
made the next recommendation. 

"6. Cooperation and affiliation with State societies. 
We cannot over-emphasize the importance of our Presi- 
dent's references to such activities. The American Pomo- 
logical Society ought to be the central clearing house for 
all the State and Provincial fruit growers' organizations, 
and each one should be, somehow, linked up with it. We 
recommend that every Provincial, State and county or- 
ganization or Society be urged to designate a member 
who shall be its representative in the American Pomo- 
logical Society and whose annual dues shall be paid by 
each Society or organization so represented. It is be- 
lieved also that as far as our funds permit, the monthly 
or bi-monthly letters from the Secretary's office should 
be sent to all horticultural society secretaries and other 



lg2 

officers, as a means of interesting them in the American 
Pomological Society and its work. A committee on af- 
filiation and cooperation between the American Pomo- 
logical Society and other societies might well be desig- 
nated. We recommend it. 

In regard to the binding of the report the committee we 
thought this was administrative and belonged to the Executive 
Committee, and we have so recommended. 

"7. The desirability of establishing a regular-sized 
page and style of binding for the annual report needs no 
discussion. It is self-evident. We believe this is a mat- 
ter that the Executive Committee, in consultation with 
those -familiar with printing, binding, etc., can best 
handle. We recommend that the Executive Committee 
be charged with this duty and that it be given power to 
act. That is, that the action of the committee shall be 
the action of the Society. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: There is no place in the annual report 
this year in which a statement is clearly made as to the status of 
society memberships. There is a regulation of this Society to the 
effect that other societies may take out memberships and pay a 
fee of $10.00, and they have certain privileges. We have a printed 
slip which gives the official action of the Society taken some time 
ago in this respect and that has been sent to every State and 
regional society on the continent asking for their affiliation. Then 
as I told you. Prof. Shaw was last year designated as the person 
to attempt to procure these affiliated society memberships, the re- 
sults of which is in the report this year. I think the fact that he 
did not get as many memberships as expected is no reason why 
this should be dropped. This should be taken up every year with 
these organizations. I think as soon as the Society is thoroughly 
on its feet there will be no question about the affiliations. 

About the standardization of the report. Here is the report 
of 1854 — you can see the way it is bound. Of course the bind- 
ing is an additional ex])ense — about fifty cents for good cloth 
binding. But the question is as to the size of these reports. For 
some years they were published as quartos, and the suggestion is 



i83 

that we adopt a size of page, a format, and a general method of 
compiling the report. I do not like the reports. They have good 
matter in them, but I think the arrangement might be changed so 
they would be more attractive and put up in the form of a book. 
But what kind of binding shall we have ; what color shall we 
have? It has been recommended that this be referred to the 
Executive Committee with power to act. This means that some- 
one who is familiar with editing and getting material ready for 
the press will look into it with a good deal of care. 

H. P. Gould : No. 8, which has to do with the raising of 
funds, has been discussed. 

The last item is that of nomenclature. 

"9. The matter of nomenclature. We feel that the 
importance of this matter is very inadequately appre- 
ciated. Throughout its entire life this Society has stood 
as the one body in America that has hadj a directing in- 
fluence on fruit variety names. That influence has had 
more or less general recognition, but it has nO' compelling 
power. Its influence in this direction has sometimes 
waned, and many times has been ignored. The whole 
question needs careful, constructive, scientific considera- 
tion. This committee recognizes the fact that nomencla- 
ture work is very definitely research, work. The results 
are not merely matters of opinion, where one man's is as 
good as another's ; but rather, the results are matters of 
fact, and the problem is to establish the fact or facts 
which are involved. Not every one is so situated that 
he can do research work in fruit nomenclature. The 
placing of this work where it can best be done is a 
matter that calls for earnest consideration. Our Presi- 
dent has said as much in his address. He recommends 
the publishing of the Code, after proper editing, as a 
bulletin. This committee emphasizes the need of action 
and recommends giving the widest publicity possible to 
the Code, after it has received the editing our President 
speaks of, and consideration with respect to revision 
along lines suggested in the President's address, and in 
any other respects that are essential to make it scientific 
and workable. A committee to consider these matters 



i84 

should be appointed with power to act. The latter fea- 
ture is necessary if the recommendation of the President 
for the publication of the Code as a bulletin is adopted." 

Perhaps in this connection I might call attention to the fact 
that the committee on nomenclature of the American Society of 
Nurserymen is also interested in this matter, and two members, 
including the chairman, of that committee are here. They called 
my attention to the list of fruit varieties prepared in 1920 by Prof. 
Lake, a list which was, I think, prepared for the Nurserymen's 
Association. I am sorry to say that there are some things in that 
list which need correcting. Mr. Kelsey, member of the horticul- 
tural committee on nomenclature, is also a member of the com- 
mittee on nomenclature of the Nurserymen's Association, and 
he has referred the matter to Mr. Simpson, who is chairman of 
that committee in the Nurserymen's Association, and with a little 
work I thing we can bring that list to a higher degree of com- 
pletion than at the present time. The question might be whether 
that list, brought up to date and with some corrections, should be 
the list that we turn over to this committee to print, or whether 
we should request that they print the list in the last issue of the 
American Pomological Association, the list which was published 
as Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 151. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: Could you go over the list for 1920 in a 
week or two and make it conform to the Code? 

H. P. Gould: I think so, putting in some new ones that 
ought to go in and making some omissions. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: If in a week or so you could make this 
list conform to the Code it could be given to this committee to 
print. Mr. Gould has been appointed the chairman of the com- 
mittee on nomenclature, with power. Now go to it ! 

H. P. Gould: Even though that list may not be the official 
list of the nurserymen it could be the foundation of a list of the 
Society and I am inclined to think such a list would be more 
satisfactory to the nurserymen than this list. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: It will be the official list for us — you 
are our committee. 

W. C. Reed : As a member of the Executive Committee of 
the American Association of Nurserymen I would urge upon you 



i85 

that this be gotten back to Mr. Kelsey as soon as possible, as it is 
partly in type now, and as the Executive Committee of the 
Nurser}'men's Association sent Mr. Kelsey a check for $1000 to 
help get this out, I am sure that any corrections you wish will be 
all right with the Association. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: In connection with the matter of nomen- 
clature it was suggested today that we might desire to re-establish 
the relationship between the American Pomological Society and 
the United States Department of Agriculture. An appropriation 
was made by Congress for nomenclature work and I believe three 
bulletins were published. 

H. P. Gould : There was no special appropriation made by 
Congress for that, but the Secretary, Mr. Morton, ordered the 
bulletins printed, and for several years after the death of Dr. 
Lyon, Prof. Ragan was chairman of the committee on nomen- 
clature and a member of our staff, so that it amounted virtually 
to a paid chairman who devoted all his time to nomenclature 
work. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey: These bulletins were very valuable and 
ought to be revived. In the early days it was published not only 
in die list of fruits but also in our Proceedings, the last of these 
being in 1891. The fruit catalog began about fifty years ago. We 
have now a definite action to revive the fruit catalog. Mr. Gould 
is chairman of the Nomenclature Committee connected with the 
Department of Agriculture and I think it would be a good plan 
to memorialize Congress asking that this be re-established. Of 
course the chances are that it will be regarded as a publication of 
the United States Department, and the danger is that the Society 
might lose something of its identity, although I think it was a 
perfectly satisfactory arrangement in Prof. Pagan's time. For 
myself, I should like to see a cooperative movement of that kind 
resumed. If we are to do that it is necessary to have a motion. 

Prof. J. C. Blair: I move that this Society memorialize 
Congress looking toward the resumption of cooperative work in 
the preparation of a fruit catalog and the publication thereof. 

(Motion seconded and carried.) 

B. G. Pratt: I want to suggest this for the Executive Com- 
mittee. I am a member of almost every horticultural society and 
I try to attend as many meetings as possible. Is there not some 
way in which the American Pomological Society through the Sec- 



i86 

retary's office, can be a clearing house for the meetings of the 
different horticultural societies where this will not conflict with 
some constitutional requirement as to the holding of these meet- 
ings. As it is, a number of the meetings are held simultaneously. 
We cannot be in two places at the same time and I think where 
it is possible arrangements should be made to hold, say one meet- 
ing at the first of the week and another at the last of the week, 
and if the office of the Secretary could be a clearing house it would 
be a tremendous help. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : Personally, I feel the time for the meeting 
of this Society is September, as in the old days. 

Prof. L. R. Taft (Michigan): I would like to make a 
partial report for the Committee on Awards of the Wilder Medals. 
The will of Mr. Wilder left this Society $5,000 to be used for this 
work, $1,000 for Wilder medals. The Society has for a num- 
ber of years given silver and bronze medals, sometimes in con- 
nection with the work in horticulture, other times for new fruits. 
The Committee wishes now to recommend, that the silver Wilder 
medal for notable contributions to horticulture and to the work 
of the Society be given to our President, Dr. L. H. Bailey. (Ap- 
plause.) 

Prof. J. C. Blair: I move that this be done. (Motion sec- 
onded and carried.) 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : I wish tO' say that I appreciate this very 
much. It so happens that I have been the recipient of certain 
medals and dij^lomas both from this country and abroad, and the 
one I prize most is the Wilder Medal which I received in 1885 
for an exhibit of native nuts and fruits, and with this medal, 
coming at the last of my work, it is difficult to say which I will 
prize the more. I very much appreciate this action. (Applause.) 

H. P. Gould: There was a matter mentioned a little while 
ago which if it is possible to bring to a head now would be de- 
sirable. We have all seen the little medal which the Secretary has 
secured for work in connection with the judging contests. If I 
understood the suggestion it was tliat the design of this medal 
might be adopted as the official seal of the Society. It seems to 
me it is a very fitting and attractive design and I would like to 
move that the design of that small medal be adopted as the official 
seal of the American Pomological Society. 

(Motion seconded and carried.) 



i87 

(Dr. Baile)^ then read a telegram from the International Fruit 
Exchange of Chicago, inviting the American Pomological Society 
to hold its next annual meeting and students judging contest in 
connection with the International Fruit Exchange.) 

Prof. J. C. Blair : I am sure I express the sentiments of 
everyone here tonight, and of all members of the Society whether 
present or not, when I say that we all appreciate the fact that 
after a term of years our grand old organization has had breathed 
into it the breath of life. The American Pomological Society it 
seems to me reached its lowest ebb in 1916-17, for I remember 
very well the meeting that was held in Boston in 1917 in con- 
nection with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, at which 
time I think there were less then a dozen members of this or- 
ganization present. I recall, too. the air of discouragement no- 
ticeable on all sides. A group of six or seven of the old guard 
met at the Copley Square Hotel on the second evening, in my 
room, to discuss wa}'s and means, and the discouragement mani- 
fest at that meeting was great. I remember one member said, 
"Let's bury the d — d thing." Another said, "Yes, but let us have 
a rosewood- casket and cover it with flowers and bury it with 
honor, for this is an honored organization we are laying away." 
And then later in the discussion there was one man who said that 
in the entire membership of this organization there was but one 
man who could save the institution, and was it not worth while 
to enlist his sympathy and help. Another man said, "Who is 
it?" and the reply was "Liberty Hyde Bailey." (Applause.) So 
it was decided to wire him and find out if he would take the job 
of putting new life into the Society. I am glad, Mr. President, 
that I was one of the five or six who signed that telegram which 
went to you asking if you would step into the gap and save the 
American Pomological Society. 

Word came back the next morning that if it was the wish of 
those who had this matter in charge he would step in and do the 
best he could. That day at the meeting Doctor Bailey was elected 
President of this organization and from that day to this there has 
been a steady growth. He has put into it not only the breath of 
life, he has given it not only the inspiration such as seen today, 
but he has given it a stabilizing equality, he has put into us a faith 
in the organization which we have long wanted to have and now 
we see that again this institution is a real live, going concern. 



i88 

Will you not rise with me in further expression to our honor- 
able President of our appreciation of the service he has rendered. 
(Applause.) 

Prof. Laurenz Greene: I think Professor Blair should 
tell us exactly who were at that meeting. From some of the quota- 
tions, I would judge that Frederic Cranefield was one of the 
number. 

Mr. Frederic Cranfield : I was at that meeting, and I op- 
posed the election of Doctor Bailey, because I said there were too 
d — d many professors in the Society now. But I want to say 
that tonight I agree with every word Professor Blair has said, 
and it has been one of the greatest delights of my life to have been 
associated in this work with President Bailey. 

Dr. L. H. Bailey : I think I must say a few words in respect 
to this matter. It was before the time of the Boston meeting that 
I retired from university and educational work, so I was not at 
that time a professor nor connected in any way with any institu- 
tion. I expected and hoped never again to be connected in an of- 
ficial way with any society, not because I did not like the work, 
but because I had other work to do. I have consistently escaped 
such connection except in the case of the American Pomological 
Society. I want you to know the situation in which I now find 
myself. I am devoting the remainder of my life to other lines of 
work. I took the presidency with the distinct understanding that 
I should not stop my work and my travel for its conventions. I 
have stayed in the country this year for the purpose of attending 
this meeting when I should otherwise have been somewhere else. 
I am glad that I did. I may be nowhere near when you meet 
again. It is not fair to the Society that the president should be 
absent from the conventions. You ought to have someone as 
President who not only knows this Society and is in touch with it, 
but who can be present at its meetings. 

I have been asked whether I would be willing to retain some 
connection with the Society. I say yes, but what that connection 
shall be I do not know ; that is for you to decide. I am interested 
in it, and if I can do anything to help it along and still not neglect 
the work in which I am engaged, I shall be glad; but you ought 
to have someone who can be actively present and take part, at- 
tend Executive Committee meetings. Whether he is an acting 
Vice-President or an actual President, or whether he has some 



i89 

other official capacity in connection with the Society — I leave 
that for you to work out. But I must not have the details of the 
American Pomological on my mind for the next few years. 

Now you see my situation. I want you to take action. I do 
not say that I want you to disassociate me from the Society, but 
take some action whereby the President's work can be passed to 
someone else; within the limits of my power and of the oppor- 
tunities I have and the leisure from other work, if I can be of any 
service I shall be* only too glad to render it. 



FRIDAY MORNING SESSION 

The Friday morning session was called to order at nine-fifty 
bv the President. 

The President : There was a time when the people attend- 
ing a horticultural meeting got to the meeting at eight in the morn- 
ing; but in these later days it is difficult to get them out. 

We will now begin the last session of this meeting of the 
American Pomological Society. The first number on the pro- 
gram is a paper by Dr Chandler, which was given yesterday in 
the place of the paper of Mr. Davis of Ontario, so I will call on 
Mr. Davis now to give us his paper on "Canadian Efforts to Im- 
prove the Apple for the More Severe Districts." This will be par- 
ticularly interesting to us on this side of the line — the develop- 
ment of fruit on our northern border. 



CANADIAN EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE APPLE FOR 
THE MORE SEVERE DISTRICTS 

M. B. Davis, 
Ontario 

As the climatic conditions of the Dominion cover a wide 
range, from where practically all varieties of tender fruits may be 
grown to where only the hardiest of hardy fruits may be even at- 
tempted, there enters in the field a great number of possibilities 
and opportunities for the apple breeder. It remained for the Ex- 
perimental Farms System, therefore, to decide upon some line of 
endeavor with regard to its projects for the improvement of the 
apple for Canadian conditions. 

Three distinct phases or opportunities offered : First, to at- 
tempt to originate newer and better commercial varieties for the 
larger fruit districts where hardiness was of secondary considera- 
tion; second, to undertake the origination of varieties for the 
more severe districts which were limited to a few of the hardiest 
varieties for the more severe districts, which were limited to a few 

(190) 



191 

(if the hardiest varieties of our dessert apples; or third, to attempt 
to create a list of varieties for the prairies where it was impossible 
to grow edible varieties of the apple. The two latter phases were 
decided upon as being the most urgent. 

The first attempt at improving the list of varieties for the 
severer districts was made in 1890, when 3,000 trees, grown from 
seed imported from Russia, were planted. From this lot a few 
apples were considered worth propagating, but after years of test- 
ing only one can be considered a valuable addition to the ex- 
isting list of hardy varieties. This one is Rupert, an apple 
similar to Yellow Transparent, but hardier and earlier in 
season. From this attempt it became evident that improvement 
must be sought by introducing a greater amount of quality into 
the seedlings than could be obtained by merely selecting within 
the Russian varieties, ail of which are medium in that respect. 
In 1918, therefore, seed was taken from such varieties as 
Northern Spy, Mcintosh, Fameuse, St. Lawerence and Wealthy, 
which were growing in the orchard at the Central Experimental 
Farm, along with four or five hundred other sorts. From 
this seed about 2,000 seedlings have been raised, and the actual 
results have been most encouraging indeed, even though there 
is much yet to be achieved. To date well over 1,200 of these 
seedlings have fruited and the remarkable feature is that only 
4. per cent of these produced fruit of crab-like nature. Another 
remarkable point was the influence of the female parent on 
colour, quality and keeping quality. Of the above lot about 
luo were considered worthy of naming and holding for further 
trial, but gradually, through the process of elimination, this num- 
ber is being reduced, although to date five named varieties have 
Deen selected for propagation and general introduction. 

The list of really important commercial varieties which may 
be grown in the severe districts, at present may roughly be classed 
IS Duchess, Wealthy. Mcintosh and Fameuse, giving as one will 
see a rather short season for edible apples. The Duchess at best 
is only of medium quality and Wealthy can hardly be termed a 
his:h-class dessert fruit, so one might really say that these districts 
are limited lo two high-class varieties whose season exteri^s only 
to Christmas, as there are really no winter varieties of sufficiently 
high quality to compete with such apples as Spy and Delicious. 



192 

The object to be attained then resolves itself into obtaining 
varieties earlier and later than Mcintosh, but approaching it in 
quality, and at the same time possessing the factor of hardiness 
developed to the highest degree, and here is the rub, especially in 
the origination of the winter sorts. The first part of the program, 
namely the obtaining of earlier varieties, is practically accom- 
plished by the introduction of the five sorts mentioned a few mo- 
ments ago. These are all seedlings of Mcintosh Red. Melba, 
the first of these in season, is ready for use about August ist and 
is a highly colored apple of excellent quality and should prove a 
distinct acquisition to the fruit lists of any fruit growing centre 
desiring a high-class apple earlier than Duchess. To replace the 
Duchess variety, Joyce, of about the same season, may be men- 
tioned. Practically as good as Mcintosh, of high color and bear- 
ing at an early age, this apple would seem to merit considerable 
attention. The next in season is Pedro, somewhat earlier than 
Wealthy, midway in quality between it and Mcintosh, and a regu- 
larly heavy yielder of high color. The next, Patricia, is a beauti- 
ful apple in appearance and quality, just after Wealthy in season. 
Lobo, the last of these, is looked upon in some districts as being a 
possible successor to Wealthy, being of about the same season, 
of better quality and a better keeper, of as high color, with a better 
shaped tree to recommend it. 

In addition to these five apples there are several winter 
varieties which are decidedly better than any we now have, but 
which require further testing to determine their hardiness. These 
are all seedlings of Northern Spy and are as follows : Spiotta, 
Emilia, Spiro, Bingo, Donald and Niobe. The last named is the 
best in quality, being excellent in that respect, but lacking in color 
Of the others, probably Emilia is the best in quality, with a con- 
siderable amount of color. 

Not all the work has been confined to growing seedlings where 
only one parent was known. Considerable cross breeding has been 
done, and it is of interest to note the crosses between Lawver and 
Mcintosh and its reciprocal. This combination was made in the 
hope that a variety combining the high quality of Mcintosh with 
the keeping quality of Lawver and the color of both parents would 
be obtained. Apples of high color and good keeping quality re- 
sulted, but were a keen disappointment when it came to the test 
tor dessert purposes. Another series of hybrids between such 



193 

varieties as Antonovka, Duchess, Winter Rose, Wealthy, Mc- 
intosh, etc.. has given little of promise. These hybrids were 
made after the test winter of 1903, when the majority of our 
best sorts were killed out and it was then thought that hardiness 
was the only consideration and that it would be wise to limit 
endeavors to the crossing of varieties which contained this factor 
highly developed, so with the exception of the quality from Mc- 
intosh little of that factor was introduced. 

There are now coming into bearing a series of most in- 
teresting and promising cross-breds, made up of combinations 
between such excellent sorts as Cox Orange, Grimes, Graven- 
stein, Delicious, King and Bellefleur, with Mcintosh, Wealthy, 
Fameuse, Duchess and Yellow Transparent as hardy varieties. 
Here we have combinations which should give us color, quality, 
hardiness and keeping quality, and it is hoped that from these 
series the latter part of our program will be completed, namely 
the obtaining of a number of high class winter varieties for the 
northern districts. 

Reference must now be made to the efforts to create a list 
of hardy edible varieties for the Northwest plains. This work 
was inaugurated by the late Dr. Wm. Saunders, then Director of 
the Dominion Experimental Farms. He crossed the Russian 
species, Pyrus baccata, with such sorts as Northern Spy and 
Mcintosh and obtained a number of first crosses, all crab-like but 
several times larger than the Pyrus baccata, which is about the 
size of a small cherry. Of these first crosses two, namely Osman 
and Columbia, seem able to resist the rigorous climate of the 
Northwest plains and appear to mark an advance in the desired 
direction. Dr. Saunders introduced a second infusion of true 
Malus blood into his first crosses and several varieties have re- 
sulted bearing fruit as large as 2^" in diameter and quite edible, 
while apparently hardy, although this latter point requires further 
testing in the Prairits. The best of these second crosses are 
( I ) Rosilda, a cross between Pioneer and Mcintosh, Pioneer 
being a cross between P. baccata and Tetofsky, a hardy Russian 
sort; and (2) Wapella, a cross between Pioneer and Northern 
Spy. If these two sorts prove hardy for the Northwest they 
will prove distinct acquisitions to the horticulture of that area 
and will mark a permanent step in the progress of the develop- 

13 



194 

ment of satisfactory apples for that country. This work is still 
being prosecuted by adding another infusion of pure Malus 
blood to the best of these second crosses, by selfing for segrega- 
tion where a variety is self fertile and by inter-crossing the best 
of the second crosses where the process of selfing is impossible. 

It might here be mentioned that in the work of Dr. Saunders, 
Pyrus baccata was used as the female in every instance. Re- 
cently hybrids have been made where Pyrus baccata has been 
used as the male, using such varieties as Mcintosh, Wealthy, etc., 
as the female parent, so that if there is any difference in the in- 
fluence of sex in the transmission of characters, benefit should 
be derived from it in this latter series of crosses. 

From all this wealth of material, by careful selection and 
testing, surely there is no reason to doubt but that ultimately we 
shall be able to offer the settler of the northern great plains a 
number of varieties of apples of good quality and sufficiently 
hardy to withstand his trying conditions. It is the work of many 
life times, but if each generation can but add its quota of 
progress, what appeared impossible forty or fifty years ago will 
become an accomplished fact. 



The President: Through some oversight there has not 
been a committee on resolutions appointed. I will ask Prof. Pad- 
dock and Mr. Cranefield to act on that committee. Is there any 
discussion of Mr. Davis' paper? 

Prof. Laurenz Greene: I was very much interested in 
what Mr. Davis had to say regarding the early Mcintosh with 
which they are trying to replace the Duchess and Wealthy. A 
number of growers in our southern territory, especially in Ar- 
kansas, have been anxious to find a red variety that would come 
at the season of the Yellow Transparent and would not be sub- 
ject to blight. I am interested to know whether these Mcintosh 
seedlings withstand fire blight. 

M. B. Davis : We have very little of that in our orchards 
and consequently any information I would give in that respect 
would hardly indicate whether it was so or not. With us there 
are very few varieties that are ever touched with blight. These 



195 

seedlings with us are free. I think they have been tested at 
Ames. The earliest apple we have in Canada is the Crimson 
Beauty, but it is of poor quality and there is a great demand for 
a dessert apple at that season of the year. Of course the Duchess 
will always be used for that purpose, but at that time of the year 
the people are begging for apples and will even take the Crim- 
son Beauty. There is a great opportunity for early apples and 
we think we have them now. 

Prof. J. C. Blair: I would like to ask if in the breeding 
work in Canada they have found any satisfactory seedling variety 
which would do well in the great prairie region south and east 
of Calgary in the Albertas? 

M. B. Davis: No; the only thing that approaches a variety 
that will do for them are some of this second list I mentioned. 
They are very crab-like in nature, the largest size is about 2^", 
and the flesh is crab-like, but they are the only varieties that 
will grow in that part of the country. We hope eventually to 
get them some of these other varieties. We tested out thousands 
and thousands of the Russian varieties on our farms and they 
are living, but the only one that has been any good is the Pyrus 
baccata. In Manitoba they can grow the Duchess and Wealthy, 
but they cannot grow anything more, and that is limited to 
southern Manitoba. 

The President : Will the native crabs grow on the plains ? 

M. B. Davis: No; they wil not stand the winters. The 
Red Siberian will come through most winters pretty well, but 
che native crabs are not hardy enough for the great plains. Even 
some of the hardy ones are killed back to the snow line. The 
V^ellow Siberian is a hardy crab, but even that is killed back to 
the snow line on the prairies. 

W. S. Perrine : Southern Illinois is interested in a red 
variety about as early as the Transparent, and if there is any- 
thing anywhere we would like to know it. I would like to ask 
Professor Greene if he knows about the Carson. It is supposed 
to be a red apple about as early as the Transparent. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene: I cannot answer that. I have 
seen the apple this year for the first time. 

F. H. Beach : I was talking to Mr. R. A. Simpson yester- 
day regarding this variety and his experience was this — that 



196 

it followed the Transparent, but owing to certain deficiencies in 
tree characteristics he is now top-working the trees planted. I 
am unable to give a detailed report, but evidently he was not 
pleased with this variety under his conditions at Vincennes. 

Prof. J. C. Blair : I would like to ask Mr. Davis if he 
thinks it is the continuous low temperature in those regions that 
damages the fruit, or is it the variable temperature? Even 
when you get the temperature down to 30° below zero you will 
sometimes get considerable fluctuation. Is it the variable tem- 
perature or the low temperature ? 

M. B. Davis : I think it is due to the fluctuating tempera- 
ture, say a sudden drop down 25°. The temperature does not 
go much below zero in Ottawa, but on the prairies it drops from 
a few degrees above to 25° or 30° below in thirty-six hours, and 
in the spring of the year it will rise, the trees will start growth, 
and then the temperature will drop below again. It is the sud- 
den changes coupled with the fact that the trees do not ripen 
properly. The ground will sometimes be covered with snow, 
then the snow will go and the ground will be bare. It is not root 
injury, but top injury, and they attribute it to the dropping from 
above zero to 25° or 30° below, and then back again. 

H. P. Gould : I would like to ask Mr. Davis if he does 
not think the very dry condition of the atmosphere, the aridity, is 
also an important factor in the killing of these trees on the 
prairies and the great plains? I have had a litle experience on 
the great plains and with some collections of fruit trees at some 
of the stations through the great plains area, and we always felt 
that the dryness of the atmosphere was a very important factor 
'in the killing of the trees, as well as the low and the variable 
temperatures. 

The President: The next event on the program is "The 
Prospect for Teaching in Pomology," and we are glad to have 
this presented by Professor Blair, who has been responsible for 
the remarkable development along this line in Illinois. Pro- 
fessor Blair now has the floor. 



197 



THE PROSPECT FOR TEACHING IN POMOLOGY 

Professor J. C. Blair, 
Illinois 

Mr. President and Members of the American Povnological 

Society: 

After nearly thirty years of helping to teach the subject of 
Pomology I have reached the conviction that after all the most 
difficult of all of our college subjects to teach is that of Pomol- 
ogy. I am equally convinced that in the entire range of educa- 
tional work there is probably no subject so poorly taught as the 
subject of Pomology. This statement may challenge a good 
deal of discussion in one place or another, but I make the state- 
ment deliberately and after having visited and examined the 
laboratory equipment in some thirty-four of our educational in- 
stitutions in this country and in Canada during the last three 
years. 

Pomology is the most difficult subject to teach because in 
academic work we have nowhere the wide range of varieties or 
the variable nature that we have in this field. And when I speak 
of the teaching of Pomology I do not mean only the teaching 
of apple culture in its various phases, but also the teaching of 
the other forms of tree fruits, vine fruits and small fruits. 

This subject is the most poorly taught, on the other hand, 
for the simple reason that the equipment for the teaching of this 
subject is the most expensive to procure and the material the 
most difficult to present to the live, expectant student. It is a 
fine thing to have, as Professor Paddock and I had some twenty- 
six or twenty-eight years ago, the untiring leadership of a great 
man like Doctor Bailey in the classroom — even though he had 
to teach horticulture at Cornell University with inadequate la- 
boratory facilities and without land on which to grow the plants 
he was talking about as only a great and inspired teacher can 
talk. Indeed it was that conviction borne in those early days 
that led me to answer the significant question which comes some- 
times to the boy in the early years of his life when in school, 
the question which varies in one way or another but which came 
to me in this particular form from Dr. T. J. Burrill of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, in May, 1892, when he wrote to the school 



198 

boy in Ithaca and among other things put this question. He said, 
"What are your wishes and tastes with reference to your life 
work?" He had been led to write to me because there was a 
minor job in the State of Illinois that needed to be done and 
my teacher, Professor Bailey, said I was the man to do it. My 
answer to that was simply this, "That my ambitions and my 
tastes with reference to my life work were to make a contri- 
bution to the pomological and horticultural development of this 
country, especially in the way of so co-ordinating the work of 
a department of horticulture that the boys and girls could have 
better material with which to work than had been given them 
heretofore." Now you may think that such a program, starting 
so long ago, should have accompHshed something tremendously 
significant; and yet as I. stand here today I feel very humble in- 
deed, for I look back over twenty-five years and it seems to me 
incredible that the amount of time and energy spent should have 
produced such small results. Nevertheless, some rather im- 
portant results have been attained, especially in the matter of 
equipment and this is what I want to tell you about today. 

Let me take you, by means of lantern slides, step by step 
through this evolution or growth which has taken place at Illi- 
nois, in the Department of Horticulture. Let me add here also, 
that Pomology is being better taught in all our institutions today 
because of the fact that the pomological and horticultural in- 
terests throughout the States as well as the instructors and stu- 
dents had reached the point where they were demanding and ex- 
pecting the institutions to provide laboratory equipment for the 
proper presentation of their subjects, and which is so essential 
to the development of research as well as instruction. 

I was told in those early days that Illinois was not a horti- 
cultural State ; that it was in the great Mississippi valley where 
corn and hogs and cattle were to be raised, and not an apple 
growing or peach growing State ; that these things did not be- 
long to the prairie country. I did not believe that, and today I 
am sure we have reason to feel that Illinois occupies a rather 
enviable position from the standpoint of horticultural develop- 
ment, and no little part of it is due to the organized efifort of the 
horticultural people of the State. I mean not only the great 
Horticultural Society under the leadership of such men as Mr. 



199 

Perrine, who is here today, and who was for a number of years 
President of that Society, but also the floricultural interests of 
Chicago and Cook County. That organization was just as im- 
portant in estabHshing pomological laboratories at the University 
as the Horticultural Society, because of their influence with the 
legislators at Chicago, and in that way secured their interest. 
But, that was not all — the State Nurserymen's Association came 
into being as the direct result of the necessity for some one to 
look after the nurserymen's interests. 

And so throughout the years there has been a gradual prog- 
ress, yet with so many discouragements, so many breakdowns, 
as it were, that it seemed many times as though our efforts 
would be entirely nullified and lost. And on three different oc- 
casions the Department of Horticulture of our University was 
completely legislated, not only off the face of the campus, but 
so far as we could see, off the face of the earth. By patiently 
bringing together organized efforts over the State the situation 
has improved and now we have a fairly good working start in 
the matter of developing the horticultural and pomological labora- 
tories. The land that we had in the early days was close in, 
and it is necessary, in order to teach pomology and horticulture 
to have our laboratories close at hand so the students can get 
to the plants. And that was the difficulty with our situation, 
for it seemed impossible to get the executive heads of the insti- 
'tution to the point where they would spend thousands of dollars 
for land upon which to plant trees when it was so sorely needed 
for military purposes and for buildings for the liberal arts, en- 
gineering, etc. There was the rub. We met that situation, how- 
ever, by finally stepping outside the campus proper and making 
our campaign for a half section of land, 320 acres. We got 
two appropriations, and finally a third, for that- enterprise. Now, 
we are at work developing plant laboratories to suit the needs 
for material for the teaching of the different courses of study. 
It is in these out-door working laboratories, and the indoor 
laboratories now being built, that students can get first-hand ac- 
quaintance with different plants, their characteristics and re- 
quirements. 

Let me now take you, by means of lantern slides, rapidly 
over the program of development at Illinois, and show you in 



200 



concrete fashion some of the equipment we have brought to- 
gether for teaching and for the research work of our Depart- 
ment of Horticulture. 
(SHdes shown.) 



Dr. L. H. Bailey : I am wondering whether the persons 
here understand the epoch in which we Hve so far as the teach- 
ing of rural subjects is concerned. The teacher of literature, his- 
tory and general science has his routine provided for him to a cer- 
tain extent. He is set to teach a certain definite line of subjects 
and the results to be attained are projected and fairly well known. 
Then comes a series of subjects of this kind in which there are no 
standardized results to be secured, in which there is very little ex- 
perience as to the methods to be pursued ; and these persons are 
not only to teach the subject, but often they must convince the 
people that the subjects ought to be taught, and legislators that 
they ought to have facilities. It is a most remarkable state of af- 
fairs, and the very opposition, the inertia, the contention, have 
stimulated these men to greater effort and have made it possible 
for them to produce such developments as this of which we hear 
from Professor Blair. And if they had not had this opposition 
perhaps they would not have made such remarkable development 
in the teaching of rural subjects. 

Those who have taught in thes'e institutions have often had 
to spend the major part of their time and energy in merely find- 
ing the facilities with which to work. When we come to another 
generation with a more standardized effort we shall then un- 
derstand what has been the contribution of men like Professor 
Blair and many others who have convinced the public mind that 
there should be facilities and opportunities for the rural-minded 
college youth of the land. Yet I sometimes fear that with the 
expenditure of less energy, with possibly the necessity for less 
public leadership, the teacher may lose some of the spirit of 
enthusiasm. 

We are practically up to our schedule, and we will now 
have a paper by Mr. W. G. Farnsworth, "A Report from the 
American Farm Bureau Federation Fruit Committee." 



201 



REPORT FROM AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERA- 
TION FRUIT COMMITTEE 

W. G. Farnsworth, 
Ohio. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

The Fruit Growers' Marketing Committee of Twenty-one 
appointed by President Howard of the American Farm Bureau 
Federation for the purpose of determining' market conditions and 
creating a better feeHng between the consumer and producer and 
also the distributor, met at Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19th 
and I am glad to say there was almost one hundred per cent, at- 
tendance. In fact, out of the twenty-one members there were 
nineteen present, representing the various fruit interests from the 
grower, including the packer and shipper, to the marketing end 
of it, and representing nearly all sections of the country and all 
fruit interests, citrus fruits as well as the fruits grown in the 
east. I believe every member of that committee fully realized 
the position he was in, as well as the immensity of the problem 
that had been handed to them for solution, and I think nearly 
all of them came with the idea that they had but very little to 
offer. They were in the dark as to just what could be done, 
realizing there were so many problems and so many conflicting 
interests to be considered that it would be a difficult matter to 
form plans whereby they could all unite to accomplish the results 
they were hoping for. 

I was very much pleased with the spirit in which the men 
went into the work. There was a gentleman there, Mr. Edwards, 
from Redlands, California, who has been in California for thirty- 
five or forty years. In fact, he made the statement that he had 
been with the orange industry from the time when oranges were 
packed in the orchard and hauled to the railroad station and 
shipped that way, up to the present time. He is one of the of- 
ficers of the California Citrus Association who are handling 
oranges in a perfect way, not only owning their own packing 
plants, but manufacturing their own packages and looking after 
the selling. So he was well qualified to bring experience to that 
meeting. They were all broad-minded men, not looking for their 
own selfish interests entirely, realizing that this committee was 



202 

to work not only for the good of one branch of the industry, but 
for the fruit industry of the United States. They were all there 
in a spirit of hearty cooperation. We had a man by the name 
of Stewart from Florida, manager of the Florida Citrus As- 
sociation. He came as a doubting Thomas, the same as most of 
them, doubting the possibility of what could be accomplished, 
but I am glad to say this morning that while he came as a doubt- 
ing Thomas he went away a converted Paul. And this could be 
said of the rest of the committee. They saw a vision of what 
could be accomplished in time. I believe you realize as well as I 
do that this project cannot be put across in a week, or a month, 
or a year, but we must grow to it as we gain information and 
knowledge along these lines. 

Your committee met on November 19th, called to order by 
the temporary chairman, Mr. Nicols of Michigan, who was 
elected permanent chairman. Mr. Durst of Chicago acted as 
secretary of the meeting. We discussed the viarious problems 
confronting us and each member was called upon to give his 
views. But no one had any definite plan in view. They were 
there with open minds to study the problem from all angles and 
to decide carefully. You can realize that a mistake could easily be 
made when so many interests are considered. After discussing 
the various problems the committee dissolved into small sub-com- 
mittees appointed by the chair and went into separate sessions to 
take up the problems assigned to each individual committee. At 
last something tentative was decided upon and I will read you 
the plans, which are not completed as yet. 

They elected an executive committee for the purpose of 
looking after the executive work of the entire committee. This 
committee was James Nicols, Samuel Adams, of the American 
Fruit Grower of Chicago, and J. S. Edwards of Redlands, Cali- 
fornia, a man of deep thought and very careful in his state- 
ments; a man of few words, but what he did say counted. I 
think this would apply to the other members, and I know it will 
to Professor Greene from Purdue, a very strong man on the 
committee, who did his work and is still doing it, heart and soul, 
for the good of the public in general. 

Then there was a committee on inter-relations, which will 
work out lines of relationship between the fruit growers' as- 
sociations and submit plans for the organization of a new as- 



203 

sociation. This committee will have a difficult problem. Some 
of the strong organizations are almost perfected in the South 
and they will have to form some plan that these large associa- 
tions can adopt with profit to themselves ; also a plan that will 
appeal to the associations that are weaker and smaller, possibly 
to the local units that have no State Federation as yet. Then 
they will have to appeal to the individual growers in different 
localities, or to the local units, showing the advantage to be 
gained by State and Federal organization. So you see the im- 
mensity of the problem this committee has on their hands. 

Then we have a publicity committee which will investigate 
the advertising of fruit and ways and means of increasing the 
consumption of the products. This committee will look after 
what to my mind is the educational part of the work — seeing 
that fruit is advertised so that its value as an article of diet will 
be recognized. 

Then we have a committee on transportation. This com- 
mittee will investigate the car supply, the character of equip- 
ment, and study the freight rates. 

Then we have a committee on the standardization of pack- 
ages, which will stud}' and recommend containers which will in- 
sure the honest packing and grading of fruit. This will redound 
to the benefit of all parties concerned. That is one point where 
the entire committee agreed perfectly — • that anything that was 
done along this line should be done for the benefit not alone of 
the manufacturer, not alone of the consumer, but for the general 
good of the entire public, realizing that the only way we can 
accomplish anything and get anywhere is when we lay aside all 
selfishness and unite for the common good. That is what this 
committee has in charge — ■ the standardization of packages, and 
Professor Greene is the chairman of that committee. 

The legislative committee will study legislation affecting the 
fruit industry, particularly as related to the manufacture of 
fruit juices, and the grading laws. We have on that committee 
Mr. Gray Silver. You know of his work in connection with the 
American Farm Bureau Federation, which I must say is some- 
thing out of the ordinary, the work he has accomplished along 
legislative lines for that association. 

Then we have also a finance committee which looks after 
the financing of this work. 



204 

In closing I want to say a word or two as to the future 
plans of this committee. The plan is that the various commit- 
tees appointed are to hold separate meetings and take up the 
special problems assigned to them. They are to get all the data 
possible from all sources, and after studying this data and look- 
ing it over and digesting it, then the Committee of Twenty-one 
is to be called together, possibly along in January, if we can get 
the preliminary work done before that, and then take up the 
entire problem and see if we can work out a plan that will take 
in all this association should do and get the plan working in 
entire continuity. 

I would like to ask you this morning for the hearty co- 
operation of this Society. We know this Society can be of vast 
help in solving these problems and I believe it is the duty of the 
American Pomological Society. I know the committee will wel- 
come any suggestions or assistance you may give them, and I 
hope you will take some action before you close this session 
whereby something can be done — some one person appointed, 
or a committee, as you see fit, to act with us and meet with the 
entire committee when we meet in January. I believe it is the 
intention of President Nicols to call for a representative from 
the different associations to give suggestions and assist in formu- 
lating these plans, and I hope some action will be taken here this 
morning before you close. 



The President: This report is now before you for at- 
tention. This is the last paper on the program. The other 
papers, not being represented by their authors, will of course 
be published in the report. The remaining business will be the 
discussion of this report, the reports of one or two committees, 
and the election of officers. This report of Mr. Farnsworth is 
before you. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene : Last year some of us who were 
working on the Executive Committee of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society tried to devise ways and means whereby this organiza- 
tion could be of better service, knowing that only through that 
method could it live and prosper as it has done in the past. A lot 
of the things which Mr. Farnsworth has told you this morning as 
to the plans of the marketing committee were in the mind of Dean 



205 

Bailey and the Executive Committee as the program of work 
for the American Pomological Society. The matter of the af- 
fihation with the American Farm Bureau in some form through 
its Chicago office was discussed ; the possibihty of the estabhsh- 
ment of the office of the American Pomological Society there was 
discussed. It was my dream that the American Pomological 
Society should be a national organization of the fruit growers 
of America and Canada, through which they could speak in legis- 
lative matters, transportation matter and other things ; where- 
by the strawberry growers of the Ozarks, which is not a strong 
organization could get the active cooperation and support of the 
apple growers' organization, a strong, going concern ; whereby 
the individual grower who had some problem which he was not 
able to handle alone, could get the active cooperation and help 
of the fruit growers of the country. That looks like the thing 
that the American Pomological Society should do and I believe 
that today it is the biggest service it can render. 

With that idea in mind, some of us felt that a national sec- 
retaryship should be established with well eciuipped offices that 
could supply information on markets, on our own crops and the 
possibility of their being marketed profitably, and in other ways 
act as a bureau of information which would be of real service 
to the individual grower, and where you could sell him ten dol- 
lars' worth for two dollars. I believe that the Executive Com- 
mittee last year had this vision, but at their Chicago meeting 
after discussing the problem the American Farm Bureau Federa- 
tion representatives were called in. The result was the confer- 
ence of fruit growers held in Chicago on April 5th which re- 
c|uested the American Farm Bureau to appoint this Committee 
of Twenty-one. 

It was a matter of deep regret to me that the American 
Pomological Society, through its Officers and Executive Com- 
mittee, did not absolutely handle that conference, did not super- 
vise the appointment of the Committee of Twenty-one, did not 
actively cooperate with President Howard in this movement. It 
seems to me that it is not too late for the American Pomological 
Society to be the centre of the organized fruit interests of the 
United States. If the plans which Mr. Farnsworth has just told 
you about crystallize, two things are going to become facts within 
the next decade, and possibly sooner than that : First of all, a 



206 

fruit marketing department will be established by the American 
Farm Bureau. I do not want to say anything here that will be 
misunderstood, but I am confident that a paid secretary will be 
established in the office of the Farm Bureau to look after the 
fruit interests of the country — the thing which we have been 
talking about in the American Pomological Society. . What will 
be his duties? To send out the marketing information to mem- 
bers of the American Farm Bureau and cooperative associations, 
to State and county units ; transportation problems, legislative 
problems, everything that we have been talking about will be 
the duties of that official. 

The second thing that I believe is coming to the pomological 
interests of America is an organization — I do not know what 
form it will take — where the California citrus exchange, the 
Florida citrus exchange, the members of the federated associa- 
tions of the Northwest, the apple growers, the packing associa- 
tion of New York, the strawberry association of Louisiana, the 
cherry growers of Wisconsin, are going to have a central or- 
ganization through which their problems will be considered, and 
the force, not only of all these large organizations which I have 
mentioned, but of the smaller ones, and of the Farm Bureau 
Federation, will be brought to bear upon legislation, transporta- 
tion and other matters. 

Here is the problem which I want to put to the American 
Pomological Society membership. Will a duplication of effort 
on our part as members of the American Pomological Society get 
us very far? I do not want to criticize. The thing I have in 
mind in bringing this to your attention is this — is there not 
some way by which the American Pomological Society, with its 
long standing, can become that central organization, can direct 
the work of the secretary in charge of the marketing department 
of the American Farm Bureau ? I do not know that there is. I 
make that suggestion for your consideration. It seems to me 
that it will be very difficult to get the fruit growers in Indiana, 
Ohio and Iowa — these central states where the Farm Bureau is 
strong — ^California with its central organization — to pay five 
dollars into the American Pomological Society for the same 
service they get for the ten dollars they pay for membership in 
the State Farm Bureau, and other service in addition. This is 
a practical problem. I do not want to throw cold water ; I simply 



207 

want to bring this to your attention to see if it is not possible 
before it is too late for the American Pomological Society to be- 
come that central organization of the fruit growers of this coun- 
try. I should like to have Professor Paddock, Professor 
Blair and other members in the Central West tell us whether or 
not, on the program I have tentatively outlined, we can go out 
and get a five dollar membership fee for the American Pomo- 
logical Society. Is there not some way that we can combine our 
efforts along this line? 

The President : We have a very fundamental problem 
before us, one that should have very careful attention. 

Mr. Frederic Cranefield: With Professor Greene, it was 
a matter of keen regret to me that the American Pomological 
Society, through its Executive Committee at least, seemed unable 
or unwilling to dominate that conference, and for a considerable 
time thereafter I regretted it. I felt that this Society through 
its Executive Committee had done the pioneer work, if you 
please, and then when the time came we seemed to slip back and 
let somebody else do this work. But after considering it for 
several months I have lost this regret. I am well satisfied with 
the outcome. Especially am I well satisfied since hearing this 
report which we have looked forward to for some time. I wish 
we could have had it last evening when we were discussing the 
President's report. I understand now more clearly than before 
just what this committee intends to do. That is purely a com- 
mercial proposition. The Committee of Twenty-one will use 
their utmost efl:'orts to advance the fruit interests of the country 
in the marketing and sale of fruit and in finding the outlet for 
fruit. It is very largely a dollars and cents proposition, affecting, 
as Mr. Farnsworth has said, both the producer and distributor 
as well as the consumer. Such work belongs properly in the 
hands of such a committee and has the further advantage of 
having the backing of a tremendous organization with almost 
unlimited funds. That has been one drawback in the American 
Pomological Society. We could do everything but raise money. 
But immediately this committee was appointed there was any 
amount of money at its disposal. Therefore is it not better that 
we lay aside all our regrets and any little petty feeling we may 
have had at any time and offer to cooperate with that as- 
sociation ? 



208 

When it comes to the matter of duplication, that has been a 
puzzle to me — how we were to offer our good will and all that 
sort of thing to this Committee of Twenty-one, and then do the 
things which Mr. Farnsworth has outlined in his report — then 
what is left for the American Pomological Society to do? But 
frankly, Mr. President and members, I am not worrying about 
that. I used to worry a great deal years ago, when I was third 
assistant to the janitor of the horticultural department of the 
agricultural college of the State of Wisconsin, about work. I 
was afraid somebody else was going to do the work that I was 
to do. But after a great many years I saw that there is so much 
to do that with all our efforts we can only make a litle dent 
in it. There is still much work for the American Pomological 
Society to do. We have just scratched the surface, and there 
is. more work than this Committee of Twenty-one can do in the 
lifetime of its members. In the meantime let us give to the 
Committee of Twenty-one the right hand of fellowship and lend 
to it all the support possible. 

H. H. Hardie : When this problem came to us it came in 
the form of a marketing proposition, and when this Committee 
of Twenty-one was formed by the Farm Bureau Federation it 
was, as I understood it, a marketing division. When we first 
took up the problem that was what we called it — the marketing 
division of the American Pomological Society. When we got 
into it further and analyzed it, considered what it meant to market 
fruit over the United States, the problem looked so big that it 
frightened us. I do not suppose anybody would dream of try- 
ing to raise a million dollars this year for the American Pomo- 
logical Society ; you would think it out of reason if I were to say 
a million dollars was a small sum to put behind the marketing 
division of the American Pomological Society. It is such a big 
undertaking that there is only one concern that can handle it, 
which is the American Farm Bureau Federation and nobody 
else. There are only two fruits grown in this country that are 
properly marketed ; one is the banana and the other is the cran- 
berry. The marketing of the banana is remarkable, for they 
have it down to such a science that it is almost true that you can 
buy bananas any place at any time at about the same\ price. But 
you find out what it costs — I venture to say it has cost over a 



209 

million dollars for the marketing division of the United Fruit 
Company to market the banana alone. 

This American Pomological Society started out to be a 
scientific organization. We felt if we could get the Federation 
of Farm Bureaus to take up this proposition of marketing Ameri- 
can fruits, there were still plenty of things the American Pomo- 
logical Society could do. It seems to me what it should be more 
than anything else is a clearing house for information pertaining 
to matters connected with the fruit industry, and I do think 
there should be very clear lines established. We ought to have 
a clear program of what we are going to do and what we can do, 
and I am very much against trying to start something we do not 
think we can finish. But I do think we ought to have a clear 
program as to what we are going to do, and also a clear program 
as to what the Farm Bureau is going to do. I do not think it is 
necessary for them to clash. There is so much to do that both 
organizations can be kept busy and can use all the brains and 
money at their command, and still leave a lot of things undone. 

It seems to me the most important thing to do at this time is 
to have a clear understanding of the program, of what the 
American Pomological Society is going to do, and then cooperate 
with the Farm Bureau Federation, so we are not trying to do the 
same thing. I think that could be worked out very easily and the 
two jobs divided. They would naturally interlock to a certain 
extent, but we can have a definite program for both organi- 
zations 

The President : This goes to the root of things with re- 
spect to this Society and we ought to discuss it pretty thoroughly. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene : I would like to hear from Mr. 
Simpson. He is a Farm Bureau man and was a delegate to the 
conference in Chicago. If the American Pomological Society 
deletes from its program all that pertains to marketing, will it be 
easy to go out and sell memberships in the American Pomologi- 
cal Society in the corn belt? 

R. A. Simpson : I believe after this work is started and the 
farmers and fruit men understand the possibilities of what is 
being done by the Committee of Twenty-one, that they have 
something that is feasible, that the Pomological Society will 
naturally develop and get a great many more members through 

14 



210 

the farmers' organization. And since we cannot finance this 
thing first-hand from this end the thing for us to do is to have 
this executive committee of this Committee of Twenty-one, who 
are probably all members of the American Pomological Society, 
represent us, appoint them as our representatives, and in that 
way cooperate with them. We could then get a good member- 
ship and really be the ones who are at the head of this marketing 
organization. 

The President : Mr. Simpson makes the same suggestion 
as Mr. Farnsworth did — to have a committee to stand be- 
tween the two which will represent this Society in the Committee 
of Twenty-one. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene : There is one impression that I 
want to correct. Someone, I believe it was Mr. Cranefield, said 
that there was an unlimited fund immediately available for the 
Committee of Twenty-one. Mr. Farnsworth will tell you that 
the Committee of Twenty-one had no funds. The members paid 
their way to the first meeting. Whether they will ever be re- 
imbursed is a question. So far as I know of the Farm Bureau 
Federation, not one cent from their treasury will go to this Com- 
mittee. It will be financed entirely by the fruit growers and 
fruit growers' organizations. 

R. A. Simpson : I think the American Pomological Society 
might do some good work by throwing out the precaution that 
the Committee of Twenty-one do not undertake more than they 
can put over ; to go step by step, not attempting too much. It 
would be a mistake for this committee to try something and fall 
down. I believe in that way we might be able to do something 
that is worth while. There is no use undertaking something 
that we are not pretty sure we can put over. Better take it step 
by step. 

W. G. Farnsworth : I see that Mr. Simpson has the same 
idea that the Committee of Twenty-one had. They wanted to go 
carefully. They realized the size of the problem they had to 
solve, and that is why these various committees were appointed, 
to meet again in a general committee meeting later on. As Pro- 
fessor Greene said, the committee financed itself. A good many 
of the larger organizations in California and Florida are taking 
care of the expenses of their delegates, and they have an un- 
limited fund to fall back upon. 



211 

Mr. Cranefield: I stand corrected, Mr. President. I was 
under the impression that this work was to be financed wholly 
by the American Farm Bureau Federation. 

W. G. Farnsworth : Not the preliminary work. 

Mr. Cranefield: Will it later? 

W. G. Farnsworth : Yes. 

Mr. Cranefield: If the Committee does not derive sup- 
port from the Farm Bureau Federation, from what source is. 
it expected that the support will be derived? I am asking this 
question, not to inquire into the work of the Committee, but I 
am trying to arrive at something. 

W. G. Farnsworth : The American Farm Bureau has of- 
fered us help in the way of furnishing a secretary to take care 
of this work of collecting data and information, but they have 
not offered us financial aid to take care of the expenses of this 
Committee of Twenty-one. A number of the members of the 
Committee said they believed their State associations would take 
care of the expense for the preliminary work until something 
definite comes out of the work, and then that it will be taken 
care of by the American Farm Bureau Federation, we hope. 

Frederic Cranefield: I am trying to fix this thing clearly. 
The expenses of the Committee of Twenty-one is an insignificant 
matter ; it will not amount to much one way or another. But the 
field of work you have outlined is not insignificant ; it will cover 
years and years and will take hundreds of thousands of dollars 
to complete it. It is quite likely that the Committee has already 
looked ahead to see the sources from which that money is com- 
ing, just as the American Pomological Society is looking ahead. 
I want to repeat that it is quite within the province of this Com- 
mittee to do this work, and the thing for us to do is to cooperate, 
unless they try to cover the whole field of horticulture, market- 
ing, distribution, and everything else in the whole wide world, 
and if they attempt to do that then there is nothing left for the 
American Pomological Society to do. That seems to be pretty 
nearly the way it has been outlined — marketing, transportation, 
publicity. I am anxious at this rhoment to know what the 
American Pomological Society is going to do and what is the 
work of the Committee of Twenty-one. 

Professor Laurenz Greene : I would like to say one word 
in regard to financing the Committee. The Committee of Seven- 



212 

teen on grains was financed by donations from various State 
farm bureaus, I think about six or seven states, not from the 
treasury of the American Farm Bureau Federation. The live- 
stock committee was financed by about five states, and the dairy 
committee is being financed by the dairy people, not from col- 
lections made from State farm bureaus. But it was the feeling 
of the Committee of Twenty-one that this work, if sufficiently 
important, ought to appeal to the fruit interests for their support 
and would go over in a much better way than if it were sup- 
ported by donations from farmers who had no fruit interests. 
Therefore it is the intention that whatever financing is done shall 
be done by collections from fruit growers, either individually or 
through associations. 

H. H. Hardie : I want to give you some light on this 
financing proposition. Possibly I was misunderstood in my re- 
marks. I did not want to convey the idea that it was my opinion 
that there were a million dollars back of the Federation of Farm 
Bureaus for this particular proposition. But there is back of this' 
Committee the biggest farm organization in the world, with all its 
resources. For instance, they have an attorney who looks after 
their legal affairs who gets a salary of $15,000 a year. They 
liave other salaried men looking after legislation, they have other 
men looking after transportation. Now this fruit division of 
the Farm Bureau Federation will be financed by the fruit grow- 
ers themselves, but they will have free access to all of the exist- 
ing organizations of the Farm Bureau Federation. They will 
have the assistance and help of the Washington office, the New 
York office, and the other general offices. They have an or- 
ganization. We call a meeting of the American Pomological 
Society and get fifty members from nearby territory. The Farm 
Bureau Federation calls a meeting and they get members from 
California to Maine. We all hope to see the time when the 
American Pomological Society can have as much influence or 
more than the Federation of Farm Bureaus, but you must look 
the thing in the face. At the time this thing was started we were 
getting $2.00 each from five hundred people and saw no way of 
getting any more, and it did look to the executive committee 
that we could not see our way to take up this bigger proposition, 
and we thought if the American Federation of Farm Bureaus 
could accomplish it quicker than we, it would be all right. We 



213 

did not care who did it so long as it was done ; the important 
thing was to have the work done. At the same time we did not 
think there was any necessity for there being a clash of activities 
between the Farm Bureau Federation and the American Pomo- 
logical Society. There is plenty of work for both organizations 
if we use both of them in the best way. 

R. A. Simpson": I would like to suggest that we make a 
special effort to get all the members of the committee of Twenty- 
one to belong to the American Pomological Society. Most of 
liiem do, but I think that is important. 

The President: I think the Secretary will look after that. 
Mr. Farnsworth and Mr. Simpson suggested that there should 
be some sort of a committee appointed to represent the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society with the Committee of Twenty-one. 
Will you take up that suggestion for action? 

W. G. Farnsworth: Might I offer this suggestion? At 
our meeting it was decided that our Chairman should call for 
representatives from the various associations throughout the 
United States, and we would like to know who to call. We want 
some responsible official appointed so we will know who repre- 
sents the American Pomological Society. Mr. Nicols will then 
notify him to come to the meeting of the Committee in January. 

W. S. Perrine : I would suggest that this committee as 
far as possible be made a committee that already exists so there 
will not be a duplication. 

The President: That was the idea, that there should be 
some person delegated by this Society as representative in case 
the Committee of Twenty-one wishes to confer with the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society and have it represented at this .meeting. 

Prof. J. C. Blair : It would seem a good idea to have one 
representative that could be called upon as our representative, 
and I would suggest that Mr. Farnsworth would be the proper 
man. 

W. G. Farnsworth : I want to be clearly understood. I 
would be willing to serve, but I believe it would be advisable to 
have some person who is a member of the American Pomological 
Society but not; now a member of the Committee of Twenty-one 
appointed to confer with this Committee. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene : I would like to move that the 



214 

presiding" officer, whoever he may be, should be that representa- 
tive. 

(Motion seconded.) 

The President : Do you mean the President ? 

Prof. Greene: If he is in this country; if not, the active 
presiding officer. 

(Motion carried.) 

Paul C. Stark : I have Ijeen Hstening to what has been 
said on this subject and I beHeve that everybody here who is in- 
terested, directly or indirectly, in the good of the fruit growers 
wishes well for the Committee of Twenty-one, because it is fund- 
amental. It means that the fruit growers' position will be 
strengthened and improved, and if that is true it affects us all. 
I believe anyone who goes around the country and sees the lack 
of interest among a lot of fruit growers, in spite of the work 
of colleges and experiment stations, will realize that probably 
here is a way to handle the situation. The country is mighty big, 
and if there are 500,000 fruit growers in this country this Com- 
mittee of Twenty-one has a big job on its hands. I am a mem- 
ber of the Farm Bureau Federation and am deeply interested in 
the work they are doing. It will affect me directly and indirectly. 
But there is so much to be done that in spite of all their other 
agencies I believe the American Pomological Society has a big 
place to fill. I would like to see this Society get five thousand 
members in this coming year. We have this work laid out be- 
fore us and I think we should cooperate to the fullest extent 
with the Committee of Twenty-one. because their success will be 
our success, and I believe there^ is more than enough work for 
both organizations. I would like to see the fullest cooperation 
and the best results for the good of the fruit growers. 

C. H. Waid : Bringing it closer home, we have the same 
situation within the States that we have been discussing here. 
We have in Ohio a fine Horticultural Society, and we have a 
Farm Bureau. At the last annual meeting of the State Horti- 
cultural Society we appointed a committee to consider the re- 
lationship between the Farm Bureau and the State Horticultural 
Society, and that committee has announced that there has been 
an additional committee or council appointed representing the 
important fruit-growing counties, and that committee is work- 
ing very closely in cooperation both with the State Horticultural 



215 

Society and the State Farm Bureau. There is no clash what- 
ever; they are working hand in hand. We feel there is a field 
for both and both working together they can accomplish more 
than can be accomplished independently. I believe the same 
thing is true so far as the national movement is concerned. The 
men who are working on this problem are men of experience, 
men who are thinking deeply, and it seems to me the time will 
come when this problem will be in much better shape than at the 
present. I do not see any reason why there should not be the 
closest co-operation between the State farm bureaus and the 
State horticultural societies, and between the American Pomo- 
logical Society and the American Farm Bureau Federation. 

Prof. Laurenz Greene : I do not believe there is any pos- 
sibility of a clash ; that is the farthest from my thought. I wish 
to ask this body, if the fruit growers of America (forgetting the 
Farm Bureau) through their local and State associations organize 
a national association, will the American Pomological Society be 
interested in having any official connection with it? An associa- 
tion of fruit growers only. 

Mr. Frederic Cranefield: I do not quite understand Pro- 
fessor Greene's division. I am not at all afraid of a clash. It is 
duplication I am afraid of. There is no use in two organizations 
attempting to do the same thing at the same time. But your idea 
of a fruit growers' organization is not quite clear. You ask if 
the American Pomological Society would affiliate. That is some- 
thing in the future. But my thought is that there would be 
duplication of eft'ort. I do not believe there is a place for an- 
other national fruit growers' association. 



WATER TRANSPORTATION FOR APPLES 

M. L. Dean, 
Washington 

In taking up the discussion of Water Transportation of Ap- 
ples there is a factor which enters into the subject tending strong- 
ly toward the educational side of the question. The education 
of the matter or rather a clear understanding of the problem 
enters into the distribution of the product really more than it 



2l6 

does into the transportation. It is not a difficult matter to as- 
semble the fruit on the western coast and embark it by water for 
the foreign or eastern U. S. ports. But it is' difficult to make the 
dealers and jobbers of the East see that it is of equal advantage 
to him to have fruit transported to him as it is to have it de- 
livered across the country through all kinds of weather, subject 
to all degrees of damage over the steel rails. There are of course 
some questions in connection with the diversions of what we 
might call "tramp cars" which might be difficult to solve but in 
my judgment that practice should be eliminated as much as pos- 
sible and for that reason I believe the water transportation might 
solve some of those objections. 

Previous to the recent war there was much agitation of this 
subject and several ships were in the process of construction for 
the refrigerator transportation of fruit but conditions of course 
immediately changed and the matter has not again come promi- 
nently before the people until within the past two years. Last 
season some shipments were made and the delivery was made in 
A. I condition. This has encouraged this method of transporta- 
tion until this season there have been a number of boats equipped 
which have been moving large quantities of fruit. Some of the 
larger organizations in the west are contemplating the establish- 
ment of independent boat lines for the delivery of their product 
to the outside markets. As the fruit industry increases in the 
west, ample rail transportation almost seems impossible and this 
is one avenue whereby relief can be secured. 

It is a fact that the availability of refrigerator ships for the 
carrying of apples into foreign ports has been a long established 
service, and the features of that manner of movement need not 
be discussed, but as the movement of apples from the West to 
the East Coast by water is new and not thoroughly understood, 
the details of such movement will bear explanation. Of course 
there is no radical difference between the movement of apples 
by water from Coast to Coast than the movement of apples to 
foreign ports, with the exception that the intercoastal movement 
comes into competition with the rail carriers and for that reason 
the advantages of both means of shipment should be compared. 

Since the opening of the Panama Canal, steamships with 
common storage facilities have been available to apple shippers 
out of the Port of Seattle, but as yet apple shippers seem loath to 



217 

trust their apples to these ships, in view of the uncertain factor of 
ventilation. Ventilation in these ships is accomplished in several 
manners. The first is by the simple draft created by the motion 
of the ship. This current of air passes thru ventilators and is dis- 
tributed into the hodes, passes up, and goes out, after circulating 
through the fruit, into the open air again. Of course the tem- 
perature -of fruit, under this system, follows closely the different 
temperatures of the air through which the ship passes. Under 
this system, the record of one ship showed an average temperature 
of 69 degrees for the entire voyage thru the Canal. The highest 
recorded temperature was 74 degrees at which time the tempera- 
ture of the air in the shade was 88 degrees, F., and the tempera- 
ture of the water 85 degrees F. 

The second manner of ventilation is by forced air — the 
electric fans being so arranged that the air is sucked in, or ex- 
pelled thru the ventilators. This system is uniformly successful 
on North Atlantic shipments. 

A third plan has been tried which has the merit of main- 
taining several degrees lower temperature than the air thru which 
the ship passes. This method consists of placing fans down low 
in the ship's hold, under the water line, next to the skin of the 
ship. The temperature of the air at this point is always that 
of the water thru which the vessel passes, and is considerably 
lower than summer temperatures of the air and also considerably 
warmer than freezing temperatures of the outside air: 

It is only very recently that refrigerator steamships have 
been available for carrying apples from Coast to Coast. The 
first ship in this service left Seattle November 12th. At the time 
of her loading in Seattle, she was inspected by a representative of 
the Wenatchee Valley Traffic Association, and by a Government 
Fruit Transportation and Storage specialist. They inspected the 
ship in regard to her insulation, refrigerating machinery and man- 
ner of stowing of apples. During her voyage from Coast to 
Coast she will have on board a representative apple grower who 
will watch the temperatures from day to day. The result of this 
trial shipment should be available by the first of the year. 

To show the elaborate equipment for refrigerating purposes, 
the following data of the SS Deerfield is given. The Deerfield 
has a gross tonnage of 7,551 tons and a net tonnage of 4,644 tons. 
Her length is 435 feet; breadth 58 feet; depth 27 feet. Her 



2l8 

refrigerating plant consists of three single York type 80 ton unit 
engines. These engines were constructed by the York Manufac- 
turing Company, in 1919. Her general system is CO2 Brine Cir- 
culating. Insulation consists of Mineral Wool and Slab Cork. 
Her entire system has been tested by Lloyds and found to be 
more than ample for the needs of the ship. Under working condi- 
tions she maintained 13 degrees F. below zero for the entire 
ship for a period of two weeks. The refrigerated space is divided 
into fourteen separate compartments in any one of which any 
degree of temperature may be maintained independently of any 
of the others. Her total refrigerated space is 413, 673 cubic feet. 
It might be added that the general figure for the stowage factor 
of apples may be placed at two cubic feet per box which would 
mean this ship's total carrying capacity was about 207,000 boxes 
of apples. 

Other ships of like capacity may be furnished as the de- 
mand requires. At the present time, there are nine intercoastal 
steamship lines into the Port of Seattle, the majority of which 
would be capable of use for ventilated space. Their carrying 
capacity of course far exceeds any demand that the apple ship- 
pers would put upon them. 

The following is the manner in which a shipment of apples 
will move from Yakima or Wenatchee to any East Coast port 
and all the incidents of the shipment are given. When space has 
been secured in advance aboard any steamer from Seattle, the 
interior shippers are notified of the date of loading of the ship, 
in sufficient time for them to load and dispatch cars to Seattle. 
The cars used for this purpose may be ordinary box cars with- 
out the equipment of heaters or other paraphernalia. For this 
reason, shipments may be gotten off promptly, even during ex- 
treme car shortages, for the equipment used in bringing apples 
to this Coast may be of such a character as would not be suitable 
for a trans-continental rail haul. 

The only freezing temperatures to be encountered on the 
westward haul, would be on the eastern side of the Cascade 
Mountains and these would not be over a few hours in duration. 
Once consignments passed the summit, the mild Puget Sound 
climate will not endanger them. Upon arrival at Seattle, the 
apples may go into suitable storage facilities on a number of the 



219 

piers. Many piers may furnish ample frost proof storage facili- 
ties, and other piers can furnish cold storage room. 

Special attention is called to the Spokane Street Pier, which 
was constructed primarily for the apple trade and has unexcelled 
equipment. The apples being unloaded on the wharf, and the 
ship having arrived, the next feature is loading from wharf to 
ship. This is usually accomplished by loading by hand on to 
small flat cars, holding about forty boxes per car, drawn by 
electric tractors in trains of five or six. These trains move from 
the storage pile on the dock to the ship's side. The ship's tackle 
then grabs the entire platform, from the small car, which is usual- 
ly called an aeroplane and the forty boxes are hoisted without 
further touching up and over the ship's side and lowered into 
her hold. From place of rest in the ship's hold, they are conveyed 
by the roller conveyors used in apple packing houses to the place 
in the ship's hold where they are finally stowed. 

As each tier of apples is placed, dunnage in the form of 
1-3 strips is laid along the ends of the boxes, so that the super- 
imposed tier rests on the dunnage and not at all on the thin box 
boards. This dunnage extending laterally thru piles of boxes 
binds the whole cargo into a solid unit so that it cannot shift. 
The entire weight of the cargo is carried on the extreme ends of 
the boxes. Unloading is just the reverse of the method just -de- 
scribed, with the exception that this being perishable refrigerated 
cargo, it is either discharged upon a heated pier or any cold 
storage warehouse, or directly to the receiver's conveyance, so 
that the cargo is not exposed for any appreciable length of time 
to either heat or cold. 

The present rates for this class of service are slightly less 
than the thru rail rate. The rates on ventilated ships are even 
less. Advocates of shipment by railway contend that the diversion 
feature of cars upon route makes their marketing sure. How- 
ever, there should be in the Eastern ports a market for fruit that 
would be actually consumed in such ports, wherein the perfect 
condition of the fruit should be a primary consideration. The 
receiver shall be the actual consumer of the fruit and not merely 
a speculative broker. Upon the regular establishment of the re- 
frigerator service, the rates on apples should be lowered to such 
a point as to permit of a back haul from Atlantic Coast ports. 
Rates on ventilated ships now permit of this feature. 



220 

The time of transit from Yakima or Wenatchee to New 
York may be roughly set at thirty 4ays. This may be relatively 
certain in view of the fact that a ship which is a large unit, is 
very costly to operate and equally costly in the matter of de- 
murrage per day varies with the size of the ship, from several 
hundred to several thousand dollars per day; hence ships must 
move rapidly to be profitable. 

This is not so imperative with the smaller unit of a railway 
car, which may be side-tracked, become in bad order, run into a 
snowbank, may be derailed or suffer numerous other delays for 
which there is no appreciable loss, in the nature of demurrage, to 
the operator. 

At the present time, apples may be received with equal facility 
by rail or water in any port save that of New York. In the Port 
of New York, apples are received over the Erie Pier upon which 
is located the fruit auction. This pier is not available because 
of depth of water to ocean going ships, but other piers close by 
are convenient. 

It is the present intention of the Port Authority of New 
York to construct, and construction has commenced, on a $2,- 
000,000 terminal, intended expressly for the receivers of perish- 
able produce. This terminal should be available by next season. 
Other cold storage plants in New York, Brooklyn and Jersey 
City are at present available for apple shipments, but owing to 
the custom of selling across the Erie Pier, New York receivers 
are slow to accept shipments in any other manner than over the 
Erie Pier. However, this objection would have no valid weight 
with those receivers who are not ordering apples for speculative 
purposes, or who do not expect to divert cars in transit. 

A railroad car at best is too small a unit to demand personal 
supervision in transit. In the summer, cars are iced. In winter, 
they are heated, but there is no record kept of variation of tem- 
peratures of melting of ice or of overheating by lamps, or freez- 
ing because the same have been extinguished. In contrast to this, 
consider the costly and extensive equipment of a refrigerator ship, 
which at all times, day and night, is in charge of a certified engi- 
neer, whose duty is to maintain within a degree any temperature 
shippers may indicate. For apples, shippers have designated 35 
degrees P., and this temperature shippers may be absolutely 
certain will be maintained without variance during the entire 



221 

voyage. So this opportunity is open for shippers to place on the 
Eastern Seaboard their fruit in perfect condition. 

Shipments by water carry Marine Insurance, and in case of 
loss thereunder it is the pride of insurance companies to adjust 
such losses within a period of thi_rty days. Claims for loss on 
railway are at the tender mercies of the claim department. 

Consider the ship as a cold storage plant. Apple shippers 
may actually personally see their fruit go into such cold storage 
plant, in Seattle, and absolutely know that such fruit will arrive 
at destination in exactly the same condition in which they last 
saw it, hence avoiding any argument with receivers as to condi- 
tion of the fruit. 

Such a method of shipment warrants apple men in sending 
their very best and costliest fruit by water route as soon as con- 
ditions in the east are adjusted so that present objections by ill 
advised dealers are removed. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE TO AWARD WILDER 
MEDALS 

Your Committee recommend the following awards : 

SILVER MEDALS 

1. To Doctor Liberty Hyde Bailey, President of the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society, for his notable contributions to horti- 
culture and his work for the Society. 

2. To the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station, Tus- 
con, Arizona, for an exhibit of leaves, fruit clusters, photographs 
and dried fruit of 2"] varieties of dates, in baskets and boxes. 

3. To J. L. Dumas and R. T. Reid, Washington, for a col- 
lection of 20 varieties of apples of unusual excellence. 

BROXZE MEDALS 

1. To E. A. Riehl. Alton, Illinois, for a collection of i 
variety of walnut, i almond, and 19 varieties of chestnuts, the 
result of cross-breeding. 

2. To the Fruit Products Department of Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, for an interesting and instructive 
exhibit, showing 7 jars of jam and 5 glasses of jelly made from 
10 pounds of grapes ; 1 1 glasses of jelly and 4 jars of butter from 
5 pounds of plums. An exhibit showing food value of fruit and 
fruit products expressed in sugar, and various uses of fruit 
peelings. 

HONORABLE MENTION 

Central Experimental Farms. Ottawa, Canada, for a col- 
lection of 53 seedling varieties of apples, mostly crosses with Mc- 
intosh or Northern Spy, developed for the purpose of securing 
varieties that will be of good quality and cover a long season, or 
show extreme hardiness. 

Ohio Experiment Station, Wooster, for an exhibit of 31 
flats showing 20 of the more valuable commercial sorts for Ohio ; 
also plates of 93 other varieties of apples. 

(222) 



223 

Yakima Valley, Washington, for a commercial exhibit of 
30 boxes showing 6 varieties, the fruit exceptionally well grown 
and handled. 

The California Prune and Apricot Growers, Inc., San Jose, 
California, for an exhibit of Sunsweet prunes in boxes, including 
two cases of prunes put up in 5-cent retail packages ; also photo- 
graphs showing the growing and dr\'ing of prunes. 

O. F. E. Wlnberg, Silverhill, Alabama, an exhibit of kum- 
quats, tangerines and prape fruits. 

Georgia Experiment Station. Experiment, Georgia, a col- 
lection of 27 plates of pecans, including several of much ex- 
cellence. 

Department of Horticulture, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 
Auburn, 11 varieties of pecans of considerable merit. 

Clark Alhs, Medina, New York, an exhibit of bottled cider 
of excellent flavor and neat appearance. 

Food Products Laboratory, College of Agriculture. Berkeley, 
California, a collection of 10 fruit drinks and 5 cans of jam and 
fruit juices. 

Certo Sales Company. Rochester, New York, samples of 
Certo and 62 containers of Certo jelly of various fruit flavors. 

Yuma ]\Iesa Orange Ranch. Yuma, Arizona, exhibit of navel 
oranges and grape fruit. ^ ^ Gourley, 

L. R. Taft, 

Committee. 

Prof. L. R. Taft : I move the adoption of this report. 
(Motion seconded and carried.) 

The President : We will now have the report of the Com- 
mittee on Resolutions. 



REPORT OF CO^vIMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS 

The thanks of the American Pomological Society are due 
the Chamber of Commerce of Toledo for courtesies extended; 
also to Mr. H. V. Buelow for contributions so generously given ; 
also to the Order of Moose for the use of this hall. We are also 
indebted to the Rex Spray Company for a visit to their plant. 

It is also suggested that the Secretary of the American 



224 

Pomological Society take up the matter of legislation regarding 
the standardization of packages in connection with this proposed 
bill. 

Finally, we wish to record in appropriate terms our regret 
at the death of Mr. C. G. Patton of Charles City, Iowa, and we 
hope that an adequate obituary may be published in our annual 

W. Paddock, Chainnan. 

(Moved that this report be adopted. Motion seconded and 
carried). 

The President: Is there anything to come before this 
meeting except the election of offiicers? Any person feel moved 
to express himself on any subject? If not, I will call for the re- 
port of the Nominating Committee. 



REPORT OF NOMINATING COMMITTEE 

Your committee after going over the membership quite care- 
fully beg to report as follows : 

President, L. H. Bailey, New York. 
First Vicc-P resident, Paul C. Stark, Missouri. 
Second Vice-President, W. T. Macoun, Ottawa. 
Sec'y-Treas., R. B. Cruickshank, Ohio. 

ExecU'tiz^e Committee: — 
J. C. B'lair, Illinois. 
F. P. Downing, Indiana. 
Frederic Cranefield, Wisconsm. 
H. H. Hume, Florida. 

F. C. Sears, Massachusetts. 
W. P. Massey, Virginia. 

G. Harold Powell, California. 
C. I. Lewis, Oregon. 

H. H. Hardie, Michigan. 
W. W. Farnsworth, Ohio. 
W. S. Perrine, Illinois. 

W. C. Reed, " 
Signed ^ M. B. Davis, 

F, H. Beach. 



225 

J. H. GouRLEY : I move that the report be adopted and that 
the Secretary be instructed to cast the ballot of the Society for 
these officers. 

(Motion seconded and carried and ballot cast.) 

The following committees for the year were appointed : 

CollegiU'te Membership — F. G. Charles, Ohio ; B. D. Drain, 
Massachusetts; J. W. Crow, Ontario. 

Exhibits and Fairs — R. S. Herrick, Iowa. 

Nezv Fruits — C. P. Close, Washington, D. C. ; N. E. Han- 
sen, South Dakota ; R. A. Simpson, Indiana. 

Foreign Fruits — David Fairchild, Washington, D. C. ; 
George Roeding, California; M. B. Davis, Ontario. 

Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits — Wilson Popenoe, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; H. H. Hume, Florida; J. Eliot Coit, California. 

The President: Is there anything else to come before the 
American Pomological Society at its 38th convention? 

I wish before adjourning to express my very great apprecia- 
tion of the helpfulness of all the members and the promptness 
with which you tried to get together. I have also appreciated 
the spirit of good fellowship that has run throughout the con- 
vention and the desire to put the Society in a position where it can 
do useful work for all the people. 

The Society now stands adjourned s^ine die. 



SECOND 
POMOLOGICAL ANNUAL 

1921 

(227) 



CODE OF FRUIT NOMENCLATURE, 
AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

This code aims to establish a simple and clear system of 
pomological nomenclature that shall be appropriate and stable. 
Accordingly it is urged that all persons naming new varieties of 
fruits choose simple one-word names that are fittingly expressive 
of some character, quality, place, person, or event associated .with 
the source, time or place of origin of the variety. 

The paramount right of the originator, discoverer, or in- 
troducer of a new variety to name it, within the limitations of 
this code, is recognized and established. 

The term "kind" as herein used shall be understood to apply 
to those general classes of fruits which are grouped together in 
common usage without regard to their exact botanical relation- 
ship, as apple, cherry, grape, peach, plum, raspberry, etc. 

I. FORM OF NAMES. 

1. Names of new varieties shall be of one word preferably, 
but two words may be accepted. Names of existing varieties 
shall not be changed in such way as to lead to confusion or loss 
of identity. 

2. The spelling and pronunciation of a variety name shall 
be the same as that of the person, place, substance, circumstance, 
or quality from which it is derived. 

3. A possessive noun shall not be used. 

4. Initials should not be used as a part of a variety name. 

5. A name shall not be formed by the compounding or 
hyphenating of two or more existing names, but this does not 
prohibit the formation of a one-word name by the use of parts 
of two or more existing names. The hyphen shall not be used 
between the words of a name. Thus, neither Bartlett-Seckel nor 
Bar Seek may be used, but Barseck is admissible. 

6. Such general terms as seedling, hybrid, beurre, damson, 
pippin, rareripe, bigarreau, should not be used. 

(229) 



230 

7- A variety imported from a foreign country should retain 
its foreign name, subject only to such modification as is necessary 
to conform it to this code, and provided that names having a 
recognized English equivalent may be, but are not necessarily, so 
rendered. 

8. The name of a person shall not be applied to a variety 
in his lifetime without his consent. 

9. The name of a deceased person shall not be applied to a 
variety except through formal action by some competent pomo- 
logical body, preferably that with which the deceased was most 
closely associated. 

II. PRIORITY, USAGE AND DUPLICATION. 

ID. The name first published for a variety shall be the ac- 
cepted and recognized name except when contrary to the pro- 
visions of this code ; but names established by usage in American 
pomological literature may be retained even though they do not 
conform to these rules. 

I. A name once used shall not be used again for a variety 
of the same kind except that a name once established through 
long usage for two or more American varieties shall not be dis- 
placed for either or radically modified only when a well-known 
synonym can be used in its place ; or when no such synonym is 
available, the varieties bearing identical names may be distin- 
guished by the addition of the name of the author whO' first de- 
scribed each, or by some other suitable distinguishing term. 

III. PUBLICATIONS AND DESCRIPTION. 

12. Publication consists in: (i) The public distribution of 
a printed name and description or characterization of the fruit ; 
(2) the publication of a new name for a variety described else- 
where under a dififerent name, number, or other untenable desig- 
nation, the synonym being given. 

13. Publication of a name may be made in any book, 
bulletin, report, trade catalog or periodical of public distribution 
and bearing date of issue. 

14. But a varietal name may be established by current 
usage in the locality of its origin, when well known, and shall be 



231 

considered as published and have precedence over a later printed 
name for the same variety. 

15. Complete description of a variety consists of a detailed 
account of the characteristics of the plant, foliage, flowers, fruit, 
and habit of growth, so as to distinguish it from other varieties 
of similar appearance. 

fc'' 16. The type of a variety is the fruit of the original plant; 
and type descriptions or illustrations shall be made from material 
produced by the original plant, or when this is not available, from 
a plant as near as possible to the original in asexual reproduction, 
and preferably grown in the same pomological region. 
As revised December 21, 1921. by 

H. P. Gould, 
U. P. Hedrick, 
W. H. Chandler, 

Comimittee on Fruit Variety Nomenclature. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEW FRUITS FOR 1921 

C. P. Close, 
Chairman 

The chairman of this committee was appointed early in 1921, 
but it seems that no other members were appointed. Miss Mag- 
dalene R; Newman of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture has given most valuable aid in assembling the informa- 
tion in this report and her help is most gratefully acknowledged 
by the chairman. 

This committee report is really developing into a check list 
of all varieties of fruits ever introduced into the United States 
and Canada, rather than consisting of only the really new or 
little known varieties. This will be of immense value in the nam- 
ing of new fruits and is a history of varieties. 

To those who do not have the report of 1920 it is necessary 
to explain that these lists supplement earlier lists published in 
certain books or bulletins. Hedrick's "Peaches of New York", 
the committee report of 1920, and this report, contain all the 
names and information we can find on peach varieties. The same 
is true of cherries and plums using Hedrick's books on these 
fruits as standard guide lists. With grapes, Hedrick's "Grapes 
of New York" is used as a guide, but the hundreds of vinifera 
varieties introduced into California have not yet been listed in 
the committee reports. Pagan's "Nomenclature of the Apple", 
Beach's "Apples of Ntew York", the report of 1920 and this re- 
port, contain all the apple varieties we have found. Pagan's 
"Nomenclature of the Pear" and these reports contain our in- 
formation on pears. In the same way Card's Bush Fruits and 
Fletcher's Technical Strawberry Bulletin No. 11 of the Virginia 
Experiment Station, together with this committee's reports, in- 
clude all names of bush fruits and strawberries we can locate. 

With the other fruits and the various nuts there are no 
guide lists but the hope is to complete the lists in time. 

It is understood that the committee simply reports the in- 
formation it gathers and passes it along without vouching for its 

(232) 



233 

accuracy or changing names which do not conform to the So- 
ciety's code of nomenclature. 

ERRORS IN THE REPORT FOR I92O. 

A few errors crept into the 1920 report and are corrected as 
follows : — 

Dtmcan apple should be Duncan (of Washington) as there 
was an earlier Duncan. 

Ice Cream apple should be Icq Cream (of Oregon) as there 
are two other varieties by this name. 

Sasha is not a crabapp'le, it should be listed with the apples. 

Come Johnson peach should be Cone Johnson. 

Longhina peach should be Toughina. 

Mealing peach — In the notes the address of Fruitland 
Nurseries is given as Atlanta, it should be Augusta instead. 

Silver Cross peach should be Silver Press. 

Wharton's C. of R. D. peach should be Wharton's C. of R. 

Dick Damson plum should be Deck Damson, 

Ogibzm plum should be Ojibwa. 

Primlew plum should be Prinlew. 

Riibol blueberry should be Rubel. 

Earliest Ripe strawberry is the same as Earliest. 

Grand Marie, Maryland, Peerless, and World Wonder 
strawberries are listed by Fletcher and should not have been in- 
cluded. 

Warren strawberry may be the Warren given by Fletcher 
who lists Lady Corneille as Corneille, John H. Cook as John 
Cook, Joe Crampton as Crampton, and Greensboro Favorite as 
Greensboro. 

The present chairman of this committee is being continued 
for 1922 and he would appreciate hearing from any one who 
has knowledge of any new variety of fruit. 

APPLE 



> 



Ada Red: Originated by A. G. Philpott near Springtown, Washington 
^ County, Ark. Fruit medium or above, roundish ; color yellow nearly 

i covered with red and broken stripes of purplish crimson; flesh 

whitish, tender, fine grained, mild subacid, good. August. U. S. 

Dept. Agr., B. P. I., Bull. 275 



234 

Adno: (Provisional name), N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D. Received 
from Russia. "Very handsome, large, red, subacid, productive, late 
fall apple." 

Alberta: Pyrus baccata x Haas, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit 1 6/10 inches across by Ij/^ inches 
deep, round, somewhat flattened, slightly ribbed; stem Yz inch long; 
color greenish yellow with bright red cheek; flesh nearly white, 
juicy, slightly astringent, fair to good. September and October. 
Tree vigorous, productive. 

Allgold: Seedling of Wagener, originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, 
Cal. Fruit of fine size, clear golden color; flesh non-fibrous, crisp, 
juicy, tree productive, bears a full crop every season; a good keeper. 

Angus: Seedling of Dean x Ontario, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or below, roundish, 
slightly ribbed ; cavity narrow, medium depth, wrinkled ; color yel- 
low, washed with pinkish red ; flesh yellow, crisp, breaking, mod- 
erately juicy, briskly subacid, fair. October and November. 

Anson: Seedling of Winter St. Lawrence, originated at the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Reported in 191(>; fruit medium 
size, roundish, slightly ribbed, pale yellow, almost white, thinly 
splashed and streaked with carmine ; flesh white, fine grained, tender, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, flavor like Fameuse, quality good to very 
good. October and November. 

Aroostook: Originated on the farm of S. S. Stiles, Mapleton, Aroostook 
County, Maine, about 1870. Fruit small, roundish-conical, light 
golden russet ; flesh fine grained, sweet, good. Season to July in 
Aroostook County. Tree vigorous, hardy, productive. Bull. 143, 
Maine Exp. Sta. 

August Greening: Originated with General Nowell, Bangor, Maine, about 
1850. Fruit large, roundish-conical, dark green with reddish 
blotches ; flesh rich, tender, juicy, sprightly acid, good. August. 
Tree hardy, spreading, productive. Bull. 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Autumn Russet: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Cal., "Medium size, fine 
quality, crimson." 

Barbarie: Fruit roundish-oblate; basin wide, deeply ribbed; dull yel- 
lowish green, splashed with dark red ; flesh firm, flavor somewhat 
puckery and not very pleasant. A cider apple but not very promising. 
October. Spec. Bull. 48, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Battle: Seedling of Wealthy, originated by the Central Experiment Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada ; reported in 1910. Fruit above medium to large,.! 
roundish-conic ; cavity deep, medium width ; stem short to medium, 
stout; basin medium width, medium depth, color pale greenish yel- 
low, splashed and washed with bright purplish red ; dots few, yel- 
low, distinct; flesh white, tinged red, firm, crisp, breaking, tender, 
rather coarse, juicy, briskly subacid, aromatic, raspberry-like flavor. 



235 ' 

quality good. Resembles Wealthy. August to early September, 
just before Oldenburg. 

Bayfield: Clinton Falls Nursery Company, Ottawa, Minn. Originated 
by T. E. Perkms, Redwing, Minn. Seedling of Malinda. "Tree 
is a very rapid grower bearing large red apples of splendid quality 
that will keep well up to May lo'th." Introduced by Clinton Falls 
Nursery Company and Wedge Nursery Company, Albert Lea, Minn., 
in 1912. 

Bcda: Seedling of Langford Beauty. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada; reported in 1916. Fruit medium 
size, oblate to roundish, cavity medium depth and width; stem 
medium length, stout ; basin deep, open, wrinkled, calyx open ; color 
pale yellow, thinly splashed and washed with bright carmine ; flesh 
yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant, quality good; Sep- 
tember and October. 

Ben Hur: Fruit large, roundish-oblate; cavity and basin both wide and 
deep ; color similar to a highly colored Ben Davis ; flesh white, 
very firm, juicy, sprightly subacid, good, a better keeper than Ben 
Davis. Bull. 290, Ohio Exp. Sta. 

Bennett: A chance seedling originating about 1883 with S. L. Bennett, 
Medford, Oregon, and belongs in the Winesap Group. Fruit 
roundish-conical, sides often unequal, large to very large; cavity 
large, deep, russeted ; stem short to medium; basin medium size; 
color deep yellow, washed with mixed red and striped with crim- 
son ; flesh yellow, moderately fine grained, juicy, rich, subacid, good 
to very good. November to June in Oregon. From 1908 Year- 
book of the U. S. Dept. of Agr. 

Benzonia: Originated in Benzonia, Mich., on the farm of E. B. Judson 
about 30 years ago. Fruit roundish-oblate to round-conic, large to 
ver)^ large ; skin light yellow, faintly washed with coppery-red on 
one side; cavity very shallow, small; stem very short, very stout; 
basin medium size; flesh pure white, crisp, moderately juicy, sharp 
subacid, good. Tree productive, top spreading. Late summer and 
late fall. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Bilhneyer: Originated about 40 years ago with the late J. H. Billmeyer, 
Hollway, Mich. Fruit large, oblate to roundish-oblate; cavity 
medium size, russeted; stem short, moderately stout; basin medium 
size; skin thick, tenacious, yellow washed with mixed crimson, 
splashed and striped with darker crimson ; flesh yellowish, fine 
grained, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, good to very good. Same 
season as Tompkins King. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Blanc Mollett: A small unpromising cider apple, oblate-conic; yellow 
mostly covered with red and indistinctly striped ; flesh very firm, 
dry, tough, bitter and puckery, very poor. Spec. Bull. 48, Mich. 
Exp. Sta. 



236 

Blankenship Sweet: Rose Hill Nursery, Annamoriah, West Virginia. 
Originated by George Blankenship, Anna Maria Flats, W. Va. ; 
said to be a chance seedling. Fruited first in 1912; fruit very large, 
greenish yellow, striped and splashed with red; September and 
October. Introduced by Rose Hill Nursery in 1913. 

Blurt on' s luce Core: Planter's Nurseries, Humboldt, Tenn. "Large fine, 
one of the best fall." 

Bohlman: Humphrey Nurseries, Humphrey, Nebr. Originated by Mr. 
Bohlman, 9 miles southwest of Yankton, S. D. Fruit of good size 
and finest quality; a good keeper; tree an early and annual bearer. 

Boiv: Pyrus baccata x Pewaukee. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, yellow 
with faint tinge of red; flesh yellowish white, crisp, juicy, mildly 
subacid, good, not astringent. September and October. Tree vigor- 
ous, fairly productive. 

Braxton: Roanoke Nursery, Roanoke, W. Va. A chance seedling 
originating with J. D. Smyth, Sutton, W. Va. Tree first fruited in 
1910. Introduced by M. M. Havener and Sons, Roanoke, W. Va. 
Fruit of yellowish color, flesh juicy, subacid; very late keeper. 

Brock: Seedling of Mcintosh, originated . by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish; cavity medium size, 
slightly russeted; stem short, stout; basin medium size; color yel- 
low, splashed and washed with orange red ; flesh yellowish, tender, 
moderately juicy, subacid, vinous, good. September and October. 
Fruited first in 1908. 

Broome: Parentage unknown. Originated at the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Geneva, N. Y. Fruit medium or above in size, 
roundish to oblate-conic, usually completely overspread with dark 
red; flesh yellowish, firm, moderately juicy, mild, subacid, aromatic, 
good ; tree vigorous, upright spreading, rather late to come into 
bearing, medium productive. January and later. 

Bruno: Seedling of Scott Winter, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, oblate; cavity 
medium size; stem short, rather stout; basin deep, medium width, 
wrinkled ; skin greenish yellow, washed with dark orange and 
purplish red; flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy subacid, quality above 
medium. November to January. Resembles Scott Winter. 

Burton: From M. Sharpe, Vacaville, Calif. Fruit large, roundish- 
angular, pale green splashed with red, fairly good. October and 
November. 

Burton (of New Brunswick) : Originated in New Brunswick, Canada. 
Fruit above medium, roundish to oblate ; cavity narrow, medium 
depth; russeted; stem short; basin open, medium depth; color 
yellow, washed with attractive crimson ; flesh dull white, rather 
coarse, firm, moderately juicy, subacid, sprightly, pleasant, fair 
to good. 



237 

Carlton: Pyrus baccata x Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit very small ; stem more than 
one inch long; color red tinged orange or deep red; flesh firm, 
crisp, juicy, rather acid, quite astringent, fair. September and 
October. Tree vigorous, productive, very ornamental when in 
bloom. 

Cascade: From W. A. Robinson, Lake Side, Wash. Fruit medium to 
large, oblate-conic, rich yellow covered with dark red; flesh sub- 
acid, vinous, pleasant, good. Winter. 

Charles: Pyrus baccata x Tekofsky. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, slightly 
ribbed; stem rather long; color yellow; flesh yellowish, solid, 
crisp, juicy, pleasant, mildly acid, slightly astringent. Tree upright, 
vigorous, medium productive. September. 

Chelsea: Said to have originated in Washtenaw County, Mich. Fruit 
same size and shape as Swaar, yellow with red dots, a long keeper. 
Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Cherry field: Originated with the late Wyman B. Collins, Cherryfield, 
Maine, about 1857. Fruit large, roundish-conical, yellowish-green, 
washed and splashed on the side with crimson ; stem medium length, 
stout; cavity moderately deep; flaring; basin small, irregular; flesh 
greenish white, crisp, tender, fine grained, mild acid, good. Novem- 
ber to February. Tree vigorous, hardy, spreading, productive. Bull. 
143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Cliesebro-Spy: Originated as a bud sport on a Northern Spy tree about 
50 years ago on the farm of C. C. Chesebro, South Haven, Mich. 
Fruit large, 33^ inches in diameter, roundish ; cavity broad, deep ; 
stem medium long, stout; basin broad, shallow; skin thick, tough, 
solid deep bright crimson except a little greenish russet at calyx 
end; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, mild subacid; quality very good. 
Season same as Northern Spy. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

demons: A rather attractive red apple of good size and good quality. 
In season from late fall to mid-winter. Tree hardy and productive. 
Originated by L. A. demons, Storm Lake, Iowa. Bull. 108, Iowa 
Exp. Sta. 

Clivc: Seedling of Wealthy originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish, cavity medium size, 
deep ; stem short, stout ; basin deep, open ; color greenish yellow, 
washed with rich crimson ; flesh dull white, rather coarse, firm, 
crisp, moderately juicy, subacid, good, pleasant. October to 
November. 

Coluinbia (of Macoun) : Originated by the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Pyrus baccata x Broad Green. Fruit small, 
nearly conical, distinctly ribbed; stem medium long; color red with 
stripes and dots of a deeper red, juicy, subacid, pleasant, slightly 
astringent, fairly good. September and October. Tree vigorous, 
fairly productive. 



238 

Cook Szveet: Depot Road Nurseries, Salem, Ohio. "Very large, bright 
yellow, sweet, a good bearer." 

Coolcy Sweet: Originated with J. F. Cooley near Lansing, Mich. Fruit 
small to medium, roundish conical ; cavity medium size, abrupt and 
irregular, inclined to Romanstem ; stem very short, stout, fleshy ; 
basin medium, abrupt, leather-cracked ; skin thin and tender, rich 
yellow, washed and striped with dull red; flesh yellowish, juicy, 
sweet, good. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Conn: Corinth Nurseries, Corinth, Miss. Originated in Northeastern 
Mississippi more than 20 years ago. Said to be a very fine winter 
apple. 

Coppleton: A sweet apple, originating at Coppleton, Mich. Not de-' 
scribed. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Crimson: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Seedling of Garden 
Royal. Deepest almost black crimson, slightly striped yellow, 
delicious, mild, rich, tender, fragrant, productive. October." 

Cromer: A seedling of Swazie. Fruit above medium, roundish, angular; 
cavity medium size ; stem short, stout ; basin medium size ; flesh 
yellow, firm, crisp, moderately juicy, subacid, pleasant, good to 
very good. Late winter apple of the Ribston type. Color green 
thinly washed with pinkish red. 

Dale View Dessert: Fruit medium or below; roundish or oblong-conical; 
color yellow, flecked and patched with russet, sometimes blushed 
with brownish red; cavity small; stem short, slender; basin very 
small; flesh yellow, juicy, subacid, sprightly, rich, good. Tree 
vigorous, upright. Late fall and early winter. Cir. No. 94, Ohio 
Agr. Sta. 

Dan (of Kinne) : Originated with P. F. Kinne. Storm Lake, Iowa. "A 
greenish subacid apple of fair quality." Bull. 108, Iowa Exp. Sta. 

Danville: Seedling of Lawver. Fruit above medium, conical to oblong- 
conical; cavity medium size, russeted ; stem short, rather stout; 
basin open, deep ; color greenish-yellow, washed with deep crimson ; 
flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, subacid, sprightly pleasant, good. 
Winter. 

Dawn: Pyrus prunifolia x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, bright red ; 
flesh white, juicy, crisp, subacid, pleasant, good. September. 

Day: A chance seedling originating with J. W. Day, Crystal Spring, 
Miss. Fruit medium to large, red striped; flesh juicy, crisp, nearly 
sweet, good quality. July and August in Mississippi. 

Deacon Jones: Originated in Pennsylvania. Fruit large to very large, 
roundish-conic to oblong-conic, ribbed; stem short, thick; cavity 
shallow, narrow, prominently lipped ; basin moderately deep, narrow, 
furrowed and wrinkled ; skin thick, tough, slightly rough, waxen 
yellow mottled and washed with red, splashed with carmine ; dots 
conspicuous, whitish large or small; flesh yellowish-white, firm, 



239 

coarse, crisp, tender, juicy, mild subacid, good; core very large, 
open. Tree vigorous, upright spreading. November to March. 
Bull. 364, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Dean (of Macoun) : Pyrus baccata x Wealthy. Originated by the Cen- 
tral Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit too small to be 
of value. 

Dclevan: Originated in Wisconsin. Fruit medium size or below; attrac- 
tive red color ; flesh mild subacid, very good quality. Tree hardy 
and productive. Bull. 108, Iowa Exp. Sta. 

Dcliah: Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif., says this is a very beautiful, 
showy, rather large, almost white apple, briskly acid, making a 
jelly that is exceedingly clear and well flavored. 

Derby (of Macoun) : Pyrus baccata x Transcendent. Originated by the 
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small ; stem 
lJ/2 inch long; color bright red; flesh firm, crisp, juicy, rather acid, 
slightly astringent, fair. September to December. Tree vigorous, 
productive. 

Diana: Seedling of Langford Beauty, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish ; 
cavity medium size; stem medium length, moderately stout; basin 
medium size, wrinkled ; color yellow, washed and splashed with at- 
tractive crimson; flesh white, tinged red, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly 
subacid, aromatic, good. September to November. 

Dixon (of Burge) : "Originated with Airs. Emiline Burge of Ector, Texas, 
in 1898. Tree vigorous and upright. The fruit is clear yellow, 
round, subacid, excellent. July. Introduced by Jno. S. Kerr." 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Doctor Becker: Thompson Nurseries, Waco, Texas. Originated in 
Colorado County, Texas. "Fine quality, sure bearer." 

Dodd: Fruit above medium, oblong; cavity shallow, medium width; stem 
short, stout, sometimes fleshy; basin medium size; color yellow, 
splashed and streaked with bright yellow ; flesh white, crisp, tender, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. Winter. This is of the Gravenstein 
type and is grown on Prince Edward Island. 

Donald: Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium to large, oblate to 
roundish; cavity deep, medium width, russeted ; stem short, stout; 
basin medium size, deep, wrinkled ; color yellow, washed and 
splashed with crimson ; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, rather coarse, 
juicy, subacid; good. October to March. 

Drumbo: Seedling of Winter St. Lawrence originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium to large, 
conical ; cavity deep, russeted ; stem short, stout ; basin deep ; color 
pale yellow, washed and splashed with dark crimson ; dots few, 
gray, conspicuous ; flesh white, rather coarse, tender, juicy, subacid, 
pleasant, good. November to February. Resembles its parent but 
is a better keeper. 



24C 

Early Goodwin: The Milton Nurseries, Milton, Oregon. Originated near 
Milton, Oregon, on the farm of William Goodwin. Fruit large, 
roundish-oblong, whitish-yellow, striped and splashed with bright 
red; flesh white, tender, juicy, subacid, excellent. Tree vigorous, 
upright-spreading, productive. July and August. 

Eastman: Seedling of Fameuse, originated by the late Charles G. Patten, 
Charles City, Iowa. Fruit large, roundish ; cavity large, deep, some- 
what russeted ; stem rather slender, medium length ; basin very 
large and deep, furrowed; skin pale yellow, heavily washed with 
bright red and splashed with carmine ; flesh whitish, tender, rather 
coarse, moderately juicy, mild subacid, pleasant, good. Tree vigor- 
ous, spreading, hardy. Season just after Wealthy. U. S. Dept. 
Agr. Yearbook, 1912. 

Elmer: Seedling of Northern Spy originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish, 
slightly ribbed ; cavity deep, narrow, russeted at base ; stem slender, 
medium length ; basin deep, medium width ; color greenish-yellow, 
washed and splashed with deep crimson, covered with pinkish 
bloom; flesh yellowish, juicy, crisp, tender, subacid, pleasant, good. 
December to late winter. 

Elsa: Pyrus baccata x Yellow Transparent. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, 
slightly ribbed; stem 1 inch long, slender; color bright yellow;' 
flesh fine grained, tender, juicy, rather acid, pleasant, good. August 
and September. Tree vigorous, productive. 

Emery: Fruit medium size, globular, russet washed and streaked with 
red ; stem slender ; cavity moderately deep ; flesh white, fine grained, 
rich, sweet, keeps until May. Bull 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Emilia: Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish-conical, 
greenish-yellow washed and splashed with crimson ; cavity medium, 
deep; stem short, stout; basin medium, deep; dots white, distinct; 
flesh dull white, crisp, juicy, tender, briskly subacid, pleasant, good 
to very good. Resembles Northern Spy in color, shape, flesh and 
flavor. December to April. 

Ensee: Originated on the farm of the late Nelson Cox, Proctorville, 
Ohio. Fruit large, roundish to roundish-oblate, irregular; skin 
pale yellow washed with mixed red and splashed with bright crim- 
son, sometimes overspread with gray; cavity irregular, large, deep, 
russeted, often lipped; stem short, moderately stout; basin deep, 
abrupt, furrowed, downy; flesh yellowish, juicy, subacid, very good. 
Early winter. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 1907. 

Epochal: Arthur F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. "It is clear golden yellow, 
well flavored, has a slight suggestion of grapefruit in its flavor." 

Eric: A Russian seedling originated by the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, conical, slightly angular; 
cavity medium size; stem medium length, stout; basin medium size; 



241 

skin yellow, splashed and streaked with crimson ; flesh white, 
tender, tinged with red, moderately juicy, briskly subacid, pleasant, 
good. October. 

Eurisko: Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Not described. 

Eve: Pyrus baccata x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, ribbed ; color 
bright red; stem short; flesh yellowish, fairly juicy, pleasant, good. 
September. Tree slow grow and fair bearer. 

Fairfield (of Macoun) : Hyslop x Oldenburg. Originated by the Cen- 
tral Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium, oblong; 
color yellow splashed and streaked with bright red ; flesh nearly 
white, juicy, tender, pleasant, very mild subacid, fair to good. 
September. 

Finch: Originated with E. J. Finch, Albion, Mich. Fruit medium size, 
oblate ; cavity shallow, flaring, green and russet ; stem short, stout ; 
basin shallow ; color golden yellow, mostly covered with splashes 
and dots of bright crimson; flesh yellowish white, somewhat coarse, 
firm, crisp, juicy, sprightly subacid, very good to best. Season late 
summer and early fall. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Folwell (Minnesota 237) : Originated by Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, 
Zumbra Heights, Minn. Seedling of Malinda. Tree very vigorous, 
hardy at Zumbra Heights, annual bearer. Fruit slightly irregular, 
very large, roundish, greenish yellow, blushed red or nearly red ; 
flesh tender, moderately fine grained, pleasant subacid, very good. 
Mid-winter — a httle later than Wealthy. 

Forerunner: Seedling of Mcintosh, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish, 
ribbed ; yellow well washed with rich orange-red and crimson ; 
cavity medium, deep ; stem medium to long, stout ; basin medium, 
shallow ; flesh yellowish with red near basin, tender, moderately 
juicy, subacid, little flavor, quality above medium. Mid-August to 
late September. 

Forest: Originated in Wisconsin. Fruit above medium, oblong to 
roundish-conical ; cavity medium size, sometimes lipped, russeted ; 
stem short, stout ; basin medium size, wrinkled ; color greenish 
yellow, washed with dull red; flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, subacid, 
good, pleasant. Winter. Bull. 86, Dominion Exp. Farms, Canada. 

Frank: Pyrus prunifolia x McMahon. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit nearly medium in size, 
nearly round, slightly pyramidal ; skin yellowish white, sometimes 
faintly blushed; flesh white, juicy, crisp, fine grained, subacid, 
slightly astringent. 

Frankford: Originated about 30 years ago with the late Paul Rose, South 
Frankford, Mich. Fruit medium size, roundish, pale yellow, mostly 
covered with bright crimson, somewhat striped with dark crimson; 

16 



242 

cavity narrow, medium depth; stem medium length, fleshy; basin 
very small ; flesh white, very fine grained, melting, juicy, very mild 
subacid, very good. Tree vigorous, spreading. Season late fall and 
early winter. Special Bull. 4-1, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Galatta: Seedling of Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium size, roundish, flat- 
tened at both ends ; cavity deep, open, slightly russeted ; stem short, 
stout; basin deep, open, wrinkled; skin thick, pale yellow, washed 
and splashed with red; flesh white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, 
pleasant, good. Resembles Wealthy somewhat. Late August and 
early September. 

Gallon-: Seedling of Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size or above, 
roundish, slightly ribbed ; yellow, washed with deep orange red ap- 
proaching crimson ; cavity medium ; deep ; stem medium length, 
slender; basin medium, deep; flesh yellowish with traces of red 
near basin, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, spicy, pleasant, good. Flavor 
like Sops of Wine. Season late. September to November. 

Garner: Seedling of Langford Beauty, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, oblate ; cavity 
deep, russeted; stem medium long, slender; basin deep, wrinkled; 
pale greenish-yellow, washed and splashed with dark crimson ; flesh 
white, firm, juicy; subacid, pleasant, good. October. 

Gvlgcr: Fruit large, oblong, yellow washed with mixed red ; dots numer- 
ous ; stem slender; flesh yellowish, subacid, rather rich, good to 
very good, winter. Notes on new fruits U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Gerald: Seedling of Langford Beauty, originated with the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, roundish 
to oblate ; cavity medium size ; stem short to medium, stout ; basin 
deep, medium width ; color yellow, washed with crimson ; flesh 
'white, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. November to 
February. First fruited in 191 L 

Giant Winesap or Keep Late: Continental Plant Company, Kittrell, N. C. 
"Originated by a Mr. Dillard of Virginia. Similar to the famous 
Winesap in color and flavor, but much larger and a much better 
keeper. In fact one of the very best keepers of all apples." 

Giffin: Originated in the orchard of Joseph Giffin, near St. Clairsville, 
Belmont County, Ohio, about 1872. Fruit medium to large, 
roundish-oblate, inclined to conic; stem short to medium, rather 
slender ; cavity wide and deep, russeted ; basin wide and somewhat 
shallow; skin thick, very smooth and glossy, rich bright crimson, 
sometimes showing greenish-yellow under color ; flesh creamy yel- 
low, rather firm, crisp, fine grained, moderately juicy, mild sub- 
acid, fair to good. Bull. 290, Ohio Exp. Sta. 

Girton: Seedling of Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish-conical, 
slightly ribbed, greenish-yellow or yellow, thinly washed with crim- 



243 

son ; dots white, indistinct ; cavity narrow, deep, russeted ; stem 
short, slender to moderately stout; basin medium, deep; flesh dull 
white or yellowish, crisp, tender, subacid, pleasant, spicy, good. 
Resembles Wealthy somewhat in appearance and flesh. November 
to March. 

Golden (of Macoun) ; Pyrus prunifolia x Golden Russet. Originated by 
the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, 
round, flattened at ends; color bright yellow; flesh fairly juicy, 
rather sweet, slightly astringent, good. Last of August and Sep- 
tember. 

Golden Aiken: Reed Nursery Company, Hanover, Indiana. Not de- 
scribed. 

Golden Croivn: Originated by Adonijah Marks, Clifton, P. E. I. Fruit 
above medium size, roundish-oblong, slightly angular; cavity medium 
size; stem short; stout; basin deep, open; skin yellow with traces 
of pinkish red; flesh white, tender breaking, juicy, subacid, pleasant, 
good. Winter. Resembles Grimes Golden. Report of the Hor- 
ticulturist, Ottawa, Canada, 1908. 

Goldo : Seedling of Grimes Golden probably by Oldenburg. Originated 
by N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D. Fruit much like Grimes Golden 
in appearance and flavor. Tree a vigorous grower. 

Gordon (of Macoun) : Pyrus prunifolia x Golden Russet. Originated 
by the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, 
color russety-yellow ; skin rather thick; flesh yellowish-white, fine 
grained, juicy, pleasant subacid, good. September. 

Granhy: Seedling of McMahon x Scott Winter, originated by the Cen- 
tral Experiment Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, oblate 
to roundish-conic ; cavity narrow, deep, russeted ; stem short, rather 
stout ; basin medium size, deep, wrinkled ; skin yellow, washed and 
splashed with attractive orange red ; flesh dull white with traces of 
red, tender, moderately juicy, briskly subacid, fair quality. Winter. 

Grant: Originated with H. N. Grant, Newtonbrook, Ontario. Fruit above 
medium, roundish-conic ; cavity open, medium depth ; stem short, 
stout ; basin medium width, shallow, wrinkled ; color yellow with 
trace of pink blush; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant, 
good. November to January. 

Hanko: Fruit large, oblate, deeply furrowed and ridged; color greenish- 
yellow shaded with bright red, marked with broad stripes of crim- 
son ; stem short ; cavity medium size, abrupt, furrowed ; basin 
medium deep, abrupt, furrowed ; flesh greenish-white tinged red, 
moderately coarse, crisp, subacid, good to very good. October to 
April. Tree low, spreading. Bull. 10, Wis. State Hort. Soc. 

Harmon (of Maine) : Originated with J. H. Harmon, Buxton, Maine, 
about 1887. Fruit medium size, oblate, washed and overlaid with 
red, splashed with deep crimson, numerous large grey dots ; cavity 
medium size; stem very short; basin wide, shallow; flesh yellowish, 
crisp, tender, sharp acid, good. December to February. Bull. 143, 
Maine Exp. Sta. 



244 

Hayden's Favorite: Tucker-Mosby Seed Co., Memphis, Tenn. "Hardy 
tree, sure bearer." 

Hayjord Sweet: Originated with C. Hayford, Maysville, Maine, about 
1872. Fruit small to medium, oblate-conical, washed and splashed 
with crimson] stem short; cavity narrow, rather deep; basin deep, 
abrupt ; flesh fine grained, rich, sweet but rather dry, good. October 
to January or later. Tree hardy, vigorous, spreading. Bull. 143, 
Maine Exp. Sta. 

Heacock Sivcet: Rogers Nurseries, Rogers, Ohio. Not described. 

Helen: Fruit medium size, irregular-oblate or roundish-oblate, lemon 
yellow, washed with bright or dull rich red; flesh mild subacid, of 
fair quality. July. No. 30229 of Seed and Plant Introduction, U. S. 
Dept. of Agr. 

Hibkee: Graft-hybrid of Hibernal and Milwaukee by N. E. Hansen, 
Brookings, South Dakota. "The fruits so far show the flesh and 
core of Milwaukee and the surface coloring of Hibernal." 

Hickman: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Seedling of 
Shockley, originated with D. W. Dickinson, Hickman, Ky. "Valuable 
for the cotton belt; color yellow, covered with light red; flesh yel- 
low, of good quality; a good keeper. 

Hitchcock: Originated by J. P. Hitchcock, Massawippi, Quebec. Fruit 
large, roundish; cavity deep, medium width, russeted; stem short, 
stout; basin deep, medium width; color yellow; flesh white, tender, 
crisp, juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. Winter. 

Hollow Log: Valdesian Nurseries, Bostic, N. C. Originated in Ruther- 
ford County, North Carolina, as a chance seedling. Tree a strong 
grower, upright, blooms late, productive. Fruit large, deep yellow, 
flesh tender, crisp, juicy, spicy, aromatic. June to September. 

Hah: Lawver x Mcintosh, originated by the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish, pale greenish-yel- 
low, well washed with crimson ; cavity medium, open, russeted ; 
stem medium, stout; basin deep; flesh dull white, firm, crisp, juicy, 
subacid, pleasant but not high flavor, medium to good. Resembles 
Lawver very much. January to late winter. 

Honora: Seedling of Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish to oblate- 
conic, yellow, well washed with crimson ; cavity medium depth, 
russeted; stem short, stout; basin medium size, wrinkled; flesh 
white, tinged with red, tender, melting, moderately juicy, mildly 
subacid, pleasant, good. Resembles Mcintosh very much. Late 
September and October. 

Horace: From L. C. H. Ayers, Midway, Tenn. Fruit medium large, 
roundish-oblate, lemon yellow. August. 

Hoyt (of Mich.) : Originated with Jas. E. Hoyt, Roeland, Mich. Fruit 
below medium ; greenish yellow with dark purple blush ; flesh nearly 
white, firm, breaking, buttery, juicy, vinous, subacid, rich. Season 
until May. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 



245 

Hume: Seedling of Mcintosh, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish to oblate, 
slightly ribbed; suggests Mcintosh in color, flesh, perfume and 
flavor. 

Hunter (of Macoun) : Pyrus baccata x Red Anis. Originated by the 
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, good 
for jelly. 

Husband: Seedling of Grimes Golden, originated by Jos. Husband, 
Chester, 111. Fruit large, roundish, yellow washed with mixed red; 
dots prominent, russet; stem medium; basin and cavity regular; 
flesh yellow, subacid, good to very good. December to April. Notes 
on new fruits U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Jakway: Originated with J. J. Jakway, Benton Harbor, Mich. Fruit as 
large as Tompkins King, very good quality, ripens with Maiden 
Blush; yellow with red stripes. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

James: Pyrus prunifolia x Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, deep 
red with streaks of dull yellowish ; flesh nearly white, fine grained, 
rather acid, pleasant, slightly astringent. 

Jean Hardy: Bobbink and Atkins, Rutherford, N. J. "Very large fruit, 
juicy and sweet, very fine." 

Jethro: Seedling of Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, oblate to roundish- 
conic, pale yellow washed and splashed with orange-red and car- 
mine; cavity "medium size, green; stem short, stout, basin medium, 
deep; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, pleasant, 
good. Resembles Wealthy in flesh and flavor. Late September to 
December. 

Jewel: Pyrus baccata x Yellow Transparent. Originated by the Cen- 
tral Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly 
round; stem longer than one inch; color yellowish with pale red 
cheek; flesh moderately firm, crisp, juicy, subacid, good, slightly 
astringent. August and September. Tree vigorous, productive. 

Josie: Pyrus prunifolia x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated 'by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit nearly medium size, 
greenish-yellow, washed and striped with bright red ; flesh white, 
fairly juicy, pleasant, slight astringency, good. September and 
October. 

Junco: Seedling of Wealthy, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium, oblate, angular; cavity nar- 
row, medium deep, russeted ; stem short, moderately stout ; basin 
deep, open, wrinkled ; skin pale yellow, washed with crimson ; flesh 
yellowish, firm, juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. December and later. 

Kelso: McMahon x Scott Winter. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium, oblate ; cavity deep, 
medium width, russeted ; stem medium to short ; basin open, deep ; 



246 

skin yellow, washed with bright crimson ; flesh dull white, tender, 
moderately juicy, acid, pleasant, quality fair, fair to good flavor. 
Mid-winter. 

Kent (of Macoun) : Pyrus baccata x Mcintosh. Originated by the 
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly 
round, ribbed at calyx; stem one inch long; color dark red shaded 
with orange, deepest on sunny side; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, 
crisp, mildly subacid, slightly astringent, fairly good. September to 
November. Tree vigorous, productive. 

Kildare: Seedling of Langford Beauty, originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, oblate 
to roundish-conic ; cavity medium size ; stem medium to long, slender 
or rather stout ; basin narrow, medium depth ; color pale yellow, 
washed and splashed with crimson ; flesh white tinged yellow, crisp, 
very tender, juicy, sprightly, subacid, pleasant, good. August to 
October. 

Kim: Seedling of Langford Beauty, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish ; 
cavity medium size, russeted ; stem short, slender to stout ; basin 
deep, open ; color yellow, washed and splashed with crimson, 
covered with pinkish bloom ; flesh dull white, tinged red, crisp, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. November to late winter. 

King of Titus: Originated in Titus County, Texas. Fruit large ; flesh 
yellow, subacid; tree vigorous, productive. September and October. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Lcgace : Originated with Jules Legace, Van Buren, Aroostook County, 
Maine. Fruit medium size, roundish oblate, washed with red and 
splashed with crimson ; cavity rather deep, russeted ; stem medium 
short; basin rather shallow; flesh white, tender, juicy, pleasant sub- 
acid, good. September and October. Tree vigorous, spreading, 
very productive. Bull. H3, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Linda: Seedling of Langford Beauty. Originated by Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, large, roundish 
to oblate, pale yellow washed and splashed with crimson ; cavity 
medium, shallow; stem short, stout; basin medium; flesh juicy, 
briskly subacid, aromatic, good. November probably to February. 

Linton: Seedling of Winter St. Lawrence. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish ; 
cavity medium size ; stem slender, medium length ; basin medium 
size; color pale yellow, thinly splashed with bright red; flesh white, 
tender, juicy, mildly subacid, pleasant, good. September. 

Linville: Fruit medium size, roundish-oblate; color yellow or greenish- 
yellow almost entirely covered with rich dark red ; cavity medium 
size, russeted ; stem short, strong ; basin rather wide and deep ; flesh 
yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, subacid, pleasant, refreshing. December 
to March. Tree vigorous, spreading. Cir. No. 94, Ohio Agr. 
Exp. Sta. 



247 

Lipion: Seedling of Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish- 
conical, ribbed, yellow splashed and washed with crimson ; dots 
yellow, distinct ; cavity deep, open ; stem short, stout ; basin medium, 
deep, wrinkled ; flesh yellow with traces of red, crisp, tender, juicy, 
subacid, pleasant, good. Much like Northern Spy. November prob- 
'ably to February. 

Lisgar: Pyrus prunifolia x McMahon. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit nearly medium size, yellow 
covered with bright red; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, pleasant, 
rather astringent, rather inferior in quality. October. 

Lb:;ic: Pyrus baccata x Hcrren. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small; stem one inch long; color 
deep red; quality medium. September. Too small to be of value. 

Lowry: Originated on the farm of John Lowry, Afton, Va., about 70 
years ago. Has also been known as Dixie and Mosby's Best. Fruit 
medium size, roundish or roundish-oblate ; cavity medium size and 
depth, russeted ; stem fairly long and stout; basin medium size; 
skin yellow washed with mixed red and splashed with rich crim- 
son; flesh yellowish, rather fine grained, moderately juicy, mild 
subacid, pleasant, good to very good. December to February. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 1910. 

Luke (of Canada Experimental Farm) : Seedling of Wealthy. Orig- 
inated by the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit 
above medium to large, oblate to roundish-conic; pale greenish 
yellow washed with red ; cavity narrow, russeted ; stem short, 
moderately stout; basin open, medium depth; flesh dull white or 
yellowish, rather coarse, tender, moderately juicy, subacid, pleasant, 
good. Resembles Wealthy but is a better keeper. October and 
November. 

MacSu'cct: Seedling of Mcintosh, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. A good sweet apple, resembling 
Mcintosh. 

AlcSiveeny: Seedling of Sweet Bough, originated by a Mr. McSweeny, 
Kalamazoo, Mich. Fruit large, truncate-conical or slightly 
roundish: clear waxen white; texture and flavor very similar to 
Red Astrachan, same season as Red Astrachan. Tree strong 
grower, exceedingly productive. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Madge (of Macoun) : Pyrus prunifolia x Golden Russet. Originated 
by the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, 
deep red ; flavor mildly acid, pleasant, sfightly astringent, quality 
above medium. September. 

Magnate: A seedling of Winesap, originated by the late Dr. J. Stayman, 
Leavenworth, Katisas, about 1866. Fruit medium to large, round 
or roundish-conical, rich yellow washed with crimson and indis- 
tinctly striped with dark purple ; cavity regular, large, deep, fur- 
rowed, faintly russeted ; stem short, slender, curved ; basin medium 



248 

size and depth, furrowed; flesh yellowish stained with red, fine 
grained, juicy, rich subacid, very good. Season same as Jonathan. 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 1906. 

Magnus: Pyrus prunifolia x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round ; 
color orange and scarlet; flesh firm, rather juicy, subacid, aromatic, 
slightly astringent, very good. September. 

Manitou: Pyrus baccata x McMahon. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, 
ribbed; stem one inch or more long; color yellow, striped with red, 
deep red on exposed side; flesh nearly white, juicy, sprightly, fair 
quality. September and October. Tree vigorous, productive. 

Margery: Pioneer x Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, yellow, sometimes 
tinged with red; flesh greenish-white, fine grained, juicy, pleasant, 
subacid, sprightly. October to February. 

Marlboro (of Maine) : Originated with S. H. Remick, Marlboro, Maine. 
Fruit medium, roundish-oblate ; yellowish-green, overlaid with deep 
crimson on sunny side ; cavity medium, flaring, slightly russeted ; 
stem slender, ver}' short ; basin very wide, shallow, plaited ; flesh 
white, crisp, juicy, fine grained, very firm, pleasant acid, good. 
January to Alay. Bull, 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Marnc: Seedling of Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium to large, oblate, 
slightly red, yellow thinly washed and splashed with crimson; dots 
white, distinct ; cavity deep, open, russeted ; stem short, stout ; basin 
deep, open; flesh 5'ellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, subacid, good. 
November probably to February. 

Martin (of Macoun) : Pioneer x Ontario. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, nearly 
round ; color warm orange yellow, with an orange red cheek ; flesh 
white, fine grained, pleasant subacid, sprightly. October to 
February. 

Mason: Fruit medium size; in color and form it somewhat resembles 
Striped June. One of the best South Texas varieties. July. Texas 
Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Mavis: Mcintosh by Lawver. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish, slightly 
ribbed ; cavity medium depth to shallow ; stem moderately stout ; 
basin deep, mediu^n width, wrinkled ; skin thick, tough, yellow, 
washed and splashed with crimson ; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. Mid-November to March. Does not 
resemble either parent. 

Maxon: Said to be a delicious summer dessert apple which originated 
with the Central Michigan Nursery, Kalamazoo, Mich. Tree hardy 
and productive. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta, 



249 

Maxson's Early: Storrs & Harrison Co., Painesville, Ohio. Fruit large, 
pale yellow ; flesh tender, tart, well flavored. Tree productive. A 
summer cooking apple. August. 

May field (Gibbs No. 2) : A seedling of Northern Spy, originated by E. B. 
Gibbs, Summit City, Mich., about 40 years ago. Fruit large to 
very large, round-oblate; color pale yellow with reddish-brown 
blush; cavity medium size, deep, russeted; stem short, stout; basin 
broad, rather deep; flesh white, fine grained, very tender, juicy, 
sweet, very good. Mid-winter to late winter. Tree vigorous, 
spreading. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Mecca: Pyrus baccata x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round; 
color orange, streaked red and with crimson cheek, flesh mildly sub- 
acid, rather astringent, good. Tree fairly vigorous, productive. 

Medford: Seedling of Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, oblate, cavity open, 
medium depths, stem short; basin open, deep, wrinkled; color 
pale yellow, splashed and washed with crimson; flesh white tinged 
with red, crisp, tender; juicy, subacid, sprightly, pleasant, good. 
September. 

Melvin (of Macoun) : Seedling of Wealthy. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish; 
cavity deep, medium width, sometimes lipped, slightly russeted; 
stem medium to long, slender to stout; basin medium depth and 
width; skin rather dull red, attractive; flesh yellow, slightly stained 
red, very tender, melting briskly subacid, spicy, good. Middle to 
end of August. 

Merlin: Seedling of Shiawassee. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, oblate; re- 
sembles Shiawassee in shape, flesh and flavor. 

Mexico: Cibolo Nursery, Cibolo, Texas. "A wild apple found in the 
Mexican mountains; a strong healthy grower, and heavy bearer 
of good size, fine flavored, red apples; stands our hot sun better 
than any other apple on our grounds." 

Meyer: Originated on the farm of Wm. Meyer, Mears, Mich., about 40 
years ago. Fruit medium size, oblong-conic to round-conic ; color 
rich yellow, striped with bright crimson; skin waxy; cavity nar- 
row, deep; stem short, stout; basin narrow, shallow; flesh yellowish- 
white, very fine grained, tender, juicy, brisk subacid, very good. 
Autumn. Tree medium strong, upright. Special Bull. 44, Mich. 
Exp. Sta. 

Miles: L. C. H. Ayers, Midway, Tennessee. A medium large, roundish- 
conic, yellowish, mild subacid, summer apple of fair quality. 

Miller's Sweet: Farmer Seed and Nursery Co., Faribault, Minn. Seedling 
of Oldenburg. Fruit conical, medium large, greenish-white with 
red cheek; flesh firm and sweet. Tree strong, vigorous with spread- 



250 

ing top, very hardy, early and heavy bearer ; September to 
November. 

Monocacy: Originated with Wm. Baumgardner, Carroll County, Md. 
Fruit roundish or slightly oblate-conic, sometimes slightly ribbed, 
medium to large ; cavity medium to large,, rather deep, sometimes 
slightly russeted ; stem short, rather slender; basin medium width 
and depth, slightly furrowed; skin yellowish green, mostly covered 
with dark crimson or purplish crimson, striped and splashed with 
darker crimson, often overspread with mottled gray; flesh yellowish 
white, sometimes tinted red, moderately fine grained, juicy, mild 
subacid, moderately rich, good to very good. Winter. Yearbook 
U. S. Dept. Agr., 1912. 

Montgomery: Originated by the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station at Geneva. Fruit large, roundish to oblate-conic, almost 
entirely overspread with bright red and faintly striped with darker 
red, resembling Red Astrachan ; flesh white, fine grained, tender, 
juicy, brisk subacid, good. Tree vigorous, upright spreading. 
September, 

Moore's Blight Proof: Citronelle Nursery and Orchard Co., Citronelle, 
Alabama. Chance seedling. Originated at Enterprise, Miss., 40 or 
more years ago. Fruit large, round, slightly flattened, striped red, 
fair quality, very acid, good keeper. May be good for home use in 
the South. 

Morton (of Mich.) : Originated at Benton Harbor, Mich. Fruit medium 
size, roundish-oblate, pale yellow, striped and splashed with light 
and dark red; cavity medium size; stem rather short; basin narrow, 
abrupt; flesh crisp, tender, moderately juicy, rich subacid, very 
good ; as beautiful as the finest Red Astrachan and a far better 
juicy, subacid, good. September. Bull. 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Mottinger: Washington Nursery Co., Toppenish, Wash. Chance seedling, 
found on an island in the Columbia River near Umatilla, Oregon. 
Fruit very large, greenish-yellow, striped with red ; follows Yellow 
Transparent in season ; tree is a strong grower. 

Mrs. Richardson: Thompson's Nurseries, Waco, Texas. "Fruit large, 
yellow." 

Narragansett: Originated with Jacob H. Harmon, Buxton, Maine, in 
1873. Fruit medium to large, conical, pale yellow washed and 
splashed with crimson, heavily overlaid with deeper crimson ; cavity 
deep, flaring; stem short, stout; basin medium, slightly corrugated; 
flesh white, tender, rather dry, mild subacid, good. November and 
December. Resembles Mother in size and shape, but is almost as 
dark colored as Black Oxford. Tree very hardy and a shy bearer. 
Bull. 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Nelson (of Wood) : Originated with Elihu Wood, Winthrop, Maine. 
Fruit medium, oblong-conical, pale yellow with small gray dots; 
stem short; cavity narrow, deep; basin medium size; flesh tender; 
juicy, subacid, good. September. Bull. 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 



251 

Niobe: Seedling of Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, roundish- 
conical; cavity deep, medium width; stem medium to long, slender 
to rather stout; basin deep, medium width; color greenish-yellow, 
washed and splashed with dull crimson, thin pinkish bloom ; flesh 
yellowish, crisp, tender, rather coarse, moderately juicy, mildly sub- 
acid, pleasant, good to very good. December and later. 

Nome: Seedling of Swaj^zie. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium, oblate to roundish ; cavity 
deep, russeted; stem short, stout; basin medium depth or shallow; 
skin yellow washed with orange-red ; flesh yellow, tender, mod- 
erately juicj% breaking, buttery, subacid, pleasant, spic}^ good to 
very good. Resembles Blenheim somewhat. October and November. 
2_ Norman: Pyrus baccata x Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, round, bright red ; 
flesh yellowish-white, crisp, juicy, sprightly, pleasant, trace of 
astringency, good. October. Tree fairly vigorous, productive. 

Northern Queen: Pyrus baccata x Hyslop. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, fairly good but 
rather astringent, too small to be of value. Late August and 
September. 

Novelty: Seedling of Pyrus baccata by Wealthy. Originated by the Cen- 
tral Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit IJ^ inches across, 
nearl}' round, flattened at ends; stem long, slender; skin deep red; 
flesh pale yellowish-pink, firm, crisp, juicy, subacid, fair quality. 
September. Tree vigorous, fairly productive. 

Nutting: Seedling of Oldenburg. Originated by the late James Nutting, 
Perham, Aroostook County, Maine. Fruit large, roundish-conical, 
yellowish-green, faintly washed or striped with dull red ; stem 
long, slender; cavity deep; basin rather large; flesh greenish- white, 
tender, juicy, mild acid, good. September to December. Tree 
hardy, vigorous, very productive. Bull. 14.3, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Okohogi: "A rather attractive, striped red winter apple, above medium 
to below ; subacid, fair to good quality. Introduced by H. M. 
Antisdel, Milford, Iowa." Bull. 108, Iowa Exp. Sta. 

Omesel: Seedling of Salome. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, resembling Salome in appear- 
ance, flesh and flavor ; a good keeper. 

Onslour: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated in 
Onslow County, N. C. Fruit above medium, roundish-oblate, en- 
tirely covered with dark red, faintly striped ; flesh yellow, fine 
quality ; good keeper. Winter. 

Orsino: Seedling of Shiawassee. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, resembling Shiawassee 
in flesh and flavor, attractive and a good dessert apple. 

Oscar: A Russian seedling. ' Originated b}^ the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, conical almost oblong ; 
cavity narrow, medium depth, russeted near base ; stem medium 



252 

length ; basin shallow, medium width ; color pale yellow, washed 
and splashed with bright crimson ; flesh white, tinged red, tender, 
juicy, briskly subacid, fair to good. October. 

Osman: Pyrus baccata x Osimoe. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, pale yellow, 
washed with crimson ; flesh tender, breaking, pleasant acid, slightly 
astringent. August. Tree a fair grower, productive. 

Otto: Pyrus baccata x McMahon. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, yellow, washed and 
faintly streaked with red, becoming entirely red; flesh juicy, 
sprightly, fair, astringent. October. Tree vigorous, fairly pro- 
ductive. 

Oivatonna: Clinton Falls Nursery Co., Owatonna, Minn. Originated at 
Medford, Minn. "A rapid grower, very prolific and hardy as an 
oak. Fruit large, dark red ; flesh tender, crisp, subacid. Good 
keeper, season late." Resembles Wealthy in size and color. 

Oxbo: A seedling of Roxbury probably by Oldenburg. Originated by 
N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D. Fruit medium size; flesh white, 
juicy, subacid. Season probably late fall. 

Peace: Seedling of Langford Beauty. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. A handsome apple, resembling its 
parent in appearance, flesh and flavor. 

Pearl: From S. Billingsley, Greenwood, Indiana. A large sized, 
roundish-oblate, rich, clear yellow, subacid apple of fair quality. 
September and October. 

Perfect: Supposed to be a seedling of Baldwin, originating with W. F. 
Cobb, South Turner, Me. Fruit large, roundish-conic, somewhat 
ribbed ; stem medium length, thick ; cavity acute, moderately deep, 
broad, often russeted, sometimes lipped; basin medium size, rather 
abrupt, furrowed ; skin moderately thick, smooth, dull, oily, dull 
greenish-yellow, much overspread with dark, dull red, almost solid 
on well colored specimens, indistinctly splashed with carmine; flesh 
yellow, firm, somewhat coarse, crisp, moderately tender, juicy, sub- 
acid, good. January to May. Introduced by Rice Bros. Co., Geneva, 
N. Y. Tree vigorous, hardy, upright-spreading, productive. 

Perkins Late: Clinton Falls Nursery Co., Owatonna, Minn. "The fruit 
is of good size, round, red, firm and juicy and will keep until May 
or June." 

Pensaukee Russet: Fruit above medium, oblate-conical, slightly angular; 
cavity open, medium depth; stem medium length, stout; basin 
medium size ; color greenish-yellow with red blush, heavily russeted ; 
flesh yellow, firm, juicy, briskly subacid, pleasant, good. Winter. 

Pink Russet: Originated in the nursery of R. B. C. Newcomb, Blissfield, 
Mich. Said to keep as late as Roxbury and to be much superior in 
flavor and juiciness to Roxbury. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 



253 

Pinto: Seedling of Wealthy. Fruit above medium, oblate; cavity deep, 
medium wide; stem short, slender; basin deep, medium width, 
wrinkled, color pale greenish yellow, washed and splashed with dull 
orange red; flesh yellowish, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, pleasant, 
aromatic, good. October and November. 

Pioneer: Pyrus baccata x Tetofsky. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, slightly 
ribbed ; stem rather long ; color yellow yith pink cheek ; flesh white, 
fine grained, firm, crisp, subacid, slightly astringent, moderately 
juicy, pleasant. September and October. Tree strong, productive. 

Pitton: A seedling of Wagener, originating with G. W. Pitton, Stanton, 
Mich., about 30 years ago. Fruit medium size, oblate, distinctly five 
ribbed; light yellow, almost entirely covered with broad stripes of 
bright crimson ; cavity medium size, deep ; stem short, stout ; basin 
medium size, shallow ; flesh white, fine grained, crisp, tender, very 
juicy, mild subacid, very good to best. Season late fall and early 
winter. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Prince (of Macoun) : Seedling of Pyrus baccata x Tetofsky, originated 
by the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit 1^ 
inches in diameter, nearly round; calyx sometimes deciduous; stem 
an inch or more long; color bright red with a few pale dots and 
streaks; flesh nearly white, juicy subacid, somewhat astringent, 
pleasant flavor. ^ Early September. Tree vigorous, very productive. 

Queen of Albemarle: Old Dominion Nurseries, Richmond, Va. Not 
described. 

Rabun: Yearbook of U. S. Dept. Agr., 1906. A chance seedling found 
by Mr. Andy Hamby, 13 miles northeast of Clayton, Georgia, about 
1890. Fruit large, oblate, slightly ribbed; cavity large, deep, rus- 
seted; stem short, stout; basin large, deep; skin moderately thick, 
yellow washed with mixed red, splashed and striped with bright 
crimson ; flesh yellowish, fine grained, breaking, juicy, subacid, good 
to very good; core large, oblate, open. Tree vigorous, spreading. 
November to March in Northern Georgia. 

Radnor: Seedling of Swazie. Fruit medium to large, roundish-conic, 
slightly angular ; cavity medium size, russeted ; stem short, stout ; 
basin deep, medium width, wrinkled ; color greenish yellow or yel- 
low with faint bronzy pink blush; flesh dull white or yellowish, 
crisp, juicy, a little coarse, subacid, spicy, good. November and 
later. 

Rainier: The origin of Rainier is not definitely known, but it has been 
grown under various names for perhaps 35 years near North 
Yakima, Washington. Fruit medium size or above, usually oblong- 
conical and irregular, rich, yellow mottled and washed with red and 
striped with dark red; flesh yellowish, juicy, mild subacid, good. 
Tree vigorous, spreading. October to May or later, sometimes to 
September. 



254 

Ramona: Seedling of Shiawassee, originated by Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium to above, oblate; cavity deep, 
open, slightly russeted ; stem short, stout ; basin medium ; color pale 
yellow, washed and splashed with carmine; flesh white, fine grained, 
tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. August and September. 

Red Broadivell: Stark Bros. Nurseries and Orchards Co., Louisiana, 
Missouri. Not described. 

Red Maiden's Blush: Same as Bonita. 

Red Rome: Stark Bros. Centennial Fruits. "Red Rome Beauty is deep, 
dark red, indistinctly striped; large, tender, juicy; good quality 
and a favorite for cooking." (Solid red sports of Rome Beauty 
have appeared in various parts of the country. C- P- C.) 

Reese: From C. W. Ewing, Mountainboro, Ala. A medium sized, ir- 
regular, roundish-conical, greenish-yellow splashed red, mild sub- 
acid apple of fairly good quality. September in Alabama. 

Rideau: Wealthy x Oldenburg. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium to large, roundish-angular ; 
cavity deep, open ; color pale yellow, splashed and washed with 
bright crimson; flesh juicy, yellowish, firm, pleasant, sprightly, sub- 
acid, good. Late September to February. 

Robin (of ]\Iacoun) : Pyrus baccata x Simbirsk No. 9. Originated by 
the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, 
nearly round, much ribbed ; stem an inch long ; color yellow shaded 
with red; flesh very firm, juicy, subacid, slightly astringent, pleasant, 
good. August and September. Tree vigorous, medium productive. 

Rocket: Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish- 
conical ; cavity deep, medium width, russeted ; stem short, medium 
stout; basin deep, narrow; color yellow, washed and splashed with 
crimson, covered with pinkish bloom ; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. October to January. 

Roniney: Pyrus baccata x Broad Green. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small ; stem one inch 
long; color dull, deep red; flesh moderately firm, fairly juicy, fairly 
good. August and September. Tree medium vigorous, fairly 
productive. 

Ruby: Pyrus baccata x Wealthy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small and of poor quality. 
September. 

Rufus: Fruit medium, roundish-conical; cavity narrow, shallow, russeted; 
stem short, slender ; basin narrow, medium depth, wrinkled ; color 
yellow, washed with crimson ; flesh white with traces of red, tender, 
juicy, subacid, pleasant, good. Winter. An attractive apple of the 
Fameuse type, promising for Ontario. 



255 

Rupert: A Russian seedling. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, oblate; cavity medium 
size, russeted; stem short, stout; basin medium size, wrinkled; 
skin thick, tough, pale greenish yellow, sometimes with a faint pink 
blush; flesh white, tender, juicy, briskly subacid, medium to good. 
Earlier than Tetofsky and better in quality than Tetofsky and Yel- 
low Transparent. August. 

Rustler: Mcintosh x Lawver. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, roundish, slightly 
ribbed ; cavity open, medium depth ; stem medium length, stout ; basin 
deep, medium width, smooth ; skin thick, tough, yellow almost en- 
tirely covered with crimson ; flesh yellowish tinted red, moderately 
juicy, firm but tender, subacid, pleasant, above medium to good. 
December to March or later. 

Ruth: Pyrus prunifolia x Pewaukee. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, nearly round, deep 
crimson with white dots; flesh fine grained, yellow stained red, 
breaking, pleasant subacid. October to November. 

Samson (of Macoun); Oldenburg x Anis. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium to large; flesh 
crisp, moderately juicy, subacid, sprightly, pleasant. September. 

Schoolcraft: Originated 25 years ago with Ralph Beebee, Gulliver, Mich. 
Fruit medium to large, round-oblate, ribbed, resembles Wagener ; 
greenish yellow, mostly covered with broken stripes and splashes of 
crimson or solid red ; cavity broad, shallow ; stem short, stout ; 
basin broad, shallow; flesh greenish-white, fine grained, juicy, sweet, 
very good. Winter. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Seedless: Alpha Nursery, Alpha, Illinois. Originated in New Mexico in 
1908. "The fruit is red, striped slightly with yellow. There are no 
seeds and many of the apples have no core. Good keeper. Tree 
hardy and good grower. December to March." 

Sereda: Seedling of Harry Kaump. Originated by N. E. Hansen, Brook- 
ings, S. D. Resembles Yellow Transparent but is more regular in 
form and of the same season. Fruit yellow, juicy, sprightly subacid. 

Severn: Seedling of Swayzie. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish, angular, flat- 
tened at ends; cavity deep, open, russeted; stem short, slender; 
basin deep, open, smooth; yellow, washed with orange-red and 
splashed with crimson; flesh moderately juicy, tender, pleasant, 
good. October. 

Shishee: Seedling of Shiawassee, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium size, resembles 
Shiawassee in color, flesh and flavor. 

Shock: From L. L. Moore, Taylorsville, N. C. Fruit medium size, 
roundish, somewhat flattened, whitish-yellow, subacid, fair quality. 
August. 

Silvia: Pyrus baccata x Yellow Transparent. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, somewhat 



256 

pointed and ribbed; stem very short, color pale yellow; flesh sub- 
acid, not astringent, pleasant, good, early August. Tree strong, up- 
right, fairly productive. 

Smith Pippin: Fruit medium size, roundish ; cavity medium size, russeted ; 
stem short ; basin open, deep, sometimes lipped ; color yellowish 
green with red blush; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant, 
mildly subacid, good. Winter. 

Sonora: Seedling of Langford Beauty. Originated by the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, roundish ; 
cavity medium size; stem slender, medium length; basin open, 
medium depth ; color pale yellow washed with crimson ; flesh dull 
white, rather coarse, tender, moderately juicy, subacid, pleasant, 
good. Early September. 

Sorel: McMahon x Scott Winter. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, oblate-conic; 
cavity deep, medium width, russeted; stem short to medium, stout; 
basin deep, open, wrinkled ; color yellow, washed with bright attrac- 
tive red; flesh white, tinged j'ellow, crisp, moderately juicy, sub- 
acid, pleasant, good. Winter. 

Southern Beauty: Corinth Nurseries, Corinth, Miss. Originated in Al- 
corn County, Miss. Very much like Yates but twice as large. 
Winter. 

Spates: Originated by a Mr. Spates, Excelsior, Minn. Resembles Jewell's 
Winter. Very hardy. 

Spiotta: Seedling of Shiawassee, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium size to large, re- 
sembling Northern Spy in color, flesh and flavor. 

Spiro: Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, resembling Northern 
Spy in flesh and flavor. 

Star (of Burbank) : Seedling of Baldwin, originated by Luther Burbank, 
Santa Rosa, Calif. "Large and even better quality than Baldwin. 
Yellow ground nearly all covered with deep crimson stripes and 
flakes. Beautiful regular form; flesh white. Same season as 
Baldwin, September to December 20 at Santa Rosa." 

Stearns (name used previously) : From C. L. Stearns, Clay, New York. 
Fruit medium large, roundish to roundish-oblate, greenish-yellow 
with red stripes, pleasant subacid, good quality. 

Stickle Sweet: Depot Road Nurseries, Salem, Ohio. Flesh tender and 
good; good bearer; fine for apple butter. 

Stork: Pyrus baccata x Oldenburg. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small; stem one inch long, 
slender; color red; flesh yellowish, firm, not very juicy, rather 
astringent, fair quality. Late August and September. 

Stringston: Thompson Nurseries, Waco, Texas. Very successful in 
Texas; fine size and quality and bears young. 



257 

Suawnee: Jackson County Nurseries, Winder, Ga. Fruit large, roundish 
oblique, pale yellowish green with russet dots ; flesh yellowish, mod- 
erately juicy, mild subacid, very good; good keeper. Tree vigor- 
ous, productive. 

Summer Champion: Originated near Lincoln, Washington County, Ark., 
about 34 years ago. Fruit large ; yellowish-white, washed over en- 
tire surface with crimson or dark purplish stripes ; flesh whitish, 
satiny, subacid, good. Tree strong grower with upright open head. 
August. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I., Bull. 275. 

Sununer Greening: Supposed to have originated in Michigan. Fruit 
medium size, round, green and yellow, very good quality. Sep- 
tember. Tree upright and productive. Special Bull. 44., Mich. Exp. 
Sta. 

Summit (Gibbs No. 1, Great Northern) : Seedling of Northern Spy, 
originated by E. B. Gibbs, Summit City, Mich., about 40 years ago. 
Fruit large, round-oblate, somewhat angular ; color light yellow, 
overspread with bright crimson and striped with dark crimson, 
sometimes with solid red cheek ; cavity wide, deep, russeted ; stem 
short, stout ; basin broad, deep, plaited ; flesh white, fine grained, 
tender, juicy, brisk subacid, good. Late winter. Special Bull. 44, 
Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Szveet Evalina: Fruit Grower and Farmer, Sept. 1, 1913. Seedling of 
White Pearmain and resembles this variety. Flesh creamy yellow, 
rich sweet. 

Szvect Orange: Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago, 111. Seedling of the old 
Orange Crab. Resembles Orange Crab somewhat but is flatter in 
shape and lighter in color ; flavor fine, delicious. 

Siveetosh: Seedling of Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium to large, rather dull 
in color but is attractive and a good sweet apple. 

Sivan: Frank J. Schwan & Son, Dansville, N. Y. A large size, irregular, 
roundish, greenish-red, pleasant subacid, late fall apple of good 
quality. 

Tabor: Originated with S. W. Tabor, Washburn, Maine. Fruit medium, 
oblate, yellowish-green, washed and splashed with crimson; stem 
slender ; cavity wide, flaring, furrowed ; basin medium size, abrupt ; 
flesh greenish white, fine grained, tender, rather dry, sweet, good. 
October to January. Bull. 143, Maine Exp. Sta. 

Teddy: Pyrus prunifolia x Golden Russet. Originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit nearly medium, dull 
red with streaks and spots of a brighter shade; flesh yellowish, crisp, 
fairly juicy, pleasant. September and October. 

Texas King: Fruit large, yellow splashed with red; flesh juicj', crisp, 
subacid ; tree vigorous, productive. Originated in East Texas. July 
and August. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

17 



258 

Thackers: Originated with W. H. Thacker, Benzonia, Mich. Fruit - 
medium size, roundish-conic, yellow with dark crimson splashes;' 
cavity medium size, russeted ; stem medium length, rather slender ; 
basin narrow, shallow; flesh whitish, fine grained, crisp, juicy, brisk 
subacid, good to very good. Winter. Special Bull. 44, Mich. 
Exp. Sta. 

Thurso: Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish 
to oblate, slightly angular ; cavity medium, sometimes russeted ; 
stem medium length, slender to rather stout; basin medium size; 
color pale greenish yellow, washed and splashed with attractive red 
or crimson; flesh yellowish with traces of red, firm, crisp, juicy, 
subacid, pleasant, good. September and October or later. 

Tony: Pyrus baccata x McMahon. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit small, round, somewhat flat- 
tened ; stem nearly two inches long ; color greenish yellow, streaked 
and splashed with bright red; flesh yellowish-white, juicy, sprightly, 
subacid, slightly astringent, pleasant, medium quality. Late Sep- 
tember and October. Tree strong, spreading, very productive. 

Traverse (Gibbs No. 4) : Seedling of Northern Spy, originated by E. B. 
Gibbs, Summit City, Mich., about 40 years ago. Fruit medium 
size, roundish, dull dark red, considerably russeted ; cavity narrow, 
deep, russeted ; stem medium long, rather slender ; basin very broad, 
shallow; flesh yellowish, crisp, fine grained, moderately juicy, brisk 
subacid, very good to best. Winter. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. 
Sta. 

Ttdl: Originated by the late Abraham Tull near Tull, Grant County, 
Ark., about 1840. Fruit medium size ; yellow washed with red, few 
broken stripes of crimson, sometimes -with a "coppery" finish; flesh 
yellow with green veins, tender, juicy, fine texture, subacid, pleasant, 
good to very good. Tree very thrifty. Winter. U. S. Dept. Agr., 
B. P. I., Bull. 275 

Ulster: Originated by the New York Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva, N. Y. Fruit 
medium to above in size, roundish-oblate, green or greenish-yellow, 
sometimes with faint bronze blush ; flesh tinged yellow, fine grained, 
crisp, tender, juicy, pleasant subacid, aromatic, good to very good. 
Tree medium vigorous, upright spreading. Winter. 

Unnard's Choice: Tucker-Mosby Seed Co., Memphis, Tenn. Same as 
Kinnard. 

Venable's Seedling: Jackson County Nurseries, Windser, Georgia. "Tree 
"erect, vigorous and very productive. Fruit medium size; flesh 
tender, juicy, subacid, fine flavor. In flavor and keeping qualities it 
is unexcelled." 

Vermac: Lawver x Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit below medium size, roundish; cavity 
medium depth and width; stem medium length, moderately stout; 
basin shallow, medium width, wrinkled; skin thick, tough, yellow 



259 

almost entirely covered with rich deep crimson ; flesh white tinged 
red with bright red core line, tender, juicy, subacid, pleasant, good 
with aroma of Mcintosh. Early to mid-winter. 

Wapella: Seedling of Dean x Ontario. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit below medium, roundish to 
oblong, ribbed ; cavity medium size ; stem medium length, slender to 
rather stout ; basin open, deep, wrinkled ; color yellow, washed with 
red; flesh yellowish with traces of red, crisp, breaking, juicy, 
quality above medium. November to mid-winter. 

Wedge, (Minn. No. 207) : Seedling of Ben Davis. Originated by the 
Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm. Especially promising because of 
its large well colored and high quality fruit which keeps in common 
storage until spring. A strong grower, an early bearer and hardy 
at least as far north as St. Paul. 

Western Wealthy: Originated with Chas. Bilger, Clyde, Callahan County, 
Texas, from seed brought from Germany. Fruit large, rich car- 
mine. Tree vigorous and productive. Early fall. Texas Dept. Agr., 
Bull. 32. 

Wilgar: Seedling of Northern Spy. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Resembles Northern Spy in ap- 
pearance, color, shape, flesh, and somewhat in flavor but'not as good 
as Northern Spy. 

Winton: Seedling of Mcintosh. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium, roundish-conical ; cavity 
narrow, medium depth, russeted ; stem medium to long, moderately 
stout ; basin medium size ; skin thick, tough,- pale yellOw, washed 
with crimson and orange ; flesh white, sometimes tinged red, tender, 
juicy, subacid, good; flavor much like Mcintosh. Late September 
and October. 

Wisconsin Golden: Capital City Nurseries, Des Moines, Iowa. "Russet, 
high quality, long keeper. December to June." 

Wolverine: Said to be an early winter variety of good size, rich color, 
exceedingly agreeable flavor, but lacking in juiciness. Subject to 
scab. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Womack's Choice: Pleasant Valley Nursery, McMinnville, Tenn. Fruit 
large, yellow, ripens 10 days earlier than Early Harvest ; tree 
strong grower and productive. In 1861, Mr. Monro Womack 
brought the tree from the Cum.berland Mountains to Warren 
County, Tenn. 

Woodring's Favorite: Originated as a chance seedling with James Wood- 
ring on Little Creek, Calhoun Co., W. Va., about 1902. Fruit 
medium to large, yellow almost covered with bright red and darker 
red stripes. Quality extra good. Tree productive. December to 
March. Introduced by the Rose Hill Nursery, Annamoriah, W. Va. 

Xantho: From J. A. Cox, Wheeling, W. Va. Fruit medium to large, 
roundish-oblong, rich yellow ; flesh sprightly subacid, fairly good. 
August. 



26o 

Zeleha: Imported from Russia as Krimakaja Zeleba by N. E. Hansen, 
Brookings, S. D. Fruit very large, about 3^ inches in diameter, 
globular, red ; very attractive ; flesh white, pleasant subacid, good 
cooker; season December and later. 

CRAB APPLE 

Alberta: Pyrus baccata x Haas. Originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit 1.6 inches wide, 1.4 inches long, 
round somewhat flattened and slightly ribbed ; stem short ; calyx 
persistent; color greenish yellow with bright red cheek; flesh nearly 
white, juicy, slightly astringent, fair to good. Tree vigorous and 
productive. Last of September to middle of October. 

Baird Winter: Originated with Wm. Baird, Lincoln, Kansas. Supposed 
to be a cross between Ralls and Whitney. Fruit above medium 
size, uniform; dark red; flesh juicy, crisp, subacid, good. October 
to last of May. Introduced by the Wichita Nurseries, Wichita, 
Kans., in 1916. 

Canadian: Texas Seed and Floral Co., Dallas, Texas. "Green striped 
with carmine. Flesh firm, juicy and rich. Very hardy." 

Elkhorn: Seedling of Jewell x Gideon, originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farms, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, oblate to roundish ; 
cavity open, medium depth ; stem long, slender ; basin open, 
wrinkled; skin yellow, washed with crimson; flesh yellowish, crisp, 
breaking, juicy acid, good. September and October. 

Freeman: Freeman Nursery Co., Freeman, S. D. Not described. 

Gretna: Seedling of Pioneer x Northern Spy, originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large up to 2^^ inches 
in diameter, oblate ; cavity deep, open ; stem medium to long, stout ; 
basin open, medium depth ; color yellow, washed and splashed with 
crimson; flesh yellowish, crisp, breaking, juicy, briskly subacid, 
good. November to January. 

Huges Virginia: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. "Good 
keeper and cider apple." 

Jenkin's Crab: Gurney Seed and Nursery Co., Yankton, S. D. Fruit of 
size and shape of Transcendent but said to be of better quality when 
fully ripe being a delicious little dessert apple. Tree large and pro- 
ductive; blossoms said to be semi-double, two inches in diameter 
and very fragrant. 

King: P. J. Berckmans Co., Augusta, Ga. Fruit medium size, roundish 
oblate, greenish yellow, acid. 

Mammoth Wild Crab: Hopedale Nursery, Hopedale, 111. In appearance 
the fruit is like the wild crab, even to the odor and greasy skin. It 
is fully as large as Ralls. Identical with Pyrus coronaria but many 
times as large. 

Piotosh: Pioneer x Mcintosh, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit above medium, roundish; cavity 



26 1 

medium size and depth ; stem long, moderately stout ; basin open, 
medium depth, wrinkled ; calyx closed ; skin yellow well washed 
with bright crimson ; bloom pinkish ; flesh yellow tinged red near 
skin, subacid, pleasant, no astringency, good. September. Re- 
sembles Transcendent. 

Prince: Pyrus baccata x Tetofsky. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit nearly round, 1.6 inches 
across and 1.3 inches deep; stem medium length; skin bright red 
with a few paler dots and streaks ; flesh nearly white, subacid, some- 
what astringent, pleasant; calyx often deciduous. September. Tree 
vigorous, upright and productive. 

Success: Strand's Nursery, Taylors Falls, Minn. "Very thrifty, upright 
grower; fruit of good color and size, mild, acid; a very promising 
marketing sort." 

Syli'a: Fruit Grower and Farmer, Sept. 1, 1913. Seedling of Stark 
Florence. Originated with R. E. L. Flowers, Quitman, Ark. Said 
to be almost three times the size of Florence, more tender and juicy 
and very mild subacid. Ripens entire crop within 10 days. 

Tony: Pyrus baccata x McMahon. Originated by the Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit round somewhat flattened, 
1.6 inches across and 1.4 inches deep; stem medium; skin greenish- 
yellow, streaked and splashed with bright red; calyx persistent; 
flesh yellowish white, juicy, sprightly subacid, slightly astringent, 
pleasant, quality fair; tree vigorous, spreading, productive. Late 
September and October. 

Trail: Seedling of Northern Queen x Rideau, originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit larger than Martha, 
oblate to roundish ; cavity medium size ; stem very long, slender ; 
basin open, deep ; color pale yellow, splashed and washed with 
orange red and crimson ; flesh yellowish, crisp, breaking, subacid, 
good to very good. August. 

PEAR 

Bailey (of Mich.) : Originated with L. H. Bailey, South Haven, Mich., 
about 1870. Is said to be of fine flavor, ripening October 1. Special 
Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Big Productive: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Not described. 

Chamness: Clingman Nursery Company, Keithville, La. Fruit medium, 
roundish-obovate, greenish yellow ; flesh sweet, quality fair. Sep- 
tember in Louisiana. 

Clairmont: From Wm. J. Corsa, Baltimore, Md. Fruit small, globular- 
obtuse-pyriform, greenish yellow; flesh sweet, rich, buttery, pleasant, 
very good. August. 

Demorest: Washington Nursery Co., Toppenish, Wash. Chance seedling 
originated with Mrs. Libbie J. Demorest, Tacoma, Wash. "Luscious, 
larger and better keeper than Bartlett." 



262 

Douglas: Said to be a cross between. Kieffer and Angouleme, originating 

in Douglas County, Kansas. Fruit large, beautiful yellow color; 

flesh juicy, sprightly, good. Same season as Kieffer. 
Effie Holt: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated in 

Alamance County, N. C, and was introduced by Mr. L. W. Holt. 

Fruit large, pyriform, greenish-yellow; flesh light yellow, rich, juicy, 

fine quality. Season late fall. Tree vigorous, very productive. Said 

to succeed well in the South. 
Ely: Originated in Sherman, Texas. Fruit small, deep yellow, good 

quality. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Eureka (of Dickinson) : Augustine & Company, Normal, 111. Supposed 

to be Seckel x Kieff^er, originating with E. W. Dickinson, Eureka, 
, 111. Fruit medium, bright yellow with russet and bright red cheek, 

shape of Seckel, but 4 or 5 times as large; flesh delicious, sweet, 

flavor of Seckel. 
Hassler: Originated in California, with J. E. Hassler at Placerville. Fruit 

large, obtuse pyriform; skin very smooth, greenish yellow with 

russet dots ; basin large, deep, irregular ; stem short, stout ; cavity 

quite deep with stem inserted at angle; flesh, juicy, very buttery, 

sweet, pleasant. Season very late-winter or early spring. Cir. No. 

94, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Hosli: Biloxi Nursery, Biloxi, Miss. Originated with Joseph Hosli, 

Biloxi, Miss. Supposed to be a cross between Kiefifer and LeConte. 

Fruit resembles Kiefifer, does not mellow; flesh sweet and juicy. 

Season about with LeConte. Tree resembles LeConte. 
Joan of Arc: Fruit medium to large ; oblong-pyriform to obtuse-pyri- 

form; color lemon yellow with russet netting; basin broad, deep, 

regular; stem short, stout, inserted at angle; flesh medium fine 

grained, melting, juicy, rich, sweet, musky, very good. Originated 

in France. Cir. No. 94, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Katy: Seedling of LeConte, originated with the late J. T. Leyendecker, 

New Ulm, Texas.' Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Lyman: Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, 111. Fruit medium size, 

ovate-pyriform, smooth, russeted yellow; flesh sprightly subacid, 

fair to good quality. September. 
Mammoth Bartlett: American Fruit Grower, March, 1922. Originated 

with J. W. Robinson, Sebastopol, Calif. "They ripen at the same 

time, have the same flavor and are apparently the same pear as the 

Bartlett except for size." 
Miller: J. Van Lindley Nursery Company, Pomona, N. C. Seedling of 

Kiefifer, originated with D. J. Miller, Millersburg, Ohio. Fruit said 

to be sweet, buttery, melting, good quality, much superior to Kiefifer 

and has russet skin. Winter. 
Morman Late: Fruit of Kiefifer type but more pyriform; dull yellowish 

with waxy appearance; stem very long; flavor much like Kiefifer; 

not as handsome as Kiefifer. Spec. Bull. 48, Mich. Exp. Sta. 



263 

Parrish Favorite: Porter-Walton Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. "Beautiful 
large winter pear, ripening in November and December; will keep 
until late spring in fine condition, retaining its deliciously captivating 
flavor. Always vigorous, never blights." 

Pride: Originated with F. M. Johnson, San Marcus, Texas; introduced 
by Otto Locke, New Braunfels, Texas. Fruit juicy, highly flavored, 
ripens two weeks earlier than LeConte of which it is supposed to 
be a seedling. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Rankin: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated with 
Col. W. H. Rankin, Guilford Count}', N. C. "Tree a strong 
grower, hardy, blights but little. Similar to Duchess and two weeks 
earlier." 

Ruby IVells: Thompson Nurseries, Waco, Texas. "Of LeConte type, 
mellows on tree, fine table fruit." Originated in Waco, Texas. 

Theodore Williams: Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. Seedling of Kieflfer. 
Originated with Theodore Williams, Benson, Neb. "A large beau- 
tiful pear of excellent quality ; tree healthy, vigorous, a prolific 
bearer — has stood 40 degrees below zero without injury." Flesh 
very sweet, juicy and fine flavored. A fall variety of green color. 

Touraine: Fruit medium size, oblong-pyriform; color greenish-yellow 
without blush ; basin medium size ; stem long, inserted at angle ; 
quality medium; season late. Bull. Vol. VII, No. 5, May, 1918, 
Calif. State Com. of Hort. 

Vanille: Fruit small, roundish, obtuse-obovate; color yellow, with beau- 
tiful blush ; basin wide ; stem short, cavity very small ; quality 
medium; season late. Cir. No. 94, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 

Voorhies: A seedling of Seckel, originated by W. G. Voorhies, South 
Frankford, Mich. Fruit larger than Seckel, obovate-turbinate, ir- 
regular ; light yellow almost entirely overlaid with dull reddish 
brown, somewhat striped near cavity; cavity narrow, very shallow; 
stem medium long, stonJt, clubbed; basin broad, rather shallow; 
flesh whitish, somewhat coarse, juicy, mild subacid, good to very 
good. Tree like Seckel but more vigorous and spreading. Late 
fall and early winter. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

QUINCE 

Alpha: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Produces large, handsome, 
light crimson blossom and extremely large orange-like, waxy, yel- 
low fruits in the greatest profusion. It is one of the handsomest 
of all fruits, and always attracts attention by its large size, peculiar 
form, golden color and exquisite fragrance. Useful everywhere 
owing to its hardy vigor, productiveness and value for jelly making." 

Childs: Originated by Luther Burbank and sold to John Lewis Childs, 
Floral Park, N. Y. Burbank-s description : "It is the earliest 
quince to ripen, earliest to bear, productive, smooth, handsome, 
lemon-yellow, very large and cooks in five minutes." Childs' de- 



264 

scription : "Fruit larger than the largest apples, nearly round ; skin 
smooth; flesh tender, very mild pleasant flavor, delicious to eat raw 
or cooked. Tree large, rank grower, bears enormously." 
Elephant: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Fruit produced in the 
greatest abundance ; good specimens a foot and a half around each 
way; smooth bright orange, flesh yellow, turning to a deep pink 
when cooked; of superior quality." 
Muck: Keystone Nurseries, Lancaster, Pa. "Large and prolific." 
Santa Rosa: Seedling of Rea Mammoth. Originated by Luther Burbank, 
Santa Rosa, Calif. "Remarkable for its great size, exquisite beauty 
of form, polished light lemon yellow almost white skin, productive- 
ness, tenderness of flesh, delicious flavor and diminutive core. The 
fruit is fine grained and so free from the harsh acid of the old 
quinces that it is as good as some of the popular apples for eating 
raw, fully equal to the best of apples or pears when baked, stewed 
or canned and makes a superior light colored dried fruit. Tree 
unusually vigorous. September." 

PEACH 

Abilene: A cross between Mamie Ross and Elberta. Originated with 
J. M. Howell, Weatherf ord, Texas. Fruit large, yellow ; flesh firm, 
good flavor, good shipper, freestone. Ripens July 15. Texas Dept. 
Agr., Bull. 32. 

Argyle Elberta: Franklin Davis Nursery Co., Baltimore, Md. Said to 
be a strain of Elberta, but the fruit is of finer color, redder, of 
better flavor, and keeps better than Elberta, ripens iour to six days 
later than Elberta. 

Alice (of Emery) : Fruit good size, freestone, Spanish type. Originated 
with a Mr. Emery at Arkansas Pass, Texas. Texas Dept. Agr., 
Bull. 32. 

Anabell: A small white cling introduced by F. T. Ramsey on account of 
its heavy bearing habits. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Annabel: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. Originated in Texas. "One 
of the largest peaches we have ever seen. The color is most 
gorgeous red and yellow. July 10 to 20 in Texas." Said to be 
larger and more brilliant in color than Elberta, but is not a sure 
bearer in Texas. 

Annie Willia^iis: Originated in Smith County, Texas. Fruit white with 
red cheek resembling Mamie Ross, but is earlier in season; flesh 
yellow, flavor excellent. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

A tame: From G. Onderdonk Nursery, Texas. Fruit small to medium 
size, roundish, greenish-yellow to rich yellow, very mild subacid, 
fair quality, clingstone. End of July. 

Atoyac: Fruit large, yellow. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Beall Late White: Fruit large, roundish, 'pale greenish-yellow, mottled 
and blushed with thin bright red; skin thick, tough, downy; flesh 



265 

creamy- white stained red, red at stone, moderately juicy, fibrous, 
very meaty, mild subacid, good ; stone free. Tree erect, vigorous, 
leaf glands orbicular. October. Maryland Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 
Berks' Favorite: Originated with O. G. Berks, Swedesboro, N. J. Re- 
sembles Stevens Rareripe. Tree hardy and productive. Season 
same as Iron Mountain. 

Black's October: Fruit large, white with red cheek, highly flavored, 
clingstone. October. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Black's September: Fruit large, yellow, juicy, delicious. September. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Blanche: From R. Bates, Jackson, S. C. Fruit medium size, roundish, 
rich yellow, nearly sweet, fairly good quality, clingstone. August. 

BlooDiuigton: From Ray Smith, St. George, Utah. Fruit large, roundish, 
dull yellow, nearly sweet, clingstone. Last of September and first 
of October. 

Bolivian Cling : Fruit medium to large, irregularly roundish, rich golden 
yellow, nearly sweet, poor to fair quality, clingstone. August. 

Bolivian Free: Fruit medium size, roundish-oval, greenish-yellow, mild 
subacid, poor to fair quality, freestone. August. 

Boyett's Extra Cling: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tenn. Not de- 
scribed. 

Briner: Same as Briner's Favorite. See report for 1920. 

Buckhorn: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Fruit medium to large, 
roundish to oval, creamy white to pale yellow, mild subacid, good 
quality, freestone. July. 

Burk: Fruit medium size, roundish, sides often unequal^ suture to apex; 
apex rounded ; color creamy white, mottled with rich red ; skin 
thick, tough with considerable down ; flesh creamy, tinted red, red at 
stone, moderately juicy, nearly sweet, fair; stone free. Tree erect, 
vigorous; leaf glands orbicular. Maryland Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 
September. 

Butler: Fruit round, sometimes lopsided, medium large ; suture to apex ; 
color rich yellow, mottled and blushed red ; flesh rich yellow, tinged 
red, red at stone, juicy, nearly sweet, fair; stone cling. Tree vigor- 
ous, spreading; leaf glands reniform. September. Md. Exp. Sta., 
Bull. 159. 

Cauthcn : Seedling of Elberta. Originated by Mrs. Thomas Cauthen, 
Lampasas, Texas, in 1901. Fruit large, deep yellow ; flesh firm, 
fine flavor; pit small, freestone, follows Elberta in season, and is as 
good as Elberta. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Chas. Evans: Thompson Nurseries, Waco, Texas. Originated with Chas. 
Evans, Waco, Texas. "Large, oblong, rich yellow with red cheek. 
Follows Elberta and is a clingstone of unusually fine quality." 

Clara (of Onderdonk) ; Originated with Gilbert Onderdonk in 1906. Fruit 
small, sweet with slight tinge of bitterness, ripens last of May. Of 
Peen-To parentage. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 



266 

Cole: Originated with J. R. Cole, Dallas County, Texas. Indian type. 

Skin dark with streaks of red. Flesh firm, juicy; clingstone. 
Ripens August 1. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Coleman (of Mississippi) : J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. 
Originated near Utica, Miss. Fruit large, yellow, freestone, ripen- 
ing ten days after Smock; said to be similar to Smock. 

Columbine : Drum Seed and Floral Co., Ft. Worth, Texas. "Very large; 
skin downy; dingy yellow; juicy and rich; ripe about June 20 and 
continues for a month." 

Connet's Latest: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. Fruit large, 
yellow, freestone ; flavor rich, season November. 

Denvy: Fruit roundish, sides unequal, medium or above; suture beyond 
apex; skin thick, tough, downy, creamy color with faint blush; flesh 
white, moderately juicy, meaty, pleasant, nearly sweet, fair; stone 
large, cling. Tree erect, vigorous, leaf glands orbicular. September. 
Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

DeWitt: Fruit medium size; flesh creamy-white, firm, fine flavor, ripens 
August 5 to 10. Originated in Kaufman County, Texas. Texas 
Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Dixie (Not Dixie of Hedrick) : Seedling of Elberta. Originated at San 
Marcos, Texas. Fruit yellow with pink cheek, two weeks earlier 
than Elberta. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Dixon: Originated with C. P. Orr, Arp, Texas. Fruit large, creamy- 
white; flesh firm, juicy, fine flavor, clingstone. Tree vigorous, 
' prolific. July 15 to 25. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Dock Harris: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tenn. Not described. 

Double Crop: Fruit medium, roundish, sides unequal; suture beyond 
apex ; pale yellow mottled with heavy red almost black, very attrac- 
tive; flesh cream-colored, stained red, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, 
meaty, sweet, spicy, good ; stone cling. Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf 
glands orbicular. August. Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Early (of Burbank) : Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Productive 
home peach of surpassing beauty and excellent for home use." 

Early Smock: Fruit medium, roundish, sides often unequal; suture to 
apex ; rich yellow with bright and dark red mottling ; flesh yellow, 
red at stone, melting, moderately juicy, fibrous, mild subacid, fair; 
stone free. Tree erect, vigorous, very productive; leaf glands reni- 
form. September. Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Ellington: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. Originated with 
Captain Ellington, Greensboro, N. C. Said to be a peach of first 
class quality, ripening in November in North Carolina. 

Ensley: Planters' Nursery, Humboldt, Tenn. "Very large, yellow, 12 
peaches fill peck." 

Eva: Willow Lake Nursery, Marshallville, Ga. Originated by Judge 
J. A. Edwards, Marshallville, Ga. Fruit very large, yellow with red 
cheek; flesh yellow, firm, rather 'dry texture, excellent flavor; free- 
stone; later than Salway. 



2^^ 

Eva (of Stubenrauch) ; Seedling of Mamie Ross by Elberta. Originated 
by J. W. Stubenrauch, Mexia, Texas. Fruit nearly round, mostly 
covered with red, size of Elberta and of similar quality but ripens 
several days earlier. Freestone. 

Fcmmonsi: From M. Sharp, Vacaville, Calif. Fruit very large, roundish- 
oval, smooth, greenish yellow, mild subacid flavor, fair quality, 
clingstone. July. 

Fiiiley Cling: Thompson Nursery, Waco, Texas. "White cling; better 
than Gen. Lee or Chinese Cling. Ripens last of July." Originated 
at Waco, Texas. 

Prcdcrica: Fruit large, roundish, lopsided; suture to apex; light yellow, 
washed with heavy dark red and mottled with light red; flesh rich 
yellow, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, melting, rich, spicy, good; 
stone very large, free. Tree somewhat spreading, vigorous ; leaf 
glands orbicular. September. Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Fruitland Cling: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. Originated 
in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Fruit nearly as large as Elberta ; flesh 
firm and of excellent flavor and quality; color red; flesh dark orange 
color ; a good shipper. 

Fulton: Adams County Nursery and Fruit Farms, Aspers, Pa. Fruit 
large, creamy-white covered with red, fine market peach. Tree 
heavy bearer. August. 

Gardi)ia: Fruit medium size, white, freestone. Originated with Peler 
Jecker, Victoria, Texas in 1908. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Georgia Cling: Fruit medium to large, roundish, somewhat elongated, 
somewhat lopsided ; suture to apex ; white with bright mottling 
over most of the surface, dark blush; flesh white, juicy, spicy, 
meaty, mild subacid, good ; stone large, cling. Tree spreading, 
vigorous ; leaf glands orbicular or wanting. August. Md. Exp. 
Sta., Bull. 159. 

Gilbert: Xewton Nurseries, Newton, Miss. A seedling grown by S. B. 
Gilbert, Newton, Miss. Fruit large, oblong, white with red cheek. 
August. 

Gold Medal: Gardiner's Nurseries, Kennewick, Wash. Not described. 

Gold Miller: Fruit medium, roundish, lopsided ; suture to apex, color 
rich yellow, with rich dull blush, very attractive ; flesh yellow, 
tinged with green, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, meaty, pleasant, good; 
stone large, free. Tree vigorous, erect. August. Md. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 159. Leaf glands orbicular. 

Golden Acme: Utah Nursery Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. Origi- 
nated near Olathe, Johnson County, Kansas. Fruit large, highly 
colored, beautiful ; flesh rich, sweet, delicious. Tree vigorous, very 
productive. Season early, 10 days after Amsden. Freestone. 

Gordon (of Tucker-Mosby Seed Co.) : Tucker-Mosby Seed Co., Mem- 
phis, Tenn. Originated near Byron, Ga., has been disseminated 
under several other names. Fruit nearly as large as Carman; 
season first half of June. 



268 

Grace: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. Originated by Paul 
Edmundson, Gilford College, N. C. Fruit creamy-white with blush; 
flavor delicious ; freestone. 

Hardison Seedling: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not de- 
scribed. 

Harris: Originated with J. T. Harris, Lampasas, Texas. Fruit large, 
white with delicate pink blush; flesh juicy, sweet. Prolific bearer. 
'Ripens Sept. 1 to 15. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Harfs Cling: Originated with D. M. Hart, Jr., Weatherford, Texas. 
Fruit pinkish white, flesh creamy white, red at pit. August. Texas 
Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Heard: Fruit medium, roundish with sides compressed; suture three- 
fourths around fruit ; color pale yellow with small blush or mottling 
of bright red; flesh white tinged with yellow, moderately juicy, 
very firm, meaty, nearly sweet, fair; stone large, cling. Tree vigor- 
ous, spreading; leaf glands reniform. September. Md. Agr. Exp., 
Bull. 159. 

Heidelberg : Fruit medium large, round, lopsided; suture to apex; color 
rich yellow almost entirely blushed with red, attractive; flesh rich 
yellow, red at stone; juicy, fibrous, meaty, spicy, nearly sweet, 
excellent; stone large, free. Tree erect, vigorous. August. Md. 
Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. Leaf glands orbicular. 

Henderson: Fruit medium or above, roundish, often lopsided; suture 
beyond apex ; color yellow, mottled with bright and dark red with 
dull purplish stripes and patches; flesh yellow, red at stone, juicy, 
fibrous, meaty, mild pleasant subacid, fair to good ; stone large, 
free. Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf glands orbicular. August. Md. 
Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Hess Seedling: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not de- 
scribed. 

Hodgin: E. B. Hodgin, Spout Springs, N. C. Fruit medium to large, 
roundish, sides compressed, smooth, pale yellow mottled with rich 
red, mild subacid, good to best quality, stone nearly free. July. 

Holcombe: "A yellow freestone of medium size, has a very rich pleasant 
flavor." Rep. N. J. State Hort. Soc, 1915. 

Hoovers' October: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not de- 
scribed. 

Horton: Fruit large, roundish, lopsided; suture to apex; color pale 
yellow with rich deep blush, rather attractive; flesh rich yellow, 
juicy, meaty, nearly sweet, fair; stone large, semi-cling. Tree 
vigorous, spreading ; leaf glands orbicular. September. Md. Exp. 
Sta., Bull. 159. 

Hoy: Originated with Miss Jessie Hoy, Bonham, Texas. Fruit large, 
handsome, yellow, exquisite flavor, freestone, ripens with Elberta 
but is a better peach. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Improved Muir: American Fruit Grower, March 1922. Said to be a 
cross between Muir and Strawberry. Much juicier and better than 



269 

Muir and more pointed and redder. Originated by J. W. Robinson, 
Sebastopol, Calif. 

Jack Beall: Waxahachie Nursery Co., Waxahachie, Texas. A chance 
seedling originating in Ellis County, Texas. "Large yellow cling- 
stone, quality first class. 

Jarrell: Fruit large, roundish, sometimes oblong, sides unequal ; suture 
nearly or entirely around fruit; color creamy white with small 
dull blush; flesh creamy white, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, flavor 
rather bitter, poor. Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf glands orbicular. 
September. Md. Exp. Sta. Bull. 159. Stone large, free. 

John Adams: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not described. 

Junebcrta: Seedling of Elberta. Originated with J. F. Sneed, Tyler, 
Texas. Fruit large, yellow, resembles Elberta except it is a cling- 
stone. June. Texas Dept. Agr. Bull. 32. 

Kathryn: Chance seedling found by J. W. Heal, Beverly, N. J., in 1915. 
Supposed to be a cross between Belle and 'Greensboro. Fruit of 
good size; flesh white, quality high; flavor similar to Belle; free- 
stone. Tree vigorous and productive. Ripens with Carman. 

Kcyport Red Cling: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Fruit 
large, red, clingstone, much like old Mixon cling but higher colored. 

Kirk: Originated by J. W. Stubenrauch, Mexia, Texas. Fruit light lemon 
yellow with red cheek, good size, good quality, good shipper, cling- 
stone. 

Late Admirable : Fruit medium, roundish, little lopsided; suture short; 
color pale yellow with a little heavy red and bright mottling, dull 
colored; flesh greenish yellow, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, meaty, 
mild subacid slightly bitter, fair to good ; stone very large, free. 
Tree vigorous, spreading. Leaf glands orbicular. August. Md. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 159. 

iMury's Choice: Seems to be identical with Late Crawford. Rep. N. J. 
State Hort. Soc, 1915. 

Linfhicum : Fruit roundish pointed, sides unequal, medium; color pale 
yellow with heavy blush ; flesh light yellow, red at stone, moderately 
juicy, fibrous, pleasant, mild subacid, nearly sweet, good. Stone 
large, free. Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf glands orbicular or wanting. 
August. Md. Exp. Sta. Bull. 159. 

Llewellyn: Fruit small, roundish; suture to apex; color dull greenish, 
mottled with dark red and streaked with carmine overcast with 
grey, dull colored; flesh white, deep carmine next to skin, juicy, 
fibrous, meaty, mild subacid, fair ; stone large, cling. Tree spread- 
ing, vigorous ; leaf glands orbicular. August. Md. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
159. 

Lyndon Cling: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated 
by Dr. L. Lyndon Hobbs, President of Guilford College, N. C. Fruit 
very large, handsome, yellow with red cheek; flesh brittle, juicy, 
very good, clingstone. Season last half of August, in Georgia. 



270 

McKee: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. "Wonderful for its striking 
color. July 15 to 25." Indian type inside and out, prolific. 

Mason Orange: From B. F. Mason, Martinsville, Ind. Fruit very large, 
irregular, roundish; rich orange yellovir, splashed red and carmine; 
pleasant mild subacid flavor, fairly good quality. September. 

Mays' October: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not de- 
scribed. 

Michigan Beauty: The Monroe Nursery, Monroe, Michigan. Fruit 
large, highly colored ; flesh yellow, rich, quality like Crawford 
Late, freestone. Tree vigorous, productive. First part of October. 

Midland: Originated with J. M. Howell, Weatherford, Texas. Fruit 
large, yellow, flesh yellow, freestone, ripens July 20. Texas Dept. 
Agr., Bull. 32. 

Mikado (Not Mikado of Hedrick) : Originated with E. W. Kirkpatrick, 
McKinney, Texas. Fruit bright yellow, firm, good shipper, semi- 
cling. Tree prolific. June. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Minter: Originated with Morgan Minter near Como, Texas. Fruit 
large, white with red cheek, semi-cling; tree vigorous, productive, 
June. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Mosty's Cling: Originated with L. A. Mosty, Kerrville, Texas. Fruit 
medium, deep orange covered with crimson ; flesh firm, fine quality. 
September. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Mosty's Free: Originated with L. A. Mosty, Kerrville, Texas. Fruit 
medium, deep orange covered with crimson ; flesh firm, quality 
fine, freestone ; September. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Motlow: J. C. Hale Nursery Co., Winchester, Tenn. Fruit yellow, 
freestone, as large as Elberta but ripens two weeks later. Quality 
fine ; tree very vigorous and productive. Originated in Winchester, 
Tenn. 

M. T. Cox: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not described, 

Munford: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. Originated by S. B. Mun- 
ford, San Marcos, Texas. "A large round Honey type freestone, 
of high quality, almost as smooth as a nectarine; sure bearer." 

Neal ''Stuart October: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not 
described. 

Newcombe: W. E. Collins Company, Fennville, Michigan. Originated 
near Fennville, Mich. Fruit large, round, yellow overspread with 
carmine; high quality, freestone; ripens just ahead of Elberta. 

Nii'Ui: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated with 
J. C. McNeill, Hinds County, Miss. Fruit large, yellow shaded 
with red ; flesh yellow, quality fine, freestone. Season middle of 
August. Between Elberta and Matthews Beauty. 

October Elberta: Fruit medium size, oblong-pointed; suture to apex; 
skin thick, tough, somewhat downy, pale yellow with bright blush; 
flesh creamy, red at stone, juicy, meaty, pleasant mild subacid, fair; 
stone large, cling. Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf glands reniform, 
September. Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 



271 

Oklahoma: Chipola Nursery, Apalachicola, Fla. "Tree a good grower, 
fruit large, juicy, fine flavor, beautiful appearance, freestone." 

Oklahoma Beauty: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. "Nearly 
round and is more highly colored than the Greensboro, three days 
earlier, and equals it in every other respect. Some specimens 
measure 8 inches in circumference, semi-cling." 

Oklahoma Queen: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. "Ripens 
one week after Greensboro ; very large ; white creamy ground with 
beautiful blush, semi-cling." 

Patison: Crow's Nurseries, Gilroy, Gal. Originated with J. C. Patison, 
Gilroy, Cal., about 1900. Fruit extra large for its season which is 
immediately following Alexander. Flesh clear golden yellow par- 
tially clinging to the seed, fine grained, highly flavored, very good 
quality for an early variety. 

Persia: Fruit large, roundish, lopsided; suture to apex; color light 
yellow shaded and mottled with bright and dull red, attractive ; 
flesh rich yellow, red at stone, juicy, fibrous, meaty, rich mild 
subacid, very good; stone large, free. Tree vigorous, spreading; 
leaf glands reniform. Last of August and first of September. 
Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Philip Horton: Originated with Philip Horton, Smith County, Texas. 
Fruit very large, 3'ellow, fine flavor, cling, ripens after Elberta. 
Tree prolific. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Pomcroy: Originated with Pomeroy Page of Titus County, Texas. 
Fruit large, firm, yellow, good flavor. Tree vigorous. August. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 3-2. 

Quality (of Burbank) : Originated by Luther Burbank who says: "The 
best flavored of all my Crawford-Muir hybrids." 

Ranes Seedling: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. Not de- 
scribed. 

Red Georgia: Bunting's Nurseries, Selbyville, Del. Fruit medium to 
large ; skin deep blood red ; flesh red ; clingstone. Tree vigorous, 
abundant cropper. Last of September. 

Ribroco: Rice Bros. Co., Geneva, N. Y. "A large, handsome freestone 
with golden skin, covered with a bright crimson blush. Flesh yel- 
low, juicy. Valuable for market, a good shipper. Ripens after 
Crawford Early." 

Richards: C. W. Stuart & Company, Newark, N. Y. Originated in 
Central New York. Fruit very large, yellow with red cheek; flesh 
light yellow, quality excellent. Tree a heavy bearer. Middle of 
September. 

Robert G. Nectar: Fruit medium size, roundish to oblong, often lopsided; 
suture beyond apex ; skin thick, tough, considerably downy, creamy 
white with indication of blush; flesh creamy white, juicy, tender, 
fibrous, mild subacid, bitterish, poor ; stone large, free. Tree erect, 
vigorous ; leaf glands reniform. September. Md, Exp. Sta., Bull. 
159. n 



272 

San Antonio: A yellow freestone of good quality which originated in 
the U. S. Exp. Farm, San Antonio, Texas, where it ripens July 1. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Scarborough: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated 
near Greensboro, N. C. Fruit resembles Old Mixon Free but ripens 
three weeks later. 
Seafon's Golden Cling: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. 
Originated in Hinds County, Miss. Fruit medium to large, golden 
yellow, fine quality, very prolific, clingstone. Season middle of July 
in Miss. 
Smith Yellow: Fruit medium large, shaped like Crawford Late but more 
pointed ; suture to apex ; color rich yellow shaded and mottled with 
bright and dark red; flesh rich yellow, juicy, red at stone, rich, spicy, 
nearly sweet, excellent ; stone medium, free. Tree erect, vigorous ; 
leaf glands orbicular. Last of August and first of September. 
Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 
South Ha7/cn: Originated by A. G. Spencer, South Haven, Mich., about 
1908. Fruit large, roundish, thick-skinned, highly colored; flesh 
yellow. Freestone ; ripens with St. John, about the middle of 
August. Hoosier Horticulture, Oct. 1921. 
Stonewall Jackson Free: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. 
Fruit very large, sometimes weighing twenty ounces ; orange yel- 
low ; flesh yellow, firm, fine for canning or market. Seedling of 
Crawford Late and originated in Union County, N. C. Middle 
of August. 
Tarbell (Not Tarbell of Hedrick) : Fruit yellow; flesh very tender; 
freestone. Originated in Smith County, Texas, and was intro- 
duced by J. T. Whitaker, Tyler, Texas. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 
32. 
Thorn: Originated with J. S. Thorn, Canton, Texas. Fruit large, light 
yellow, firm, cling, good shipper, one of the best keepers of all 
of the Texas peaches. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Togo: Originated with E. W. Kirkpatrick, McKinney, Texas. Fruit 
medium size, red cheek, white flesh, good quality, extra early, 
ripening Mav 10 in Texas. Tree prolific. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 
82. 
Tom Davis: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. Originated 
in South Carolina ; said to be a large yellow clingstone of very 
fine quality. Late August. 
Tryon: Greensboro Nurseries, Greensboro, N. C. Fruit large, red blush 
on creamy skin ; flavor delicious, season last of July and first of 
August. 
Uneeda: Fruit medium or above, square in outline but flattened on 
suture side and on sides at apex; suture entirely around fruit; 
skin thick, pale yellow with thin bright blush ; flesh white, rather 
dry, meaty, mild subacid, flat, fair; stone cling. Tree vigorous, 
spreading, leaf glands orbicular. August. Md. Exp. Sta., Bui. 159. 



273 

Utah Orange: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. Originated 
near Salt Lake City about 189L Fruit resembles Foster; quality 
rich ; freestone ; tree thrifty, productive. Follows Elberta in season 
and is an excellent shipper. 

Weatherford: Originated with J. M. Howell, Weatherford, Texas. Fruit 
large, white with red cheek, fine flavor, freestone. Ripens Sept. 
L Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Winnie Davis: Fruit medium to above, nearly round, sides often unequal; 
suture beyond apex ; color greenish-white with purplish blush ; flesh 
greenish-white, red at stone, melting, juicy, modferately tender, 
subacid, good ; stone large, semi-cling. Tree vigorous, spreading, 
not productive; leaf glands orbicular. October. Md. Exp. Sta., 
Bull. L59. 

Winstone: Same as Winstone Seedling. See report for 1920. 

Wright Nebraska: Fruit very large, roundish or slightly flattened; suture 
to apex; color rich yellow, somewhat mottled and blushed with 
bright red; flesh rich yellow, tinged with red, red at stone, juicy, 
fibrous, meaty, pleasant mild subacid, very good ; stone large, free. 
Tree erect, vigorous ; leaf glands reniform. Last half of August 
and first half of September. Md. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159. 

Yellozv Dazis: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. "A large 
yellow freestone of excellent quality; very prolific; ripens middle of 
August in North Carolina. 

Yellow Sandy River Seedling Cling: Valdesian Nurseries, Bostic, N. C. 
Fruit large, yellow; flesh juicy, acid, valuable for home use or 
market. Clingstone. Said to come true from seed. 

PLUM 

Advance (Not Advance of Hedrick) : A cross between the Japanese and 
native types. "It is the largest early plum and the earliest large 
plum." Ripens last of May. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Alma: Seedling of Caro, fruit large, oval; cavity narrow, abrupt; stem 
short, slender; suture a distinct line; skin thick, tough, yellow, 
thinly washed with bright red ; dots few, small, yellow ; bloom thin, 
bluish; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, rich, good; stone cling. Americana 
group. Bull. No. 43, Exp. Farms, Ottawa, Canada. 

Anoka: Alinnesota Horticulturist, September 1921. Burbank x DeSoto ; 
originated by the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm. "Hardy, strong 
growing nursery tree making a moderate sized tree in the orchard. 
Fruit large, dark red, medium size; flesh very firm; pit clinging; 
quality fair. Ripens first week in September." Promising as a 
market variety. 

Austrian Prune: Scions imported from the Imperial gardens, Vienna, 
Austria, in 1893, by Geo. Aprill, Ann Arbor, Mich. Fruit larger 
than any American or Japanese variety; specimens weighing 4 to 5 

18 



274 

ounces ; flesh delicious. Tree hardy and productive. September in 
Michigan. 

Beauty Junior: Seedling of Beauty. Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. 
"Very large, round, deepest crimson, superior quality, long keeper. 
September and October." 

Bodabrad: Same as Austrian Prune. 

C alloc: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Very large, deep purple 
plum. Flesh yellow, sweet, rich, freestone. Good grower and 
productive. Ripe August 10." 

CasiqUrc: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Ripens here June 20 
with the earliest plums. Large, round, purple; flesh shaded yellow 
and crimson like Santa Rosa, sweet, rich, delicious. About one 
week earlier than Santa Rosa. Productive." 

Churry: Fruit medium size, very dark red ; flesh meaty ; stone almost 
free. Americana type. Not worth propagating except possibly for 
breeding purposes. Bull. 114, Iowa Exp. Sta. 

Corona: Seedling of Caro originated at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, oval, lopsided ; cavity medium size, 
shallow ; suture slightly depressed ; apex knobbed ; skin thick, 
tough, greenish-yellow, overspread with bright red ; flesh greenish- 
yellow, firm, juicy, meaty, sweet, good; stone large, cling. Septem- 
ber. 

Cranberry: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Fruit small, one inch 
in diameter, brilliant rosy crimson color ; flesh white, exquisitely 
delicious, freestone. Very productive. October 10 to November 
10." 

Cremo: Cross between Botan and Chickasaw, originating on the farm 
of Sam H. Dixon, in Montgomery County, Texas. Fruit large, 
yellow, ripens June 1 to 10. Tree vigorous, upright, prolific. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Creosoto: Originated by N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D. Cross be- 
tween the sand cherry and DeSoto. Tree an early and abundant 
cropper. 

Crimson Beauty (of Burbank) .• Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. 
"Medium size, finest quality for home use." 

Crimson Cluster: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Latest of all; 
ripening in November ; enormously productive ; beautiful, superior." 

Dara: Seedling of Caro, originated at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Can. Fruit large, roundish to oval ; cavity medium size ; 
suture a distinct line ; skin thick, yellow, mottled and thinly washed 
with red; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, pleasant, good; stone medium 
size, almost free. Season late. 

Discovery: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Earlier than Climax 
and of same size but infinitely better in quality; deep crimson. 
Flesh sweet, rich, firm, rosy crimson. Productive. July. 

Douglas: Fruit rather large, conical, yellow with purple tinge; flesh 
firm, flavor good. Tree upright, vigorous, hardy and productive. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 



275 

Easton: Aye Brothers, Blair, Nebr. Japanese type, not described. 
Eldorado (of Burbank) ; Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit 

black and flat like an apple ; flesh firm, pale salmon color, rich, 

sweet, delicious, freestone. Season early. 
Ettor: A cross of Norman with Chabot originated by A. L. Bruce, 

Clarendon, Texas. Resembles both parents. Fine flavor Tree 

large, productive. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Firmina: Seedling of Consul, originated by the Central Experimental 

Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, oval, wedge, slightly lopsided ; 

cavity medium size ; suture indistinct ; skin medium thick, yellow, 

mottled and washed with carmine red ; flesh yellow, firm, not juicy, 

sweet or insipid, medium quality; stone large, free. September. 
Frances: Originated with the Texas Nursery Company, Sherman, Texas. 

Fruit large, yellow, handsome, ripens late in June. Texas Dept. 

Agr., Bull. 32. 
Gigantic: (Provisional name) Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit 

extra large, clear lemon yellow ; flesh lemon yellow, sweet, and fine ; 

nearly freestone. August 20 to September 15. 
Gill: Fruit medium size, round, blue covered with light bloom; flesh 

firm sweet, rich, good. Tree strong, vigorous, spreading. Cir. No. 

94, Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 
Hazel: Seedling of Gloria, originated at Central Experimental Farm, 

Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish-ovate ; cavity medium size ; 

suture indistinct ; skin thick, tough, yellow overspread with dull rich 

red; flesh golden yellow, juicy, moderately firm, sweet, good; stone 

large, flattened. September. 
Hogg: Originated with Sam H. Dixon, Houston, Texas. A seedling 

of Kelsey. Fruit large, mottled, delicious flavor, semi-cling, ripens 

June 10. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Home (Provisional name) : Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit 

salmon color, half covered with pale crimson, pale thin bloom. 

Flesh lemon yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, very fragrant, delicious, 

cling. Tree a very strong upright grower, productive. 
Home Chestnut: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Salmon skin, 

covered with pale crimson with numerous yellow dots. Flesh lemon 

yellow, firm but juicy. Good grower and regular bearer." (This 

may be the same as Home of an earlier catalogue.) 
Honey Prune: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Seedling of French 

prune. Larger than the French prune, white, semi-transparent with 

a heavy white bloom ; flesh honey sweet, "excels -all other prunes 

or plums". 
Hubert: Originated with A. L. Bruce, Clarendon, Texas. Fruit large, 

purple ; flesh coarse grained, fine flavor. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 

32. 
Imperial Blue: Originated by Israel Pennington, Mason, Mich. Fruit 

under medium size, nearly round, purplish black with bluish bloom ; 
stem short; cavity shallow, flesh greenish-yellow, soft, delicate, 



276 

juicy, rich, sweet; pit small. Season September. Special Bull. 44, 
Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Inca: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit large, oval, greenish- 
yellow tinged crimson; flesh firm, yellow, sweet, delicious. Very 
productive, September. 

Joseph: Originated with Joseph Rowley, Sr., Cummings Bridge, Ontario. 
Fruit very large, oval, flattened ; cavity shallow, medium width ; 
suture a distinct line; skin rather thick, yellow, mottled and washed 
with attractive red; flesh yellow, juicy, sweet, rich, good, quality very 
good for an American plum. September. Bull. No. 43, Exp. Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

Julia May: Originated and introduced by W. H. Perkins, McKinney, 
Texas. Fruit large, deep red, quality good. Ripens last half of 
May. Texas Dept. Agr.,- Bull. 32. 

Kaw: N. E. Hansen, Brookings, S. D. Prunus watsoni x Wolf. Fruit 
bright dark red with fine white dots and white bloom. Flesh yellow, 
crisp, pleasing quality. 

Kilmorc: Seedling of Yosemite purple. Originated by Central Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish, slightly 
flattened ; cavity medium size ; suture a distinct line ; skin rather 
thick, bright purplish red ; dots numerous, yellow. Flesh deep 
yellow, juicy, sweet, rich, good; stone above medium, almost free. 
Season medium late. 

Kingston Sugar: Fruit above medium size, heart shaped; cavity shallow; 
stem medium length, rather stout ; suture a distinct line ; skin 
rather thick and tough, green with traces of yellow ; flesh yellowish- 
green, juicy, sweet, very good; stone medium size, cling; belongs 
to Reine Claude group. Bull. No. 43, Exp. Farm. Ottawa, Canada. 

Lester: Seedling of DeSoto, originated by the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium or above, roundish ; cavity 
narrow, shallow ; suture a distinct line ; skin rather thick, yellow, 
mostly covered with bright red, bloom moderate, bluish ; dots small, 
yellow; flesh deep yellow, juicy, sweet, good; stone medium size, 
semi-cling. September. Tree very productive. 

I^oring : Minnesota Horticulturist, December 1917. Originated at Lons- 
dale, Rice County, Minn. Fruit over 2 inches in diameter, well 
colored; flesh firm, free from bitterness with a slight peach flavor; 
clingstone. Tree hardy productive. 

Major: Seedling of the wild plum of Manitoba, originated at the 
Experimental Farm, Brandon, Manitoba. Fruit rather small, quality 
good, season very early. 

Mancheno: Seedling of Cheney x Manitoba, originated by the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit medium size, oval ; 
cavity narrow, rather deep; stem medium length, slender; suture 
indistinct ; skin moderately thick, yellow, nearly covered with 
deep red; dots obscure; flesh yellow, juicy, briskly subacid, some- 
what astringent, medium quality ; stone large, cling. 



277 . 

Marler: Seedling of Caro, originated at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish to oval; cavity medium 
size ; stem medium length, rather stout ; suture a distinct line ; skin 
thick, yellow covered with bright crimson ; dots numerous, yellow, 
conspicuous; bloom pinkish; flesh yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, rich, 
good; stone medium size, cling. Belongs to Americana group. 

May Beauty: Munson Nurseries, Denison, Texas. Abundance X an 
early Chickasaw variety. Originated by J. M. Funk, Denison, 
Texas, about 1898. Fruit large, red, same shape as Wild Goose; 
juicy, of best quality. Season early. 

Mound (Minn. No. 50).- Burbank x Wolf. Originated by the Minne- 
sota Fruit Breeding Station, Zumbra Heights, Minn. Fruit large, 
oval, yellowish-red; flesh firm, quality fair; pit small, semi-cling; 
promising as a market variety. Tree hardy and a heavy regular 
cropper. September. 

Red Magnate — -error for Red Nagnate : Tucker-Mosby Seed Company, 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Rhoda: Seedling of Cheney. Originated at the Central Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, oval ; cavity broad, moderately 
deep; suture slightly depressed; skin rather thin, dark red; flesh 
rich, orange-yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, rich, pleasant, good; stone 
semi-free. September. 

Sachem: iuther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit large, egg-shaped, 
purple ; flesh rich magenta, firm, sweet, freestone. Tree vigorous 
and productive. An early hybrid plum. 

Sam Dixon: Seedling of Wild Goose x Botan, originated by J. M. 
Howell. Fruit large, red, flavor fine, good shipper. Tree vigorous, 
prolific. Ripens June 10. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Sehe Thomas: Originated with A. L. Bruce', Clarendon, Texas. Fruit 
very large, fine flavor, resembles Six Weeks. Texas Dept. Agr., 
Bull. 32. 

Sumono: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Not described. 

"Swcetesf Prune: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Not described. 

Thunder Cloud: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Foliage has a 
wonderful metallic-crimson lustre. Fruit good." 

Toto: Seedling of Wild Goose, originated with Sam H. Dixon, Houston, 
Texas. Fruit medium size, purple red, firm, good flavor, good 
shipper, makes fine jelly; tree productive. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 
32. 

Troy: Seedling of Cheney, originated at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa, Canada. Fruit large, roundish ; suture fairly distinct ; skin 
rather thick, yellowish, washed with deep red ; dots numerous, 
small, yellow; flesh deep yellow, juicy, sweet, good to very good; 
stone rather large, flattened, September. 

Valleda: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit large, oval, deepest 
crimson ; flesh crimson, sweet, rich, extra fine quality, freestone. 
Tree vigorous, productive. August. 



278 

White Japan: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. "Roundish, transparent 
cream colored, finest quality, June." 

Winona (Minn. No. 30) : Triflora x Americana. Originated by the Min- 
nesota Fruit Breeding Station. Fruit large, yellow turning red 
when ripe, roundish; flesh juicy, sweet, very good; semi-cling. 
Tree vigorous, regular and productive bearer. 

Yellow May: Baker Bros., Forth Worth, Texas. Not described. 

PLUMCOT 

Silver: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Fruit long, oval-flattened, 
deep silvery purple; flesh firm, deep yellow, -juicy, sub-acid, flavor 
of finest cranberries either fresh or cooked, juice like that of straw- 
berries. Tree vigorous, productive. 

APRICOT 

Coc's Hemskirk: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. "In size 

fully as large as any other variety and of better quality, a regular 

bearer." Said to have originated in California. 
Gold Dust: J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona, N. C. "From Japan. 

Very large; deep, golden yellow and fine in quality." 
Jones: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. "Medium, yellow with 

red cheek, prolific, early." 
Key: Austin Nursery Co., Austin, Texas. Chance seedling* originated 

with J. R. Key, Lampasas, Texas. Fruit medium size, good quality. 

Tree a regular bearer. May in Texas. 
Knobel: Crow's Nurseries, Gilroy, Cal. Originated with M. D. Knobel, 

San Jose, Cal. "A greatly improved Blenheim. Tree a strong 

thrifty grower. A better all round commercial fruit than Blenheim." 
Smyr)ia: Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Morganhill, Cal. "New, kernel is 

sweet like the almond." 

NECTARINE 

Breck: Originated with Jos. Breck, Travis County, Texas. Said to be 

of the shape, size and qualit\' of the Honey peach. Texas Dept. 

Agr.. Bull. 32. 
Griffith: Austin Nursery Co., Austin, Texas. Original tree on grounds 

of Mr. Griffith, East Austin, Texas. "Large fine yellow and red 

fruit ; prolific, regular bearer." 
J. C. Wees: Kavan Nurseries, San Bernardino, Calif. A chance seedling, 

originated by J. C. Wees, San Bernardino, Calif., aI)out 1915. Not 

described. 
Red Cling: Originated with John Burkhardt, Fayette County, Texas. 

Spanish type, good flavor, cling. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 
Tough: Originated by J. W. Stubenrauch, Mexia, Texas. Fruit nearly 

round, smaller than Elberta peach ; skin tough, nearly covered with 

red; flesh quite juicy and of highest quplity. Freestone. 



279 

Wilkinson: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. Looks and tastes like a 
Honey Peach; fair size; valuable on account of succeeding so far 
south. Fine and productive at Austin. 

Ycllozi': Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. '"Large, crimson, rich 
yellow flesh. Enormous and constant bearer." 

CHERRY 

Black Orb : Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 'Tree vigorous 
grower. Fruit large, round, purplish black. Flesh high colored and 
excellent quality. Pit small and free. An excellent variety for 
canning or shipping." 

Cirucla: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Evergreen Patagonian 
Cherry, most rapid growing of all cherries. Lumber greatly prized 
for furniture. Very ornamental, symmetrical, upright grower; long 
clusters of fruits in profusion like that of Prunus serotina, but 
larger and sweeter." 

Dai's Early Red: Porter-Walton Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. "Very 
large ; deep red. Delicious sweet flavor. Ripens here the last of 
May or first part of June." 

Early Dychousc: Probably same as Dyehouse. 

Guilford Seedling: Dubuque Nursery, Dubuque, Iowa. Not described. 

Honey Dew: (Of Plumfield Nursery). Originated with J. H. Walters, 
Wahoo, Nebraska, as a chance seedling about 1903. Fruit large, 
yellow and light red; flesh firm, meaty, sweet, rich and of highest 
quality. 

Koontz Mannnoth : The Monroe Nursery. Monroe, Michigan. Origi- 
nated in Northern Indiana. Fruit large, nearly twice the size 
of Early Richmond and about the same shape ; flesh melting, firm 
acid ; seeds small. Last of June. 

Pennington : Originated by Israel Pennington, Mason, Mich., about 1858. 
Fruit large, roundish, heart-shaped, dark red ; flesh pale, yellowish- 
white, sweet, vinous, rich, firm. Tree upright, very productive. 
Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Porter Tartarian: Max J. Crow & Son. Gilroy, Cal. Said to be a strain 
of Black Tartarian originated with Robert Porter, Santa Clara, Cal. 
Fruit is a little larger, firmer, and better shipper than Black Tar- 
tarian and does not crack with rain, nor sunburn like its parent. 
Tree strong, vigorous, exceedingly prolific, ripens later than Black 
Tartarian. 

i6 to i: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake C\ty, Utah. Fruit large, red; 
flesh rich sub-acid ; tree very hardy. August. 

Warren's May: Planters' Nurseries, Humboldt, Tennessee. "Early, large, 
succeeds well here, of Morella type." 

Young's Large Black: Utah Nursery Co., Salt Lake City. Utah. "Very 
large ; liver color ; flesh very firm, fine flavor. Ripens early in July. 
An excellent market variety," 



28o 



MULBERRY 

Everbearing : Tucker-Mosby Seed Co., Memphis, Tenn. Not described 
but supposed to be either Hicks or Black English. 

PERSIMMON 

American Honey : The Munson Nurseries, Denison, Texas. "A tree 
of the native persimmon found wild, bearing profusely of large, 
clear honey colored fruit of finest quality preferred by all to even 
the finest Japanese kinds. It has few small seeds." 

Garretson: J. F. Jones, Lancaster, Pa. A native from Adams County, 
Pa. Fruit small, delicious, seedless, productive. 

Hyakrniiic: Same as Hyakume. 

Lambert: J. F. Jones, Lancaster, Pa. A native from Hiawatha, Kansas. 
Fruit very large, bright yellow, very showy, very good quality, few 
seeds. 

Oalcame: Same as Okame. 

Saburoza: Fruit small to medium, four prominent lobes beyond calyx; 
very dark tomato red, surface glossy, very attractive ; flesh very dark 
cinnamon when seeded, sweet, rich, excellent. Bull. 316, Calif. Exp. 
Sta. 

Yemoan: Same as Yemon. 

HAWTHORN 

Chinese Fruiting. Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "A very beau- 
tiful small tree bearing great quantities of bright crimson fruit as 
large as large olives, which is excellent for jam, jellies, etc. 
The foliage also is very beautiful during the fall." 

GRAPE 

Australis (of Burbank) : Seedling of Pierce, originated by Luther Bur- 
bank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Berry very large, blue-black, quality very 
best, very early in season. 

Beula: Originated about 50' years ago with the late Benj. F. Meekins, 
Manteo, N. C. Vine vigorous, productive, leaves medium size, dark 
green, cordate. Cluster of fair size, round; berry large, brownish 
black, pulp meaty but juicy, medium flavor and quality; skin thick, 
tough; suited only for wine. U. S. Dept. Agr. B. P. I., Bull. 273. 

Broivn (Rotundifolia) : (Not Brown of Hedrick.) Originated near 
Kinston, N. C. and was named by Mr. J. I. Brown of that place. 
Both vine and fruit are similar to the Scuppernong, but the fruit 
is sweeter and of better quality; the berry is also smaller. U. S. 
Dept. Agr. B. P. I., Bull. 273. 

Carolina Belle: Originated with Elisha Lamb, Dwight, N. C, about 30 
years ago. Cluster medium size ; berry medium size ; oblong, almost 
black with small specks; pulp fairly juicy, medium quality; skin 



28l 

thin, tough ; seeds small. Vine very vigorous ; leaf cordate, sharp 
pointed at tip ; glabrous, leathery. U. S. Depft. Agr. B. P. I., 
Bull. 273. 

Christmas: Seedling of Pierce. Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa 
Rosa, Calif. "Enormously productive of blue-black fruit of the 
very best quality, the vines appearing as a mass of very large, 
long full clusters which retain their superior quality during cool 
dry weather, or if protected by rain on the vines until nearly or 
quite Christmas. Bunches six to eight inches long." 

Clayton: Discovered by the late Col. Clayton Griffin, Swans Point, N. C. 
Not described. Is said to be a good variety. U. S. Dept. Agr. 
B. P. I., Bull. 273. 

Floii'crs Improved: Discovered about 1869 by J. M. Shipman, near Red 
Hill Swamp, N. C. Compared with Flowers the vine is more 
vigorous and productive, the clusters larger, the berries more 
oblong and cling tenaciously to~ the stem. Season late. Bull. 201, 
N. C. Exp. Sta. 

Hopkins (Rotundifolia) : (Not Hopkins of Munson.) Clusters resemble 
those of Scuppernong; berry large, slightly oblong, black; flesh 
pulpy but soft, sweet, pleasant; skin medium thick, tough; seeds 
2 to 4, large. Vine vigorous, productive ; leaves large, dark green, 
thick, broadly cordate, irregular, dentate. Last of August at Wil- 
mington, N. C. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. Bull. 273. 

Howard: Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. Munson, 
Denison, Texas. Not described. U. S. Agr. Dept., B. P. I. Bull. 23. 

Hunt: Cross between prepotent white male x Flowers. Vine vigorous, 
productive, berry large, black, hangs on well ; skin medium to 
thin ; pulp medium, flavor excellent ; cluster stems long. August 
Bull. 133, Ga. Exp. Sta. 

Irene: Cross between black male and Thomas. Vine vigorous, produc- 
tive ; berry large, lustrous black ; skin medium, quality good ; season 
two weeks after Scuppernong and lasts until frost. Bull. 133, Ga. 
Exp. Sta. 

Island Belle: Jacob Kaufman Co., Seattle, Wash. Originated with 
Isador Bush, Bushberg, Mo. Berry and cluster larger than Con- 
cord ; color black, some bloom ; skin tough, a good shipper, does not 
crack or shatter on the vine ; productive, better quality than Con- 
cord ; vine fairly vigorous ; same season as Moore Early. 

Klickitat: A European variety, earlier than Sweetwater. Bunches large; 
berry round, white, large, sweet. Vine vigorous, heavy producer, 
hardy at Kennewick, Washington. Is also called Opal Rose. 

Lahama: Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. Munson, 
Denison, Texas. Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. Bull. 
273. 

Lady James : Discovered near Grindool, Pitt County, N. C, by B. M. W. 
James about 35 years ago. Cluster medium size, very compact with 
a short stem ; berry medium size, round, reddish wine color ; skin 



282 

thin, moderately tough with many small pimples dotting the surface ; 
pulp juicy, sweet, with sprightly flavor. For home use only. 
U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. Bull. 273. 

Latham: Discovered by F. P. Latham near Newbern, N. C, before the 
Civil War. Resembles Thomas and Lady James. Cluster compact, 
medium size with very short stem ; berry medium size, round with 
prominent markings, wine color ; skin thin, moderately tough, cov- 
ered with pin head dots; pulp juicy, exceedingly sweet with 
sprightly flavor. U. S. Department Agr., B. P. L Bull. 273. 

LuoJa: Originated near Boardman, N. C, 30 or more years ago. Clusters 
medium size, rather loose; berries round, dark purplish black; pulp 
melting, juicy, fruity, vineless. Ripens just before frost. U. S. 
Dept. Agr., B. P. L Bull. 273. 

Manuel: Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. Munson, 
Denison, Texas. Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. L Bull. 
273. 

McTaznsh: Bunch below medium to small, broad, compact, slightly 
shouldered ; berry medium size, roundish, pale green, slightly tinged 
with purple ; skin thick, tough ; pulp tender, does not separate 
readily from seeds, juicy, sweet, slightly foxy, good to very good. 
Season early. 

Muscatella Gordo Blanco: Utah Nursery Company, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. A grape much resembling the Muscat of Alexandria, but 
with smaller and fewer seeds, and thinner skin. A valuable raisin 
grape. 

November: Cross between black male and Scuppernong. Vine vigorous 
prolific; berry medium size, lighter color than Scuppernong; quality 
fair; season late just before frost. Bull. 133, Ga. Exp. Sta. 

Old English: Valdesian Nurseries, Bostic, N. C. Bunch medium large, 
well shouldered ; berry light pink to red ; very delicious, ripens in 
September in North Carolina after all other bunch grapes are gone. 
Vine a strong grower with large healthy leaves. 

Paw Paw: Originated in the vineyard of O. W. Rowland, Paw Paw, 
Mich. Bunch large, compact; berry very large resembling Concord 
but more acid. Flavor excellent. Special Bull. 44, Mich. Exp. Sta. 

Philippi: Seedling of purple Damascus x Flame Tokay. Originated by 
J. W. Philippi, Acampo, Cal. Bunch very large ; berry very large, 
skin tough, quality very fine, color deep red. Fruited first in 1905. 

Qualitas: Cross between black male and Thomas. Vine medium strong, 
very prolific ; clusters medium size ; berry medium to large, dull 
black; skin thin, pulp and seeds medium in size, very sweet, ex- 
cellent quality. Season 10 days after Scuppernong. Bull. 133, 
Ga. Exp. Sta. 

Sanbrilasco: Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. 
Munson, Denison, Texas. Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. 
Bull. 275. 



283 

San Gabriel: Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. 
Munson, Denison. Texas. Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. 
Bull. 273. 

Sanherbo:- Seedling of San Jacinto. Originated by the late T. V. Mun- 
son, Denison. Texas. Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. 
Bull. 273. 

Smith: Originated near Albertson, Duplin County, North Carolina, about 
30 years ago. Cluster medium size and roundish ; berry large, 
oblong, bluish or deep purplish black with "guinea speck" markings ; 
vine vigorous, productive ; leaves cordate, rather thick, not much 
pointed. Ripens early and hangs on vine until frost. U. S. Dept. 
Agr.. B. P. I. Bull. 273. 

Spalding: Cross between prepotent white male and Flowers. Vine vigor- 
ous, very prolific; berry black, slightly smaller than Hunt; skin 
medium to thin ; pulp medium to small, quality excellent. Season 
two weeks after Hunt. Bull. 133, Ga. Exp. Sta. 

Stuckcy: Cross between black male and Scuppernong. Vine medium 
vigorous, productive ; berry medium to large, color of Scuppernong, 
not attractive, size of pulp and seeds medium, juicy, very sweet, very 
good quality. Season 10 days after Scuppernong. Bull. 133, Ga. 
Exp. Sta. 

Texas Queen: Originated in Texas and was introduced by J. W. Tacket, 
Weatherford. Texas. Bunch large, compact, ripens evenly; berry 
almost seedless. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

JVcsfbrook: Originated with the late J. S. Westbrook, Paison, N. C. 
Not described. U. S. Dept. Agr., B. P. I. Bull. 273. 

White Ruby: Pilot Point Dewberry Farm, Pilot Point, Texas. Fruit 
resembles Niagara, very juicy and sweet; bunch medium to large. 
Vine a strong grower, hardy, productive. 

BLACKBERRY 

Autumn King: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "A rampant grower 
and quite thorny, with curious, handsome, palmate foliage and pink 
blossoms. The berries which ripen late in the fall, are of the 
largest size, and have a superior, aromatic sweet quality never found 
in any of the common summer varieties." Second generation cross 
of Lawton and Oregon Everbearing. 

Burbank Thornless Blackberry: Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa 
Rosa, Calif. Fruit firm and quite uniform in size, plump, good 
quality; plant thornless, exceedingly vigorous and very productive. 

Cox: Found in Erath County, Texas, introduced by F. T. Ramsey, 
Austin, Texas. Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Early Wonder: Fitzgerald's Nursery, Stevenville, Texas. Nearly as 
large as Austin dewberry, very productive, sometimes fruiting in the 
fall. 



284 

English: Discovered 20 miles north of Bonham, Fammin County, Texas. 
Berry large, good quality; plant hardy, prolific. Texas Dept. Agr., 
Bull. 32. 

Erskine Park Seedless: Said to be a sport of Kittatinny, very hardy with 
long fruiting season ; berry very large, fine flavor, no core and no 
seeds. 

German: Lennox Nursery and Fruit Farm, Lennox, S. D. Root cuttings 
were brought from Germany about 1909. Fruit very large, juicy, 
very firm, dark glossy colored ; plant very vigorous, must be pro- 
tected during the winter in South Dakota. 

Gray's Perfection: Gray's Nursery, Salem, Ind. Fruit jet black and 
glossy, very large, oblong, very firm, flavor excellent. Plants 
very hardy having withstood 35° F. below zero. This may be the 
same as Perfection. 

Lux: W. L. Lux, Topeka, Kansas. "Very large, late. Finest quality, 
never winterkills." 

Perfection : Stark Bros., Louisiana, Mo. "Large jet black, highest qual- 
ity. Productive, very hardy." 

Sensatio)i: L. G. Rathbun & Son, Orland, Indiana. Berry very large; 
plant hardy, bears full crop in summer and half crop in fall on new 
canes. 

Spalding: Originated with a Mr. Spalding of Gonzales County, Texas, 
introduced by F. T. Ramsey, Austin, Texas. Not described. Texas 
Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Superb: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Highly flavored, sweet, 
and delicious. Larger and more productive than the Himalaya." 

Thornlcss Mammoth: Kavan Nurseries, San Bernardino, Calif. "Vines 
are thornless, making picking easy ; the berry is as large as Mam- 
moth, but better flavor." 

RASPBERRY 

Early King: "The plants are not good growers nor vigorous. Berries of 

medium size, red, medium quality. Not productive. Not promising 

as a commercial variety. Season early." 
Everbearing Black Raspberry: F. W. Brow Nursery Co., Inc., Rosehill, 

N. Y. "Will actually bear fruit from June until killed by frost. 

The plants grow upright, very strong and are literally loaded with 

fruit in all stages, from bloom to ripe fruit." 
Fillbasket: "An English variety which has done well in British Columbia 

at the Agassiz Farm. Not grown in Eastern Canada." Bull. No. 

94, Dominion Exp. Farms, Ottawa. 
Freseman's Black Cap: Lennox Nursery & Fruit Farm, Lennox, S. D. 

Originated with A. A. Freseman, Lennox, S. D. "A large black 

shiny fruit of excellent flavor. The vine appears to be much hardier 

than any other black raspberry tested out. Great bearer." 



285 

Henry: Originated by Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. Berry above 
medium to large, roundish to slightly conical, bright to deep red ; 
, flesh moderately firm, juicy, briskly sub-acid, above medium in 
quality; mwfeeason. 

Jumbo (of Canada) : Berry large, conic, deep crimson, firm, mildly sub- 
acid, lacking in flavor, quality medium ; mid-season. Bull. No. 94, 
Dominion Exp. Farms, Ottawa. 

Kei'itt's Hybrid: Wm. H. Hunt & Co., New York, N. Y. "Planted out 
this fall will yield next year one pint of extra large berries to each 
cane. Grows ten feet first season. Hardy and almost free from 
seeds." 

King of the Market: Wm. Henry Maule, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. Origin- 
ated by Geo. W. Elliott, Mankanda, 111. Introduced by Bradley 
Bros., Mankanda, 111., in 1915. Plant upright, stalky and very 
productive. Berry beautiful light crimson, very meaty, rich, de- 
licious. Everbearing. Fruit said to be twice as large as Ranere and 
a week later in ripening in both spring and fall. 

Leyerle: John Lewis Childs, Inc., Floral Park, N. Y. Originated by 
Jake Leyerle of Jackson County, Illinois. Fruit bright crimson, 
meaty, rich in sugar, delicious flavor, very large, firm. Everbearing. 
Plants very stocky, upright, healthy. Not quite as early as St. 
Regis. 

Louboro: Seedling of Loudon x Marlboro originated by the Experiment 
Station. Geneva, N. Y. Berry large, roundish-conic, light bright 
crimson, attractive ; mildly sub-acid, rather flat in flavor, quality 
above medium, flesh rather soft; midseason. Plant vigorous and 
productive. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farms, Ottawa. 

October Giant: Seedling of Eureka originated by Luther Burbank, Santa 
Rosa, Calif. "Remarkable for its habit of bearing in October, 
as well as for its unusual size, measuring nearly 4 inches in cir- 
cumference ; bright red color ; rather soft except for home use." 

Oro Noca: Same as Oronoco. See 1920 report. 

Perfection: King Bros. Nurseries, Danville, N. Y. Said to be a new 
extra early variety of great merit, hardy and very productive; a 
strong grower. 

Redpath: J. V. Bailey, St. Paul, Minn. Berry a bright red, very large, 
firm. Plant hardy, prolific. 

Rex: Fruit Belt (Grand Rapids, Mich.) Feb. 1920. "Everbearing; red. 
A picking every week from June to October. The new canes 
bear fruit 90 days after planting. Berries large, firm, sweet, and 
of delightful flavor. 

Sugar Hybrid: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Berry quite large 
about the size of Marlboro, dark red color, said to be the sweetest 
of all red raspberries. Plants tall and slender, almost thornless, 
productive. Hybrid of a second generation Shafifer and Souhegan. 

Thornber: A chance seedling originating with W. S. Thornber, Oark- 
ston. Wash. Berry very large, attractive dark red, rich flavor; 
plant very vigorous and hardy. 



286 

White Queen: Wm. N. Hunt & Co., New York, N. Y. Originated with 
Jonathan Thorne, Black Rock, Conn. Plant very vigorous with 
large canes and heavy foliage. Berry very attractive, very large, 
creamy white, exquisite flavor and aroma, sometMies very soft, not 
a good shipper. Season August to middle of November. 

BLACKBERRY — RASPBERRY HYBRID 

Humbolt (of Burbank) : Seedling of an improved California wild dew- 
berry X Cuthbert raspberry originated by Luther Burbank, Santa 
Rosa, Calif. Berry very large, dark crimson or dark purple 
covered with a silvery sheen, very acid, delicious for canning or 
drying, said to have both raspberry and blackberry flavor. Plants 
extremely vigorous. Ripens in June. 

Paradox: Fourth generation from a cross of Christal White blackberry 
X Shaffer raspberry. Originated by Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, 
Calif. "Produces an abundance of oval light red berries of good 
size, larger than either progenitor and of superior quality. The 
plant is in every respect a most perfect balance between the two 
species." 

DEWBERRY 

Chestnut: Originated with L J. Chestnut, Keene, Texas. Berry large, 
sweet, firm, good shipper, ripens last of April in Texas. Texas 
Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

Monroe: Austin Nursery, Austin, Texas. "A very large, long dewberry 
of pure southern type. Rank grower. May." 

Noten: Found wild by Pierson Noten in Hornsby's Bend 10 miles east 
of Austin, Texas, about 1896. Not as large as Rogers. Not de- 
scribed. 

Rogers: Said to have been discovered near Alvin, Texas, by a Mr. 
Rogers. Introduced by C. Falkner, Waco, Texas. Not described. 
Texas Dept. Agr., Bull. 32. 

GOOSEBERRY 

Berkeley: "Bush is a fairly vigorous grower and good bearer. Berries 

are very large and ripen early. An old English variety and subject 

to mildew." Circular 164, Calif. Exp. Sta. 
Charles: Seedling of Houghton x Roaring Lion, originated by Wm. 

Saunders, London, Ont. Berry larger than Downing, roundish to 

oval, green tinged red; quality good, slightly sub-acid; season 

medium. 
Como (Minn. No. 43) : A seedling of Pearl x Columbus. Originated 

by the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, Sumbra Heights, Minn. 

Berry large, roundish or slightly oblong, green, fair quality. Plant 

vigorous, moderately thorny, productive. 
Indian Chief: Alneer Bros., Rockford, III. "Large, color bright red, of 

superior quality." 



287 

Oregon: Originated by O. Dickinson, Salem, Oregon. Berry larger than 
Downing, pale green with whitish bloom, translucent; skin tender; 
season rather late. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

Pride of Michigan: Peach Belt Nurseries, Bangor, Mich. Berry re- 
sembles Downing in size, color and quality, but the bush is more 
vigorous, healthier, hardier and more productive. Introduced by 
Hurlbut and Cross, Bangor, Mich., about 1916. Plants were found 
near South Haven, Mich., but whether they were a seedling or an old 
variety is not known. 

Queen Anne: Berry medium size, roundish to oval, yellowish-green; 
skin thick ; quality medium to good, briskly sub-acid. Bull. No. 94, 
Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

Syh'ia: Originated by Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. Berry above 
medium, roundish, greenish more or less covered with dull red ; 
quality good, sub-acid ; season medium. Bull. No. 94, Dominion 
Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

CURRANT 

Boskoop Giant (of Wilk) : John Wilk, New York, N. Y. "The largest 
and sweetest white currant." 

Buddenborg : Berry large to very large in medium size bunches, skin 
thick, black; flavor good, quality good, pleasant sub-acid, season 
late. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

Clipper: Seedling of Black Naples Seedling originated by Wm. Saunders, 
London, Ont. Berry medium to large in large bunches ; skin 
moderately thick, black, tender ; flavor good, quality good, briskly 
sub-acid; season medium to late; bush a strong grower and pro- 
ductive. 

Collins Prolific: Fruit mostly in large bunches; skin thick, acid; quality 
medium ; season late. Bull. 94^ Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

Cumberland Red: Originated by C. L. Stevens, Orillia, Ont. Bunch 
medium in size and length ; berry medium to above in size, bright 
scarlet ; quality medium, acid ; season medium. Bush strong rather 
spreading grower. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

Eagle: Seedling of Black Naples seedling, originated by Wm. Saunders, 
London, Ont. Berry medium to large in medium bunches ; skin 
black, moderately thick ; flavor briskly sub-acid ; quality medium. 
Season medium. Bush a strong grower and productive. 

Eclipse: Seedling of Black Naples Seedling, originated by Wm. Saunders, 
London, Ont. Berry medium to large in large bunches ; skin black, 
moderately thick, fairly tender ; quality good, flavor sub-acid ; season 
early. Bush a medium to strong grower and productive. 

Giant Red: "The bush is a more vigorous grower than Perfection; 
also holds its foliage better." Report Wis. State Hort. Soc, 1913. 

Greenfield: Originated by S. Greenfield, Ottawa East, Ont. Bunch well- 
filled ; berry medium to above in size, bright scarlet ; quality above 



288 

medium, pleasantly acid. Season medium. Bush a strong moder- 
ately spreading grower. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farm, 
Ottawa. 

Kerry: Seedling of Black Naples Seedling, originated by Wm. Saunders, 
London, Ont. Berry above medium to large; skin black, thick but 
tender ; quality above medium, flavor briskly sub-acid. Bush a 
strong grower and very productive. 
La Condc: Bunch well-filled; berry medium or above in size, bright 
scarlet ; quality medium, acid. Bush a strong moderately spreading 

grower. Bull. No. 94, Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 
Lcvrgc White: Bunch long, usually about half filled; berry medium to 

large, pale yellow ; quality above medium, briskly sub-acid ; season 

early. Bush a strong upright grower and productive. Bull. No. 94, 

Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 
Late Victoria: Gill Bros. Seed Co., Portland, Oregon. "Large long 

bunches, red fruit." 
Magnus: Seedling of Black Naples Seedling originated by Wm. Saunders, 

London, Ont. Berry large; skin black, rather thick; quality good; 

flavor sub-acid ; season medium. Bush a strong grower and very 

productive. 
Merccille de la Gironde: Berry medium in size or below, bunch large; 

skin black, moderately thick, tender ; flavor good, quality good, 

briskly sub-acid ; season medium to late. Bull. No. 94, Dominion 

Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 
Newark: C. W. Stuart & Company, Newark, N. Y. Bunch of good 

length, berry above medium size, red sub-acid. Bush a very vigor-, 

ous grower and a great producer. 
Pack: Utah Nursery Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. "An improvement 

upon Fay's Prolific, which it resembles; more prolific, however; 

berry larger, better flavor. Fruit does not fall ofif as in other 

varieties." 
Rankins Red: Bunch medium to long, well-filled; berry small to medium, 

bright scarlet ; quality medium, acid ; season medium. Bush a 

strong upright grower and very productive. Bull. No. 94, Dominion 

Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 
Success: Seedling of Black Naples Seedling, originated by Wm. Saunders, 

London, Ont. Berry large, skin black, moderately thick, tender; 

quality good to very good, sub-acid ; season very early. Bush a 

rather weak grower, and not very productive. 
Topsy: Dempsey black currant x (Houghton x Broom Girl Goose- 
berry). Originated by Wm. Saunders, London, Ont. Berry above 

medium to large; skin black, rather thick; quality good, briskly 

sub-acid ; season medium. This black currant-gooseberry hybrid 

has foliage and fruit like a black currant. Bush a strong grower 

and productive. 
White Kaiser: Bunch medium to large about three-fourths filled; berries 

medium to large, pale yellow ; quality good, flavor pleasant, sub- 



289 

acid ; season medium. Bush a strong upright grower. Bull. No. 94, 
Dominion Exp. Farm, Ottawa. 

ELDERBERRY 

Superb: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "A large white flowering 
elder which blooms and bears fruit abundantly all summer until 
December. The berries are especially fine for cooking, not having 
the usual bitter taste of ordinary elderberries, and can be dried in 
two or three days, when they taste like raisins." 

JUNEBERRY 

Dzmrf: Arlington Nurseries, Arlington, Nebr. "Grows 4 to 6 feet high; 
branches out from the ground like currants ; resembles the common 

(Service or Juneberry in leaf and fruit, but the fruit is larger, and in 
color almost black; commences to bear the second year after trans- 
planting, and bears profusely." 
' Dwarf Juneberry, Large Fruited: Farmer Seed and Nursery Co., Fair- 
bault, Minn. "Very hardy, enduring the coldest winters as well 
as the hottest summers without injury. It forms dense bushes and 
begins bearing fruit when quite young, often producing several 
quarts of fruit from one bush. The fruit is very sweet, of ex- 
cellent flavor, and of a reddish purple color, changing to bluish 
black when fully ripe." Grows wild in the Rocky Mountains. 
Dimrf Mountain Juneberry (Jefferson Strain) : Gurney Seed & Nursery 
Co., Yankton, S. D. Said to be very hardy and enormously pro- 
ductive ; plants grow 3 to 4 feet high. 



HUCKLEBERRY 



Large Blue: West Hill Nurseries, Fredonia, N. Y. Not described. 

Ozark: Arkansas Nursery Company, Fayetteville, Ark. "Remarkable 
for its fine flavor. Luxuriant, very hardy, a prolific bearer and 
when given a small amount of attention produces regular annual 
crops. Will grow on most any kind of soil, and when once set, is 
there permanently." 

STRAWBERRY 

A-i: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. "Ripens from early to late; 
a sure and continuous bearer ; large, dark red when ripe ; exceed- 
ingly prolific." 

Alaska (of Kevitt) (Per.): Seedling of Climax x Glen Mary. Origin- 
ated by T. C. Kevitt, Athenia, N. J. Berry medium to large, 
irregular, long-conic to long-wedge shape, necked, glossy, medium to 
dark red; flesh rather dark red, firm, medium, juicy, mild, sweet, 
fair quality. Unattractive in shape and color, undesirable. Mid- 
season. Bull. 447 N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva, N. Y. 

19 



290 

Anna (Imper.) : Berry medium size, roundish-conical, dark red; flesh 
dark red, acid to sub-acid, moderately firm, fair quality, core dark 
red, spongy, seeds medium, sunken, midseason. Bull. 200, Purdue 
Univ. Exp. Sta. 

Atkins Continuity (Per.) : Berry above medium, roundish-conic to wedge, 
medium red, glossy; flesh whitish toward center, firm, mild sub- 
acid, fair quality. Plants unproductive, fruit stems short; erect. 
Season early. Bull. 401, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Baldwin's Pride (Per) : Berry medium size, conical, irregular, dark red; 
seeds large, raised ; flesh light red, subacid, medium firm, quality 
fair to good, core light red, solid. Midseason. Plants of medium 
vigor. Bull. 200, Purdue Univ. Exp. Sta. 

Baldwin's Pride of Michigan: Plant vigorous, healthy; berry of same 
color, quality and size as Dunlap. Everbearing. Trans. Wis. State 
Hort. Soc, 1913. 

Big Early (Imper.) : Berry medium to large, roundish-conical, often 
double, fairly uniform, medium red; flesh light red, rather soft, 
sub-acid to nearly sweet; quality fair; core light red, spongy. 
Season early. Plant very vigorous. Bull. 200, Purdue Univ. Exp. 
Sta. 

Bridgeton Beauty (Per.) : Young's Seed Store, St. Louis, Mo. Orig- 
inated with a 'Mr. Aleyer, Bridgeton, Mo. Berry rich dark color, 
firm, quality excellent. Plant a strong grower, productive. 

British Queen (of Brand) : James Brand & Co., Vancouver, B. C. 
"Large fruits of bright color; fine flavor; main crop." 

Buckhee (Imp.) : Wm. M. Hunt & Co., New York, N. Y. Seedling of 
Chesapeake, originated by Tice C. Kevitt, Athenia, N. J. Berry 
very large, round, bright glossy red, same flavor as Chesapeake, 
firm and good shipper. Plant drought resistant. 

Bun Special: O. D. Baldwin, Bridman, Mich. A chance seedling origin- 
ating with E. M. Buechly, Greenville, Ohio. Berry very large, 
bright red, globular-oval, glossy red, good flavor and quality. 

California (Per.) : William M. Hunt & Co., New York, N. Y. Orig- 
inated by Tice C. Kevitt, Athenia, N. J. Fruit large, firm, rich 
flavor; plants robust, very erect, very productive; mid-season. 

Chaska (per.) (Minn. 801) : (Dunlap x Pocomoke) x Brandywine. 
Originated by the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, Zumbra Heights, 
Minn. Fruit large, conic, medium red, glossy; flesh dark red, firm, 
juicy, sub-acid, aromatic, quality best. Season moderately early. 

Colborn's Early: E. W. Johnson & Co., Salisbury, Md. "It is as early 
or a few days earlier than any other variety we have ever seen. 
Very productive of medium sized berries that color all over; very 
firm, and of good quality." 

Cream: Seedling of No. 330 x Trebla. Originated by Albert F. Etter, 
Ettersburg, Calif. Berry medium size, yellow, sometimes taking on 
light blush ; flesh yellow, flavor peculiar, not an improvement on 
red varieties. 



291 

Deephaven (Per.) (Minn. 41) : Dunlap x Progressive. Originated by the 
Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, Zumbra Heights, Minn. Fruit 
large roundish-conic, medium red, glossy, flesh light red, juicy, 
mild sub-acid, good. Everbearing. 

Early Elisabeth: Michael Seed Store, Sioux City, Iowa. "Very hardy 
and prolific. Ten days earlier than Warfield or Dunlap ; excellent 
quality." 

Ea^ypicker (Imper.) (Minn. 775) : Dunlap x Crescent. Originated by 
the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, Zumbra Heights, Minn. Fruit 
large, nearly round, medium red ; flesh dark red, moderately firm, 
sweet, mild, very good, good market berry. Midseason. 

Elate: E. W. Johnson & Bro., Salisbury, Md. Berry large to very large, 
well colored, uniform in shape, firm. Plant medium size, strong 
grower. Season late, a few days later than Gandy. 

Eldorado (Per or semi-Per.) : Fruit large, irregular, roundish to blunt- 
conic or wedge-shape, broad at base, apex obtuse and indented ; 
mediurq to light red, somewhat glossy; flesh whitish toward center, 
juicy, firm, mild sub-acid, pleasant, good. Plant vigorous, very 
productive. Season early. Bull. 447, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Elwell's Early: King Bros. Nurseries, Danville, N. Y. Said to be very 
early, a heavy yielder, good shipper with exceptionally fine flavor. 

Evergreen White: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Berry very 
large, pure white, very good ; plant large and strong, fruit stems 
strong, very productive. 

Famous Gibson: Same as Gibson. 

Ecndalcino (Imp.) : Seedling of Feudal x Ettersburg No. 121. Origin- 
ated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Berry extra large, bright 
red, moderately firm, fine flavor. Season extra early and supposed 
to be an everbearer. 

Fern Dell: Plant strong, healthy, very productive; berry medium to 
large; color and quality fair to good. Trans. Wis. State Hort. Soc, 
1913. 

Ford (Per.) (of Townsend) : A chance seedling found by Grandville 
Brewington. Wicomico County, Md. Fruit very large, blunt-wedge 
to blunt-conic, attractive, glossy, medium to dark red ; flesh red, 
firm, very juicy, mild, sweet, good. Plant vigorous, very productive. 
One of the best late varieties. Bull. 447, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., 
Geneva. 

Four Seasons (Per.) : Berry very small, conic, whitish, unattractive; flesh 
tart, flat, poor; plants small, weak, unproductive, midseason. Bull 
401, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Fred Crampton: W. E. Collins Company, Fennville, Mich. Not de- 
scribed. 

General Pershing (Per.) : Seedling of McKinley, originated by W. J. 
Moyle, Union Grove, Wis. Fruited first in 1912. Berry large; 
plants strong, productive. 



292 

Giant (of Burbank) : Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "The largest 
bush and largest berries of this class. Medium early, very large 
bright red berries of excellent sub-acid quality." 

Horsey (Per.) : John W. Hall, Marion Station, Md. Originated with 
J. C. Horsey, Somerset Co., Md. Berries larger than Klondike or 
Missionary, as good shipper as Klondike, beautiful bright red flesh. 
Plant a strong grower. Earlier than Klondike and also bears a fall 
crop. 

Improved Nich Ohmer: E. W. Townsend & Son, Salisbury, Md. Seedling 
of Nich Ohmer. Fruit and plant similar to Nic Ohmer, but season a 
few days later. 

hbell's Pride of Michigan (Per.) : S. M. Isbell & Co., Jackson, Mich. 
Fruit large, smooth, glossy, rich deep red, aromatic flavor. Very 
productive. Everbearing. 

/. B. (Imper.) : Seedling of Nettie x Aroma. Originated by Louis Hu- 
bach, Judsonia, Ark. Fruit above medium, irregular, wedge to 
conic, furrowed, usually necked, attractive medium red ; flesh red to 
center, juiCy, medium firm, pleasantly sprightly, good to very good. 
Very late in season. Bull. 447, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Judith (Per.) : Mass. Hort. Soc, Trans. 1915, p. 176. Originated by 
Dr. F. S. DeLue, Neadham, Mass. Berry large, irregularly conic, 
shiny; flesh deep red and without core, firm, sweet, juicy. Very 
good. Season early. 

Kalicene (Per.) : Seedling of Ettersburg No. 216 x Trebla. Originated 
by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Berry good size, heart 
shaped, very firm, blood red to the center, spicy and highly flavored, 
belongs to the canning type. 

Kellogg' s Big Wonder (Per.) : R. M. Kellogg Co., Three Rivers, Mich. 
Berry large, very dark glossy red, flavor delicious. Plant vigorous, 
productive. 

Kellogg' s Hercules (Per.) : R. M. Kellogg Co., Three Rivers, Mich. 
Said to be an extra early vigorous growing variety, producing large 
fruit. Has been discontinued. 

Kellogg' s Perfection: R. M. Kellogg Co., Three Rivers, Mich. Origin- 
ated in 1914 by E. H. Riehl, Alton, 111. Seedling of Rockhills No. 6 
probably by Dunlap. Berry large, well formed, rich color, delicate 
flavor, high quality. Plant vigorous, unusually productive. Ever- 
bearing. This variety won the $1,000 cash prize ofifered for the 
everbearer which proved nearest perfection. 

Kevitfs Jubilee (Per.) : Originated by T. C. Kevitt, Athenia, N. J. 
Plant very vigorous, fruit stems strong, very productive. Berry 
dark lustrous red. 

Kilcko:' J. B. Wagner, Pasadena, Calif. Not described. 

Komoka: John Connon Co., Hamilton, Ontario. "Early and heavy 
yielder. Fine flavor, large berries." 

Laurel Leaf: Said to be a mild, delicious, light colored berry with white 
flesh, desirable for home use only. 



293 

Laxton's Latest: Berry medium size, wedge to long conic, glossy, light 
to dark red ; flesh whitish toward center, juicy, subacid, poor. Plant 
unproductive, season late. Bull. 401, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Lucky Boy: E. W. Townsend & Co., Salisbury, Md. Fruit extra large, 
&. round, firm, sweet. Plant deep rooted, medium size, very drought 
ar' resistant. Originated by Samuel Cooper, Delevan, N. Y. 

Lucky Cross: Evergreen Plantation, New Meadows, Idaho. Seedling 
of Productive, originating with W. M. Freeman, New Meadows, 
Idaho. Fruit large, brilliant red, white center, very firm, good 
quality, productive. Everbearing. 

Luge: Originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. "The most 
perfect canning berry I have yet produced. Almost as solid and 
firm as a potato, brilliant red that never fades, and will pick 
without the husk as readily as a blackberry." Season early. 

Montmorency: Augustine & Co., Normal, 111. Berry very large, deep 
red ; flesh deep red, rich, good quality. Very productive. Season of 
Dunlap. 

Nokomis (of Minn.) (Minn. 489) (Per.) : Seedling of Dunlap x Abing- 
ton. Originated by the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, Zumbra 

' Height, Minn. Berry very large, conic, slightly necked, medium 

red, somewhat glossy; flesh light red, fine texture, slightly stringy, 
sweet, good, probably not firm enough for good shipper. Mid- 
season. 

Old Glory (Per.) : R. M. Kellogg Co., Three Rivers, Mich. Berry extra 
large, round, somewhat resembling Chesapeake ; plant vigorous, 
productive, season late. Has been discontinued. 

Pasadena: Originated by Tice C. Kevitt, Athenia, N. J. Florists Ex- 
change June, 1921. "Imperfect flowered.'' 

Pa.i-ton: Jas. Brand & Co., Vancouver, B. C. "About 10 days later 
than Magoon ; large, fine flavor." 

Perpetual (of Burbank) : Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Ever- 
bearing. The most delicious and constantly productive of this new 
class. Medium sized berry, oval, light crimson. The plants are 
multiplied mostly by division as they make few runners." 

President Harding (Per.) : E. W. Townsend & Son, Salisbury, Md. 
Berry extra large ; flesh extra firm, deep red to center, good, medium 
to very late in season. A chance seedling, originating with Geo. 
Williams, Wicomico Co., Md. 

Red Cross (Per.) (Of Etter): Seedling of Ettersburg No. 216 x Trebla. 
Originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Berry globular, 
glossy bright red, firm, mild, sweet, rich and delicate, not of the 
canning type. Plant moderately vigorous, fruit-stems long, upright, 
very productive. Season very early. 

Rena (of Etter) : Originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. 

■ "A type of Beach strawberry with very beautiful foliage, and an 

imperfect blossom that always makes a berry. The fruit is of fine 



294 

size and shape, light pink in color with white flesh. The flavor is 
characteristically that of the Beach strawberry." 
Richmond (of Thompson) (Per. to semi-Per.) : Berry small to above 
medium, oblong-conic, necked, light red, not very glossy; flesh red, 
juicy, firm, fair quality; plant medium vigorous, very productive. 
Bull. 447, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

Robusta : Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Everbearing. Makes 
numerous strong runners while bearing continuously all the season 
large, scarlet, oval berries of the most exquisite quality, well above 
the foliage." 

Scrieher (Per.) : "Of the Uncle Jim type and does not show any im- 
provement on that variety." Spec. Bull. 48, Mich. Exp. Sta. 
Sir William: S. W. Call, Perry, Ohio. Said to be of poor quality and 
a poor shipper. Has been discontinued. 

Todd's Late: H. L. McConnell & Son, Port Burwell, Ontario. "An 
extra good plant maker and bears an abundant crop of large, per- 
fectly formed, glossy red, firm berries of high quality." 

Trebla (Per.) : Originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Fruit 
one inch in diameter, very red, very firm, pleasant flavor. Plant 
very productive. Everbearing. 

Uitlandcr : A cross between Heart Flush x Stridewaj^ originated by 
Arthur T. Goldsborough, Washington, D. C, in 1906. Berry large, 
roundish, crimson; stem medium stout, hairy; flesh pink, very light 
color at core, medium tender, meaty, moderately juicy, sub-acid, 
rich, good to very good. Notes on new fruits U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Unique: Evergreen Plantation, New Meadows, Idaho. Seedling of Pro- 
ductive, originated by W. M. Freeman, New Meadows, Idaho, in 
1919. Berry very large, firm, highly colored, plant vigorous. Ever- 
bearing. 

Venia: Mass. Hort. Soc. Trans. 1917, p. 143. "This strawberry is medium 
early, very prolific, having a long season and holding its size to the 
last." Originated by Dr. F. S. DeLue, Needham, Mass. This 
variety was awarded a silver medal by the Mass. Hort. Soc. 

Walnut Stump (Per.) : Seedling of Bubach x Minor's Great Prolific, 
originated by Silvanus Gordon, Sergeantsville, N. J., about 1900. 
Berry medium size, roundish-conic, glossy, light red; flesh well 
colored to center, tart, fair quality. Plant large, vigorous, pro- 
ductive, season late. Bull. 401, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva. 

White Sugar: Originated by Albert F. Etter, Ettersburg, Calif. Berry 
extra large, firm, very sweet, white, occasionally blushed. This is a 
novelty. 

Wilbert: J. W. Jones & Son, Allen, Md. Berry resembles Aroma, very 
uniform in size and shape, lively red color. Plant vigorous, pro- 
ductive. Early midseason. 

Williams Improved: H. L. McConnell & Son, Port Burwell, Ontario. 
Berry large, dark red, firm, good shipper, good canner. Plant strong 
grower, healthy. 



I 



295 



ORANGE 

Drake: A bud variation appearing in the grove of Tustin P. Drake, 
Drake Point, Yalaha, Fla. Fruit large, surface undulating, pitted, 
dark orange yellow, oil cells numerous, peel tenacious, aromatic; 
flesh yellowish, translucent, medium tender, pleasant, no bitterness ; 
seeds medium size, plump. Notes on new fruits U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Eureka: Teas Nurseries, Houston, Texas. "Fruit very large, as large as 
the largest California or Florida orange; finest quality, thin skinned, 
almost seedless, splendid keeper. Tree very hardy, vigorous grower, 
and immensely productive." 

Golden Ring: Lake Garfield Nurseries Co., Bartow, Fla. Fruit medium 

tsize, globular, has a distinctive ring around the blossom end, deep 
red; flesh rich colored, juicy, sweet, very good, long keeper and 
good shipper. 
New Satsuma: Fancher Creek Nurseries, Fresno, Calif. Fruit is of the 
true Alandarin t>T)e, but with more seeds and a month earlier. 
The flavor is of the best. Tree not as vigorous as Mandarin or 
Satsuma and has willow-like foliage making it very ornamental. 
Tree very prolific. Buds were obtained from the French Govern- 
ment Experiment Station in Algeria about 1913. 
Westmoreland: Teas Nursery Company, Houston, Texas. This variety 
was formerly called Eureka and is in the report of 1920. 

LEMON 

Kenedy: Originated with John G. Kenedy, Sarita, Texas. Fruit large, 
highly colored, thin skin, superior acid flavor. Texas Dept. Agr., 
Bull. 32. 

POMELO 

Ellen: Originated with E. N. Reasoner, Oneco, Fla. Fruit large, oblate, 
surface smooth, lemon yellow, peel tenacious, aromatic, tissue thin, 
flavor tart ; seeds numerous, plump, bitter. Notes on new fruits 
U. S. Dept. Agr. 

Patardia: Originated with C. E. Davis, Dade County, Fla., as a sport of 
the Davis Seedless. Fruit medium size, round, uniform, skin 
smooth, waxy, very thin, bright lemon color; texture of flesh fine 
and tender with little rag; juice very abundant, fine flavor, slight 
bitterness, spicy ; almost seedless. December to March. 
. Pink Marsh: This was discovered in the grove of W. B. Thompson near 
Oneco, Fla., in 1913, one branch only of the Marsh tree bearing 
pink fruit. The flesh is a beautiful pink in January and February, 
but later fades to an amber shade in March and April. A pink 
strain of the Marsh. 

TANGERINE 
Trimble: Seedling of Dancey Tangerine x Parson Brown orange. Fruit 
roundish, compressed, large; color deep orange red, surface some- 
what rough, sometimes like King orange; oil glands small; rind 



296 

loose, thin; flesh deep orange yellow, tender, juicy, sprightly acid, 
excellent with pronounced bouquet. Tree vigorous, prolific. U. S. 
Dept. Agr., Yearbook 1904. 
Weshart: Fruit roundish, compressed, about 3 inches in diameter, sur- 
face smooth, glossy, very attractive ; deep orange red, rind loose, 
thin, oil glands medium size ; texture tender, flavor sweet, very 
juicy, very pleasant bouquet; flesh buff orange. Tree vigorous and 
prolific. U. S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook 1904. 

AVOCADO 

Butter: Fruit large, oblong-oblique-roundish, smooth, greenish yellow; 
flavor mild and pleasant, quality very good. U. S. Dept. Agr. Seed 
and Plant Introduction No. 36,270. September. 

Capac: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not de- 
scribed. 

Carchi: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not de- 
scribed. 

Chota Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not de- 
scribed. 

Collinson: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. Fruit weighs 1 to IJ pounds, 
broadly pear shaped to nearly round, skin smooth, green. December 
and February. Guatemala-West Indian hybrid. 

Delicious : Orchard and Farm, July, 1921. Seedling originated by Geo. 
Schrader, Altadena, Calif. Fruit rather small, weighing 12 ounces, 
pear shaped, dark purple ; seed small ; flesh very smooth and 
buttery ; flavor unusually fine. March and April. 

Eagle Rock: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. Fruit large, IJ to 2 pounds, 
nearly round, green, Guatemala type. February to April. 

Egos: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not de- 
scribed. 

Hawaii: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. Fruit large, 1^^ to 2 pounds, oblong 
oval, greenish purple ; season June and July. 

Huira: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not de- 
scribed. 

Imbabura: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not 
described. 

Irumtina: Brought from northern Ecuador by Wilson Popenoe. Not 
scribed. 

Kist: Imported from Guatemala in 1914 by E. E. Knight. Not a good 
variety for commercial planting, the seed is too large for the 
amount of flesh. California Cultivator, April 2, 1921. 

Lulu: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. A Guatemala-Mexican hybrid; fruit 

1 to IJ pounds in weight, pear shaped, green ; November and De- 
cember. Quite resistant to frost. 

Simmonds: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. Fruit large, weighing IJ to 

2 pounds each, broadly pear shaped, green ; West Indian type. 
August and September. 



297 

Tamayo: Brought from northern Ecuador by WJilson Popenoe. Not 

described. 
Thompson: California Cultivator, July 16, 1921. Original tree from a 

seed brought from-Atlixco Puebla, Mexico, in 1912. Fruit medium 

^ large, weighing from 16 to 24 ounces, rich chocolate brown, shading 

to purplish tints ; flesh fine grained, flavor very good ; seeds small. 
February and March. 
Winslowsow: Geo. B. Cellon, Miami, Fla. Fruit weighs 1 to 1^ pounds, 
nearly round, skin smooth, green ; seed rather large, fitting tightly in 
cavity. October to December. Guatemala-West Indian hybrid. 

CACTUS 

Bijou: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Smaller than Elegant. In 
flavor and form of fruit fully as good as Elegant. Hardy." 

Elegant: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. A seedling of the New 
England hardy Opuntia vulgaris x Opuntia rafinesquii of the west- 
ern plains. In the summer the plants are covered with deep yellow 
flowers which are followed by brilliant scarlet fruits H inches long, 
f inches thick, and are very good to eat. The leaves are deep 
green 4 to 6 inches long, 3 inches wide and ^ inch thick, almost 
spineless. Season spring. Plants hardy. 

Quisco: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Not described. 

Saffrano: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Produces a large yield 
of superior orange yellow fruits." 

Superb: Seedling of Smith x Anacantha. Originated by Luther Burbank, 
Santa Rosa, Calif. "Extra vigorous plant with long, thick oval 
slabs which almost cover themselves with loads of very large, oval 
fruit, pale yellow, shaded olive green and crimson. Extremely 
thin skin which is readily removed from the pale amber, rich, sweet, 
delicious flesh. Almost seedless. Ripens first of October and re- 
mains in good condition for 4 months or more." 

VVhitcfniit: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. "Produces great oval 
white fruits. The most delicious of all." 

CERATONIA SILIQUA 

Anaheim: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Originated with Mr. 
Langenberger, Anaheim, Calif. "Tree a very strong grower, the 
original tree being of immense size, bears about 400 pounds of 
pods annually. The pods are large and rich in sugar." 

FEIJOA SELLOWIANA 

Andre: Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany. Fruit large, 
oblong to oval, sometimes slightly flattened ; skin thin, rather 
rough, green ; flesh whitish, very thick, granular, pulp fairly abun- 
dant, juicy, spicy and aromatic resembling pineapple and strawberry, 
strongly perfumed, very good. 



298 

Besson: Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany. Fruit small to 
medium, oval; skin smooth, green with red or maroon on one side; 
flesh whitish, medium thick, soft, fine grained, pulp abundant, very 
juic\", spicy, aromatic very good; seeds large, rather numerous. 

Choiccana: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Fruit oblong, 3 inches 
long by '2\ thick, has a banana and pineapple flavor, delicious for 
jelly, jam and sauce, as well as to eat fresh. 

Hehre: Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany. Originated by 
H. Hehre. Los Angeles. Calif., from a seed imported from Argen- 
tina. Fruit slender pyriform, sometimes curved, large, base tapering, 
yellowish green : flesh whitish, finely granular ; pulp abundant, verj' 
juicy, melting, sweet, lacking in aroma, quality fairh" good; seeds 
large, rather numerous. September at Los Angeles. 

Superba: Armstrong Nurseries. Ontario. Calif. Originated by Wm. 
Boyes. Torrance. Calif. Fruit large, weighing 2 to 5 ounces, round, 
green ; flavor like pineapple-raspberry-banana. October and No- 
vember. 

FIG 

Cotter's Choice: Commercial Nurserj- Co.. Winchester. Tenn. "It is the 

largest and finest fig we ever saw. Large, white with yellow ' 

bloom, ver>- hard}- and prolific." 
Everhearing : Same as New Hiller. 
Martin: Ellwood Nurseries, Midlothian, \'a. ''A hea^■y- bearer of medium 

to large figs. Requires some protection during winter." Originated 

near Midlothian, \"a. 
Mission Blue: Same as Mission. 

PASSION VINE 

Australian Fruiting Passion Vim: Luther Burbank. Santa Rosa, Calif. 
"Hardy in the larger part of California and produces quantities 
of fruit the size of duck eggs, with a hard shell. Exquisite flavor." 

SAPOTA 

Anaheim: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Seedling plant was 
brought from the state of Galisco, Mexico, and planted in Anaheim, 
Calif., by Mr. Langenberger of that citj*. Fruit large, shape of a 
mango, white, very sweet, excellent flavor. Tree good grower of 
weeping willow habit, verj' ornamental. 

Gillespie: Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany. Fruit round, 
3 inches in diameter ; basin deep and narrow, abrupt, deeply five 
folded ; cavity shallow, rovmded or flaring ; skin rather rough, 
pale green, much overspread with russet; flesh white, tinged pale 
green near skin, very- good; seeds 5 or 6 short and broad, blunt, 
surface reticulated. Tree upright open headed, verj' prolific. Oc- 
tober to November, at Montecito, Calif. 



299 

Maechtlen : Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. "Fruit 3'ellow, smooth 
skin, of delicious peach-life flavor; very prolific." 

Parroquia: Pomona College Journal of Economic Botany. Originated 
from Mexican seed planted by Dr. Franceschi, Santa Barbara, Calif., 
in 1896. Fruit oval. 3 inches long, 2\ inches wide, yellowish green, 
smooth; skin thin, tender; flesh creamy white, very good; fruits 
usually contain 3 seeds not all of which are well developed. Tree 
upright, open-headed, fairly prolific. October to April, at Santa 
Barbara, Calif. 

San Diego: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Chance seedling of 
San Diego Co.. Calif. "Round, good size ; flesh yellow, firm, and 
of high quality. Ripens from spring to fall. 

ALMOND 

Dayton: Milton Nursery Co., Milton. Oregon. This may be an old 
variety- renamed, since several trees of it were found in bearing 
several years ago at Dayton, Columbia Co., \\'ashington. Where 
the trees came from is not known. Nut large; shell soft; kernel 
rich, sweet ; tree vigorous, upright, hardy and very prolific. 

CHESTNUT 

Euphresia: Tree is very prolific, growing in the Santa Cruz Mountains 
of California. Not described. 

Merrinian : Maple Bend Nursery, Perrj', Ohio. Cross between Paragon 
and the American sweet chestnut. Nuts very large, sometimes 3 
inches in circumference. Tree very hardy, vigorous, ver\' pro- 
ductive. Originated near Perry, Ohio. 

Miracle: Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, Calif. Introduced in 1915. "Will 
bear the first season every time just like corn or beans. The nuts 
which are of great size and superior qualitj' are produced in 
greatest abundance right from the start." 

FILBERT 

English White: Crow's Nurseries. Gilroj". Calif. "Young and heavy 

bearing strain ; nut oblong, finest qualitj-." 
Manitoba Hasclnut: N. E. Hanson. Brookings, S. D. Third generation 

from the native hazel of Manitoba. Plants very productive. 
Xocc Lunghe: Imported by the U. S. Dept. Agr. from Istria, Austria, 

about 1901, or earlier. Has been grown in California. Nut very 

large, nearly round, good qualit}', productive. 
Pearson's Prolific: Armstrong Nurseries, Ontario, Calif. Said to be an 

extremely fertile variety used as a poUenizer. 
True Kentish: Leonard Coates, Morgan Hill, Calif. "Finest and best 

flavored but lighter bearer." 



300 



HICKORY NUT 

Billau: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. "A thin shelled 
nut with a very full plump meat of best quality. Nut of good 
size and a free cracker. Native of Linn County, Iowa." 

Dennis: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. Originated in 
Linn County, Iowa. Nut of good size, a very free cracker, with 
meat of good flavor. 

Edaburn: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. "A fine, 
smooth nut with a very thin shell. Meats crack out very freely 
and are of good flavor. Native of Benton County, Iowa." 

Grupe: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. Originated in 
Linn County, Iowa. Said to be a superior variety. 

Kelsey: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. Nut large, 
thin shell; full, plump meat of high quality, which cracks out freely. 
Originated in Linn County, Iowa. 

Kentucky (Shellbark) : McCoy Nut Nurseries, Evansville, Ind. "Kernel 
very rich and sweet, nut above average in size, very white and good 
cracker." 

Zoni: American Nut Journal, Feb. 1921. Supposed to be a hybrid 
between the Mockernut (Carya alba) and the Arkansas hickory, 
(Carya Buckleyi Arkansana). Nut like Mockernut in shape and 
color but much smaller ; shell has small, distinctive, vertical furrows 
and ridges of the Arkansas hickory but is larger in size. Nut very 
large weighing 31 grams. 

PECAN 

Burlington (hybrid) : The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. 
Originated in Burlington, Iowa, original tree very old but still 
productive. "Nuts of same shape as pecan, shells a little thicker, 
very free cracker and unsurpassed flavor. They are nearly as large 
as the largest Southern pecan, color of shell" between that of 
pecan and hickory." 

Campbell: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. Original 
tree stands near the original tree of Witte. Said to be as good 
as Witte but smaller. 

Greenbay (hybrid) : The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. 

"Original tree stands along the Mississippi River and is of great 

age, nearly five feet in diameter, 65 feet to the first limb and 

, over 100 feet high." Nuts resemble the Burlington but are much 

larger. 

Liberty Bond : West Texas Pecan Nurseries, San Saba, Texas. Origin- 
ated with this nursery company, not described. 

Luce: Vincennes Nurseries, Vincennes, Ind. Originated in Luce Town- 
ship, Spencer County, Ind. Nut medium size with moderately thin 
shell, very good quality. Tree productive. 



301 

Obennan: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, Iowa. About the 
same size as Campbell, eating quality of the best. 

Oklahoma: Originated with L. I. Wilkinson, near Ardmore, Oklahoma. 
This was originally named Darden. Nut fully as large as Stuart 
and similar in shape with thinner shell ; kernel plump, fine quality. 
Tree vigorous, productive. 

Sabine: Originated in Newton County, Texas. A very large nut. 

Shcrard: Originated with John H. Sherard, Sherard, Coahoma County, 
Miss. Nut is good in size, color, cracking quality and ilavor. Tree 
very prolific, first fruited in 1916. 

Twelve: The Eagle Pecan Co., Pittsview, Ala. "A new and very prom- 
ising variety of highest ;nerit originating in Alabama. Nuts are 
bright and handsome, very large, full meated and of fine flavor." 

Williams (Capt Williams) : Originated by Capt. W. H. Williams, 
Shreveport, La., about 1898. Nut medium to large with four well 
defined ridges, abruptly tapered at both ends, grayish brown with 
few black markings near apex ; shell medium thick cracking easily 
and separating readily from the" kernel; kernel light brown; par- 
titions medium! thick; texture fine grained; flavor sweet, nutty, 
quality very good. 

JJ'illiuius (Dr. W. W. Williams) : Originated with Dr. W. P. Williams at 
Waycross, Ware County, Ga., about 1903. Nut oblong, shell thin, 
a good cracker, quality of kernel ranks high. Tree vigorous, very 
productive. 

IVitte: The Linn County Nurseries, Center Point, la. Originated in 
Iowa, along the Mississippi River, 200 miles further north than 
other pecans of its size. "The nut is a real paper shell and a 
very free cracker." Said to be as large as any of the Indiana 
varieties. Quality and plumpness of meat not surpassed by any. 

PERSIAN WALNUT 

Bar)ies: Vincennes Nurseries, Vincennes, Ind. Originated in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Nut of average size, quality very good. 

Ehrhart: Seedling of Santa Barbara. Originated by D. C. Disher. and 
introduced by V. E. Ehrhart, Santa Rosa, California. Tree vigor- 
ous, early to begin fruiting. Nut larger than Santa Barbara, oval 
with round base, good cracker, kernel medium light brown, plump, 
pleasant and mild. 

Lady Edith : Originated in Leroy, New York. Glenwood Nursery, 
Rochester, N. Y. "Bears good crops regularly. The nut of more 
than medium size with smooth, handsome, paper shell thickness, 
full meated, and of remarkable fine flavor." 

Meyers: Introduced by F. N. Meyers from the mountains of Northern 
China in 1909. Fruited by Tribble Bros.. Elk Grove, Calif., in 1917. 
Tree very hardy and productive, foliage thick and leathery. Nut 
very large, roundish flattened at ends, shell thin, cracking quality 



302 

excellent ; kernel large, almost white, fairly plump, crisp texture, 
nutty and sweet, quality splendid. 

Potomac: The McCoy Nut Nurseries, Evansville, Ind. "A fine nut of 
excellent fiavor." 

Solano: Originated with Mr. Hawkins, Vacaville, Calif. Introduced by 
Chas. Riechers in 1910. Tree very hardy and productive. Nut 
medium size, oval ; kernel white, sweet, high quality. September. 

Sorento: Introduced from Sicily in 1915. Fruited by Tribble Bros., 
Elk Grove, Calif., in 1917. Tree thrifty and a rapid grower, very 
productive. Nut medium, elongated, shell medium thin, cracking 
quality good ; kernel light color, quite plump, sweet and nutty, 
very good. 

Utah English Walnut: Porter-Walton Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. "Ex- 
perience with this hardy type has proved that it can be grown in 
every section of the West suitable to apricots, cherries or peaches." 
Said to make a beautiful ornamental tree and to bear 6 or 8 years 
after planting. Nuts of good size and superior quality. 

Wilson's Wonder: Bijou type. Originated by F. C. Wilson, Sunnyvale, 
Calif., and introduced by him in 1910. Tree very thrifty, early to 
begin fruiting, very productive annually. Nut extra large, slightly 
pyrifo'rm, being smallest at stem end, shell thin, cracking good ; 
kernel plump, large, light color, flavor mild and extra sweet, quality 
extra good. 



THE AVOCADO INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN 
CALIFORNIA 

Dr. W. L. Hardin, 

President of the California Avocado Association, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

The rapid growth of the avocado industry in Southern CaH- 
fornia forms a new and important chapter in the horticultural 
industries of the United States. From a few scattered trees seven 
years ago. the number has been increased to about 60,000 trees 
in orchard form. Many of these trees, however, are not of the 
best varieties and will require topworking. The industry is show- 
ing a healthy growth, and the number of trees is increasing rap- 
idly. It is doubtful if any horticultural industry anywhere has 
ever received so much competent scientific investigation and as- 
sistance during its early stages of development as has the avocado 
industry in Southern California. 

The State University has carried on extensive research on 
the composition and nutritive value of the avocado. It has pub- 
lished instructive bulletins, and introduced a correspondence 
course covering various problems involved in the growing of 
avocadoes. The United States government has performed a 
valuable work in determining the chemical composition of the 
better varieties of avocadoes at different degrees of maturity. It 
has sent an expert horticultural explorer to all parts of the world 
where the avocado grows to secure budwood of the better 
varieties for propagation in this country and is offering every 
possible assistance to encourage the growing of avocadoes in the 
United States wherever climatic conditions will permit. 

The reason for this great activity and interest is to be found 
in the remarkable character of the fruit itself, — a fruit rich in 
fat, protein and mineral salts, obtainable every month in the year 
and requiring no cooking. The avocado has been truly called the 
"aristocrat of the whole fruit and vegetable world". The high 
food value and other excellent qualities of this fruit put it in a 
class by itself. The avocado replaces meat to a very large extent 

(303) 



304 

in countries where it is extensively grown. It is evidently one 
of the great undeveloped sources of food in this country. 

The avocado has been incorrectly called "alligator pear" in 
many places in the United States. It bears no relation whatever 
to the ordinary pear. The avocado belongs to the laurel family 
(Lauraceae), and is related to such trees as the cinnamon, bay, 
camphor and sassafras. The varieties of the West Indian and 
Guatemalan races belong to the species Persea americana, whi'le 
the varieties of the Mexican race belong to Persea drymifoUa. 
The avocado is a native of tropical America and grows wild in 
large numbers in Mexico, Central America and parts of South 
America. The varieties grown in Southern California belong to 
the Mexican and Guatemalan races. Most of the plantings at 
present are being limited to the Guatemalan varieties, but an ef- 
fort is being made to introduce larger and more satisfactory 
varieties of the Mexican race. The leaves of the Mexican 
varieties have an anise odor, and the fruit has a very thin skin. 
The Guatemalan varieties have thick, leathery or woody skins. 

Avocadoes grow on beautiful evergreen trees which re- 
semble somewhat the magnolia tree, and which are 'larger, in 
many instances, than large apple trees. Trees of the Mexican 
varieties will probably stand more cold than citrus trees, while 
the Guatemalan varieties are somewhat less hardy than citrus 
trees. The size of the fruit varies from a few ounces to several 
pounds, the better varieties varying from one half pound to 
three pounds. The shape varies from round to oval or pear 
shaped. The color varies from light green to dark purple, some- 
times black. The avocado has one large seed. The trees do not 
come true from seeds. Desirable varieties are propagated by bud- 
ding onto the young stock of the hardy Mexican varieties, or by 
top working older trees by means of buds or grafts. The varieties 
which are being propagated in large numbers in Southern Cali- 
fornia at present are Fuerte, Spinks, Puebla, Sharpless, Queen. 
Lyon, Dickinson, Taft, Linda and a few others. The govern- 
ment is introducing a number of promising varieties from Central 
and South America, but these have not been grown long enough 
in this country to fully establish their desirability as varieties for 
propagation. The hardier varieties in the tropics are selected by 
taking buds from trees growing on the highlands where the tem- 
perature goes down at times to 25° Fahrenheit or* lower. 



305 




20 



3o6 

The avocado when properly matured and ripened is a very 
delicious fruit, differing from most other fruits in that it is not 
juicy, being neither acid nor sweet. It is smooth and buttery in 
consistency, and has a rich nutty flavor which characterizes it 
from all other fruits. The better varieties of avocadoes contain 
from 15% to 30% of fat and from 2% to 4% of protein, which 
are easily digested. They contain much less water than ordinary 
fruits. Mineral matter, which has been found in recent years to 
be so essential to a healthful diet, is found in the avocado in much 
larger quanities than in other fruits. Avocadoes should not be 
removed from the trees until mature. They are softened off the 
trees within one to two weeks after picking. When ready to eat 
they should be soft enough to spread on bread like butter. They 
may be eaten on bread or crackers with a little salt as the main 
part of a meal, or they may be eaten as a salad with a little salt 
or French dressing. They make an excellent cocktail and are fine 
frozen in ice cream. Avocadoes have a high food value and should 
be used a sa substitute for meats or other heavy foods. Wherever 
grown in quantity they are a staple article of diet. 

It is unfortunate that the high prices which have prevailed 
in the United States have caused considerable prejudice against 
the avocado. The high prices have been due to the fact that the 
demand has been much greater than the supply. Those who 
can afford it and who know something of the high food value and 
other excellent qualities of the avocado have been willing to pay 
almost any price for it. As production increases, the price, of 
course, will decrease. On account of the high food value, how- 
ever, no one should expect the prices of avocadoes to go down 
to the prices of apples, peaches, pears and similar fruits. As the 
supply increases avocadoes will be sold by the pound on the basis 
of the prices of butter or a good quality of meat. On that basis 
the consumer will get full value for the prices paid. 

It is only natural that so remarkable a fruit as the avocado 
and so promising an industry as the avocado industry should call 
forth such an organization as the California Avocado Association. 
This organization, which began seven years ago with a few 
charter members, now has nearly 500 enthusiastic and energetic 
members. The short history of this association shows a spirit of 
harmony and cooperation seldom equalled. The association has 
cooperated with the state and national governments in carrying 



307 

on scientific investigations on the avocado. Its members have 
brought in budwood from some of the best varieties in Mexico 
and Guatemala. The organization is making a careful study of 
the climatic and soil conditions best adapted to the growing of 
this fruit; it is making a study of the avocado industry in various 
other countries ; it has eliminated many of the less desirable 
varieties ; it has recently started a cooperative marketing depart- 
ment. In general, the work of this association covers every 
phase of the avocado industry. The members meet twice a year 
for the reading of papers and the discussion of matters pertaining 
to the development of the industry, and the annual reports of the 
California Avocado ^Association, in which these papers and dis- 
cussions are published, are veritable storehouses of information 
on the avocado and the avocado industry. So important has this 
work been that the association has among its members repre- 
sentative horticulturists from all parts of the world where the 
avocado can be grown. 



THE FACTS CONCERNING CALCIUM ARSENATE* 
By J. H. Reedy 

At the outset of this discussion, it should be stated that this 
subject will be considered wholly from the stand point of the 
chemist, rather than that of the practical- horticulturist. No pre- 
tensions as to expertness are made as to the strictly biological 
aspects of the problem. This paper is based on a study of cal- 
cium arsenate in a chemical laboratory, and is intended to be sup- 
plementary to the field experience of those who have used this in- 
secticide ; to this end, it is offered with the hope that it will give 
a satisfactory explanation of the results that have been obtained 
by the use of this material. 

Capricious Behavior — During the past few years, calcium 
arsenate has been tried more or less extensively as a substitute 
for the more expensive arsenical, lead arsenate. Reports of its 
success have been, to say the least, conflicting. In some cases it 
seems to have worked satisfactorily and its users have recom- 



* Presented at meeting of Illinois State Horticultural Society, Decem- 
ber, 1921. 



3o8 

mended it strongly ; to others, it has played havoc, "burning" the 
foliage, or even killing the plant itself. 

This decidedly capricious behavior was found to be due to 
varying amounts of water soluble arsenate, which ranged all the 
way from i per cent to 8 per cent, or even lo per cent. This 
water soluble arsenate seems to be the active toxic ingredient of 
the insecticide, and the injury to plants was traced to its presence 
in excess. As a result, .75 per cent of As^Oj was fixed as the 
upper limit of soluble arsenate that might be present in the ma- 
terial if it is to be used without injury to the plant. As a result 
of the enforcement of this ruling, carload after carload of re- 
jected calcium arsenate was returned to the manufacturer, upon 
whose hands it is a dead loss, since there is no way of reworking 
the inferior product. Since the records of the manufacturer 
show that the material was up to specifications at the time it was 
shipped, the first surmise was that the decomposition of the cal- 
cium arsenate in transit was due to the action of the moisture 
and carbon dioxide of the air. This led to the use of air-tight 
containers, which seemed to improve the situation to a certain 
degree. However, this was not sufficient to prevent the deterior- 
ation of the material. 

At the same time the manufacturers were having troubles at 
home, in that they were not able to "control" their methods so 
as to give uniform products. . Using the same procedure and 
technique, the products of different "runs" might differ widely 
in soluble arsenate content. One batch might be of excellent 
grade, while the next one, made from the same materials and 
using practically identical technique, would have to- be rejected. 

In order to understand this phenomenon, it is well to review 
some of the chemical relationships of the calcium arsenate indus- 
try. In the first place, calcium forms at least three well-defined 
arsenates, viz. : 

Ca3(As04)2 CaHAsOi CaCH.AsO*)^ 

Tertiary (or Tri-) Secondary Primary 

Calcium Arsenate Calcium Arsenate Calcium Arsenate 

The most noteworthy dift'erence between these three salts is their 
solubility. The first one, while frequently called "insoluble", is 
not absolutely. It has a certain low solubility, which gives a 
concentration of soluble arsenate which seems sufficient to be kill- 



309 

ing for insects, but not enough to "burn" the foHage. The sec- 
ondary calcium arsenate is much more soluble, and its use would 
cause serious damage to the plant to which it is applied. The 
primary arsenate is still more soluble, its solubility being of the 
same order as its analogue 0(H2P04)2, commonly called "super- 
phosphate of lime". Furthermore, this last material appears — 
at least, at high temperature — to be decidedly unstable, breaking 
down into one of the other arsenates and free arsenic acid. That 
if used as a spray material for plants would be disastrous, is 
easily seen. 

Preparation — Two general reactions suggest themselves as 
suitable for the preparation of tricalcium arsenate : 

3CaCl2 + 2 Na3As04Ca3(As04), + 6 NaCl (1) 

3Ca(0H)H 2 H3As04Ca3(As04), + 6 H^O (2) 

Equation ( i ) , however, gives a product whose soluble arsenate 
content is considerably in excess of .75 per cent, and evidently 
does not represent the total reaction. Analysis shows that the 
product approximates the secondary arsenate, CaHAs04. Futher- 
more, filter-pressing or washing is not sufticcient to reduce the 
soluble arsenate content so as to even approach that of tertiary 
calcium arsenate. This leads to the conclusion that, even if it is 
assumed that Ca3(As4)2 is the primary product, secondary re- 
action occurs, converting the product into CaHAs04 with practical 
completeness. This secondary reaction is represented thus : 

Ca3(As04). + 2 H,0 2 CaHAsO* + CaCOH)^ (3) 

Reactions of this type chemists call "hydrolysis". Equation (2) 
gives, under proper control, the best grade of product and repre- 
sents the method generally used The Ca(OH)2 is in the form of 
"milk of lime", and is made by thoroughly slaking pure lime, and 
then adding water in excess until a smooth thin paste is obtained. 
The arsenic acid. H3ASO4, is prepared by the action of nitric acid, 
HNO3. on arsenic trioxide, AS2O3, (the "white arsenic" of the 
druggist) ; the resulting solution is then evaporated until the ex- 
cess of nitric acid is expelled. The arsenic acid solution is in- 
troduced intoi the lime paste very slowly, the mixture being thor- 
oughly stirred during the process. The amount of lime used is 
always in slight excess of the theoretical amount. This not only 



310 

prevents the possibility of an excess of arsenic acid, but the ex- 
cess Hme also tends to inhibit the hydrolysis of the calcium 
arsenate, which, as mentioned above, results in an increased solu- 
ble arsenate content. The calcium arsenate is formed as a white 
precipitate, and is separated by filtration and careful drying. 

Besides low solubility, another quality required for tricalcium 
arsenate, if it is to be used as a spray material, is fluffiness. This 
is necessary for the formation of slow-settling suspensions. This 
flufifiness is due, to be sure, to fineness of the particles, since 
suspensibility depends directly upon the size of the particle. This 
fluffiness may be of importance in another way. Physicians are 
familiar with the fact that finely-divided substances are much 
more reactive than the same substances in coarser grain, largely 
due to increased surface, though doubtless the increased solubil- 
ity of fine particles has something to do with it. In a similar 
way, fine calcium arsenate is probably much more reactive than 
the ordinary form, and not only goes further, but has greater 
"killing" power. Experiment has led to the conclusion that fluffi- 
ness is best obtained by allowing the action between the lime and 
the arsenic acid to take place at high temperatures — • say, 8o° 
— 90° C. Chemists recognize the fact that this preparation from 
hot solutions favors a certain amount of hydrolysis, but it seems 
that the requisite degree of fluffiness cannot be obtained in any 
other way. 

Instability — We now come to consider how tricalcium 
arsenate, with a soluble arsenate content well within the limit of 
safety, can so change its nature as to cause all of the havoc that 
planters and orchard growers have attributed to it ; furthermore, 
why one batch of the material should behave in one way and one 
in another. 

Our explanation is that tricalcium arsenate is a metastable 
substance. We use the term "metastable" in the sense of in- 
stable, only the peculiar conditions favoring the change are lack- 
ing. What is meant may become clearer by an illustration. A 
stick of dynamite is an example of a metastable substance. It 
may persist as such for an indefinite length of time, until the 
proper agency — the explosion of a cap — affords or provides 
the requisite condition for the materials that go to make up this 
dynamite to change into more stable forms. Chemists call these 
agents which initiate or facilitate the change of a substance from 



311 

a metastable state to a stable state "catalytic agents", or "cata- 
lysts". In the case of the explosion of the nitroglycerin of the 
dynamite, the shock of the cap is the catalyst, though other sub- 
stances are known which ^\"ill effect the same changes. Tricalcium 
arsenate appears to be instable in just the same sense, though its 
change to the more stable form is by no means so rapid and noisy 
and destructive. 

Our first cine as to what miglu cause the decomposition of 
tricalcium arsenate came from consideration of equations (i) 
and (2) above. It will be noticed in the first equation that salt, 
NaCl is formed, and it occurred to us that this might catalyze 
the decomposition of our product. In the second reaction, how- 
ever, water is the by-product, and this is a substance that, as a 
rule, is not regarded as a catalyst for such reactions as this. 
Actual experiments showed that the surmise was correct. The 
presence of very small amounts ( e. g., .02 per cent) of such salts 
as NaCl. FeSO, and so forth, were found to increase the amount 
of soluble arsenate 20 to 100 fold. This salt effect explains many 
points : First, why tricalcium arsenate cannot be prepared by 
equation (i) ; second, why pure lime and arsenic acid must be 
used in its preparation; third, why the use of impure waters in 
making up the spray solutions have caused such marked cases of 
burning of foliage. 

Since the decomposition of tricalcium arsenate requires 
water as a factor in the reaction (see equation (3) above), it 
is readily seen that moisture may exert a marked effect in this 
change. W'e are led to believe that one condition for the per- 
m.anence of our insecticide is that it must be kept dry. On the 
other hand, the presence of any deliquescent substance m the 
calcium arsenate will keep the material moist, and may also be- 
have as an active catalyst in its decomposition. This suggests one 
reason why manufacturers have had trouble. Their arsenic acid 
as we have seen, is made by the action of nitric acid on arsenic 
trioxide, and it is not easy to remove all of the excess nitric acid. 
Upon mixing this impure arsenic acid with the lime, some calcium 
nitrate, Ca(N03)2. is formed. This substance is very de- 
liquescent, and at the same time catalyzes the decomposition of 
the calcium arsenate. 

It is a general rule that heat will favor hydrolytic reactions 
such as this one. This would lead us to the conjecture that cal- 



312 

cium arsenate would prove less satisfactory in the hot, moist 
climates of the southern states, than in the colder climates of the 
middle west. 

Stabili^aation — A great many people have suggested that 
materials might be admixed with calcium arsenate that would in- 
hibit its hydrolysis, or, in other words, stabilize this metastable 
substance. Such catalysts are called by chemists "negative 
catalysts". 

It has been reported by certain investigators that calcium 
arsenate might be stabilized by the presence of a small excess of 
lime. If equation (3) is a "reversible" reaction, that is just what 
chemists would expect. It can only be said that by using lime in 
excess and neglecting the other influences that may condition 
stability, the injurious effects upon crops have not been averted. 
This may be due to the combination of the free Ca(OH)o with 
the COo of the air, or with impurities present in the water used 
in making up the spray. At any rate, the removal of the Ca(OH)., 
by any means whatsoever would "displace equilibrium to the 
right" and Ijring about the formation of the fairly soluble second- 
ary arsenate, CaHAsO^. 

y\nother device for stabilizing this material is the admixture 
of cane sugar or other so-called "inert" substances. We under- 
stand that experiments along this line are in progress, though no 
reports are yet available. The effect of such substances might 
affect the arsenical sprays in several ways : it might lower their 
surface tension, or it might increase their viscosity ; it might pre- 
vent the excessive evaporation of the water, and improve their 
adhesiveness to the plant surface; or it might repress the re- 
activity of the impurities that tend to promote hydrolysis. An 
attemjit at a])praisement of such practice would be premature at 
this time. 

An Italian, according to a recent report, has succeeded in 
preparing calcium phosphate in what is known as the "colloidal" 
condition, by precipitation methods in such media as gelatine, gum 
arable, starch, and so forth. Judging from the close analogy be- 
tween arsenates and phosphates, it would be expected that cal- 
cium arsenate would assume this colloidal condition also. These 
colloids appear to be dissolved in the water of the solution, though 
it is now known that the phenomenon is not one of solution, but 



313 

of suspension, the particles being too small to be visible to the 
eye. Biologists have found these "colloidal solutions" to have 
marked physiological activity, and very probably that will be true 
in the case of calcium arsenate. One of our students has taken 
up the problem of preparing this active form of calcium arsenate, 
and its fungicidal properties will be investigated in the botanical 
laboratories of the University of Illinois. The prime question in 
this work is the stability of the colloidal material. If the toxicity 
of a given mixture does not increase upon standing, there is good 
reason to hope that by the use of small amounts just the correct 
toxic value can be obtained to kill insects without injury to the 
plants. The whole problem, however, depends upon stability. 

Mixing ztnth Other Spray Materials — There is one other 
point that should be mentioned in this connection, and that is the 
efifect of mixing this insecticide with such other materials as lead 
arsenate, lime-sulfur mixture, and the like. In a bulletin from 
the Michigan Agricultural College, Patten and Bergen state that 
lead arsenate will reduce the solubility of calcium arsenate to 
practically mil. Others have compounded calcium arsenate with 
lime-sulfur mixture (i. e., calcium polysulfides). At the present 
it is not advisable to take a stand on either side of propositions like 
these, for the very reason that the behavior of calcium arsenate 
itself is too indeterminate for the influence of the admixed sub- 
stance to be isolated. Theoretical considerations may be said to 
indicate that the soluble arsenate content would be diminished or 
repressed, owing to what is called the "mass effect" ; on the other 
hand, we have just pointed out that the presence of salts promote 
the decomposition of calcium arsenate. These two' influences op- 
pose each other, and the correct answer to the problem can be 
known only by means of very careful analytical work with the 
purest materials obtainable. In the Chemical Laboratories of 
the University of Illinois there has just been started some work 
which looks to the determination of the soluble arsenate content 
of a solution by a very quick and accurate electrical method. It 
is hoped that this will throw some light on these problems. 

By the way of summary, I might say : 

Calcium arsenate is a metastable substance, and whether or 
not it will meet the needs of the practical horticulturists is a mat- 
ter that they will have to decide for themselves. It is a gamble, 



314 

for a certain risk will always be involved in its use. It may turn 
out that the collective experience of the horticulturists of the 
country will vindicate its use. It will be, strictly speaking, a mat- 
ter of averages. As a chemist, I would make the following sug- 
gestions as to its use if the best results are to be obtained: 

( 1 ) The material should be as fresh as possible. 

(2) It should have been kept dry at all times previous to its 
immediate use. 

(3) -'^s pure water as possible should be used in making up" 
sprays. 

(4) In all cases, analysis for soluble arsenates should be 
run at the time of delivery to the consumer. 

(5) Its use will probably be more satisfactory in the milder 
climates, rather than the south. 

(6) The effect of combining it with other insecticides is 
not yet definitely known, since the action of the latter may be 
masked by the indefinite behavior of calcium arsenate itself. 



PRODUCTION OF APPLE AND PEAR SEEDLINGS* 

I. M. Orner 

The growing of apple seedlings is an important industry in 
the Kaw River valley. It is estimated that 90 per cent of all the 
seedlings grown in the United States are grown within a radius 
of twenty-five miles of Topeka. The commercial crop consists 
mainly of apple and pear seedlings. Practically all of the seed 
for the apple and pear seedlings is imported from France and 
Japan. The apple seed is supposed to be from a variety of French 
crab. The preparation of this seed for the market is an important 
industry in France and the process of extracting the seed from 
the pomace without crushing it is unknown to the American 
people. The apple seed received by growers in this vicinity is 
shipped from a distributing centef on the Atlantic coast, and this 
distribution point is nearly always the city of New York. The 
seed arrives in large barrels packed in charcoal and is separated 



* Read at the 55th meeting of the Kansas State Horticultural Society. 



3^5 

from the charcoal by using a fanning mill. The seed is then 
soaked in clear water for forty-eight hours, after which it is 
packed in ice until time of planting, when it is dried sufficiently to 
readily pass through the seeder which is used in planting the seed. 
An ordinary wheat drill arranged to plant rows twenty-four 
inches apart is quite satisfactory for planting the seed. The plant- 
ing is done during March and April. The seed is covered to a 
greater depth than other seed of this size. This is for the 
purpose of keeping the seed bed moist which aids germination. 
As soon as the seed is sprouted the extra covering of earth is 
removed by a stroke of an ordinary garden rake and cultivation 
starts immediately. 

The first cultivation is given by using a wheel hoe. Care 
must be taken to prevent the forming of a crust, which, when dis- 
turbed is apt to break the tap-root which prevents the growth of 
the young seedlings. A man will wheel-hoe about one acre a day 
the first time the seedlings are cultivated. A specially prepared 
horse cultivator is made that will cultivate half as many rows at a 
time as there were planted at a time with the seeder. Small mules 
about the size of cotton mules are perhaps the best power that 
can be used for drawing this cultivator. When the weeds start 
after the cultivation begins, weeding must also be started. Seed- 
lings are one of the crops that will not tolerate weeds at all. Boys 
from the age of ten years to those of fifteen or sixteen years of 
age have proven to be the best weeders obtainable. The work is 
not very difficult if the weeding is begun at the proper time. The 
crop is cultivated about ten times during the season. Cultivation 
must be given just as soon as the condition of the soil will permit, 
after each rain. The crop must be weeded as often as the weeds 
begin to show in the rows, about three times during the growing 
season. 

Apple and pear seedlings are usually grown on the ground 
which is generally prepared the previous fall by extremely deep 
plowing — twelve to fifteen inches. This enables the seedlings to 
make a long straight root, ordinarily growing down as deep as the 
ground is plowed. The seedlings make a part of their growth 
during the late fall and continue to grow up to the time of severe 
freezing. When the weather is favorable, the harvesting of the 
seedling crop begins, about the first of November. The seedling 



3i6 

growers have a very ingenious digger which consists of a blade 
of steel about ten inches wide at the bottom and bent in the shape 
of the letter V to which are fitted a plow beam and handles. At 
the bottom of the V there is welded a riser which pushes the seed- 
lings up two or three inches in the loosened ground, this enables 
them to be quite easily pulled. As the seedlings are pulled they 
are placed in bundles of about lOO each, these bundles are tied 
with tarred string and lightly buried in the soil and remain there 
until gathered by the haulers. The bundles are taken to a cave 
or cellar where the seedlings have a part of the top removed, 
heeled in and then covered with a mixture of straw and manure to 
prevent freezing and are left there until they are graded. The 
seedlings are graded into several classes ; one-fourth inch, three- 
sixteenth inch, two-sixteenth inch and one and one-half six- 
teenth inch. 

The great advantage of the Kaw river soil is that there can 
be grown seedlings which are capable of being cut into several 
grafts, which form the piece root grafts for the great majority 
of the apple and pear grafts that are planted in the United States. 
Apple seedlings and pear seedlings grown in this territory are 
shipped to all parts of the United States and Canada where 
grafting is practiced. The greatest growers of seedlings in the 
United States have their headquarters in Topeka. Although the 
soil in this territory is especially adapted to the production of 
seedlings, it is not profitable to raise more than two successive 
crops of seedlings on the same ground. Several years must elapse 
before that piece of ground is again planted to seedlings. Land 
must have sufificient fertility to produce a large growth of wood 
for this crop. It is not unusual to dig one hundred thousand 
apple seedlings from an acre of ground. 

The producing of apple and pear seedlings is not very com- 
plicated or difificult, and if one requires only a few thousand it 
will be better to have the professional grower produce them. 
Seeds from native apples will produce good seedlings. The great 
trouble is in preparing the seed so that a crop may be produced 
from them, and until there is some improved method for separat- 
ing the seed from the pomace, we will be compelled to import our 
apple and pear seed. 



317 



COMMERCIAL PEACH GROWING* 

J. E. Khlore, District Manager, 
The Anicrican Fruit Grozcers, Inc., Hancock, Md. 

What is commercial peach growing? I sometimes think thac 
secretaries and program committees use the word "commercial" 
to inform the audience that the speaker is a farmer instead of a 
professor, but having been duly informed that the speaker is a 
farmer, I believe that we should inquire a little further as to the 
meaning of the word "commercial.'' Commercial peach growing 
to me means growing peaches for profit. I feel sure that most 
of you present will agree that if this definition is not correct, per- 
haps a better definition would be - — trying to grow peaches for a 
profit. 

Since we are engaged in growing peaches for profit, we are 
vitally interested in the factors which influence the amount or 
extent of that profit. Fundamentally, profit is the margin be- 
tween cost and selling price. I do not intend to discuss the factors 
influencing the cost of production, but shall confine my discussion 
to the factors influencing the selling price. You will agree, I am 
sure, that the most important single factor influencing the selling 
price of peaches is quality, and that the amount of your profit is 
likely to be determined by the quantity of high quality fruit at 
your disposal. This would be true if it were not for the existence 
of another factor which seems to have a more far-reaching effect 
in many cases than either quality or quantity. That factor is 
supply and demand. 

Since we wish to attack this problem of securing profits in a 
logical manner, we must know just what we can do to grow fruit 
of better quality, how to increase the yield of high quality fruit, 
and finally having satisfied ourselves that we have done all in our 
power to increase our profits in this manner, we want to dispose 
of our crop to the best advantage. 

Quality is dependent on a number of factors, but practically 
all of them, fortunately, are more or less under our control. 
Elevation for instance influences the color and snap of the fruit. 



* Read at meeting of Pennsylvania Horticultural Association, Harris- 
burg, January, 1922. 



3i8 

gives it the life which it would otherwise not have. The soil in- 
fluences the growth of the tree, and by its depth, tilth -and fertility 
has an important efifect on the quality of the fruit Both of these 
factors can be determined or regulated by the owner. The grow- 
er is likewise responsible for the quality of the fruit as it is af- 
fected by what we may properly term cultural practices. A well 
proportioned pruning program, followed by the application of the 
necessary fertilising elements in the correct proportions, and sup- 
plemented by thorough cultivation to insure sufficient moisture to 
mature the crop, all these things add to the quality of the fruit. 
SjDraying and dusting protect the crop from the insects and 
fungous diseases which tend to make peach growing such a 
hazardous undertaking, while careful packing presents the 
product to the consumer in the most attractive shape. Each of 
these operations, you will observe, is influenced to a greater or 
less extent by the desires of the grower. 

Subject always to weather conditions, the quantity of fruit 
is almost as readily determined as the quality, and we are able to 
a certain extent to insure ourselves from the loss attending a 
frost by selecting orchard sites with sufftcient elevation and air 
drainage to minimize the hazard in that respect. 

What then is the limiting factor which determines the profits 
from commercial peach growing? H. P. Gould, who has written 
a very good book on peach growing, says "That the profitableness 
of peach growing in any location depends in no small measure on 
the sequence in which the Elberta peach ripens there in compari- 
son with its ripening period in other localities with which it comes 
in contact on the markets." In other words, in so far as we are 
concerned, the limiting factor is supply and demand which may 
properly be translated the "geography of peach growing." 

Let us examine the peach growing areas in the eastern 
and southern sections of the country, and ascertain if pos- 
sible what effect they have on the profits from our ventures 
here in the north. "With the Elberta only in mind, the peach 
season commences about July ist in northeastern Texas. Over 
a series of years, the section which comes in next is usually south- 
western Arkansas, where the Elberta season lasts from July lo 
to the 15th. While the Fort Valley section usually ships Elbertas 
from July 15th to 20th, it sometimes happens that the growers in 
Georgia are shipping Elbertas prior to Arkansas. The Elberta 



319 

season in North Carolina follows close on the heels of the Georgia 
and Arkansas season, and is over by the 5th of August. With 
the exception of minor shipments from southern Virginia and 
West Virginia the next section of importance in order of ripening 
of the Elberta is northern West Virginia and Maryland, where 
the season normally starts about August 20th and continues to 
the first of September. New Jersey and Delaware usually start 
shipping Elbertas about the 25th of August and continue until 
the 5th of September. The usual date of ripening of the Elbertas 
in southern and southeastern Pennsylvania is September ist to 
loth, although certain sections, notably that region north of 
Hagerstown, is somewhat earlier. 

What does this mean to you as a grower of peaches in Penn- 
sylvania? It means that from about July loth until you start 
shipping Elbertas in late August, or early September, there is an 
almost constant supply of Elbertas from districts south of you. 
That in itself is a statement without much meaning, unless further 
analyzed. But let me show you how vital this fact is to you, 
even though you are not shipping peaches in carlots to the larger 
markets. — Although I have not had access to the government 
records, it has been reported that the Georgia crop last year was 
in excess of 6,000 cars. Most of this fruit is consumed in eastern 
and northern markets, and is not all confined to the large cities. 
I know one firm who canvassed thoroughly every town of 2,000 
or more inhabitants between Johnstown and Harrisburg, and sev- 
eral towns east of Harrisburg in an endeavor to dispose of 
Georgia peaches in carloads if possible, but in less than carloads 
if necessary. Under normal conditions the early peaches would 
have been ripening in Pennsylvania at that time, and you would 
certainly have felt the efifect of the southern competition. 

But there are other ways in which your profits are in- 
fluenced by your southern neighbors. All of you know that the 
peach market is extremely fickle, and that it fluctuates violently 
when there is no reason apparent to the grower. There are sev- 
eral reasons for this fact. The peach market is usually estab- 
lished during the Georgia shipping season. The appearance of 
worms or brown rot in Georgia peaches has had, and probably 
will continue to have a very far-reaching influence. Buyers who 
appreciate the fear of brown rot on the part of the wholesaler 



320 

and retailer are quite likely to use this fact in securing fruit at 
considerably lower prices from the grower. 

During the past season I happened to be engaged in packing 
Elbertas in southwestern Arkansas. Because of the fact that the 
Texas crop of Elbertas was a failure in so far as carrying qualities 
were concerned, I knew of several buyers to remain in our pack- 
ing house almost a week before buying a car load of peaches. 
They were afraid to buy on surface indications, preferring to 
wait until some of our fruit arrived on the market, in order to 
assure themselves that Arkansas Elbertas had no brown rot. If 
we had been depending on local buyers our profits certainly would 
have sufifered. 

The readiness with which the public absorbs the shipments 
from the south certainly has a marked effect on the price paid 
for the same variety from later sections. Due to the perishable 
nature of the fruit, the disposal of a crop of peaches, particularly 
where that crop is largely Elbertas, is usually a matter of days 
rather than weeks. Dealers are not slow to take advantage of 
that fact, and relying on the information gained in the crops from 
southern districts, use every means in their power to recoup losses 
and increase gains by manipulation of the crops from northern 
sections. 

But the most marked effect of the southern grown peach, and 
by that I mean the peach grown in any section earlier than our 
own, is the residual effect on. the market. Following each other 
so closely as the shipping seasons of the different sections in- 
variably do, there is a sluggish period on the market almost every 
year. The effect is so marked, and so far-reaching as to merit 
our closest attention. Let me cite an example. As I have men- 
tioned before, Georgia had an exceptionally large crop of peaches 
last year. The ripening period was several weeks earlier than 
usual, throwing the peak of the Elberta season about July loth, 
on which date the first cars were moving from southwestern 
Arkansas. What was the effect on the f. o. b. price of the 
Arkansas Elbertas ? The best quotation for the first two days of 
the season was $2.25, but in about three days, when the bulk of 
the southern crop had disappeared from the midwest markets, 
the price began, to jump about $.25 each day, until at the end of 
the twelve-day season the f. o. b. price for the same quality peach 
was $4.50 per bushel, while two days later on my return through 



321 

North Carolina, I learned that choice Elbertas were being quoted 
at $2.50 per bushel on board the car. This difference in price in 
the case of the North Carolina peaches was primarily due to the 
fact that they were being shipped to New York, Philadelphia 
and Boston, at which points there were about eight hundred cars 
of Georgia Elbertas in storage, and the influence of the Georgia 
peach crop was felt as far north as New York State, because not 
all of them had been removed from storage when New York 
Carmens were being shipped. 

I think you will see from what I have said that the price you 
will receive for your peaches is quite likely to be influenced quite 
markedly by concurrent shipments from districts earlier than that 
in which you happen to be located. How can you overcome the 
disadvantage arising from your location? This is not an easy 
question to answer, but there are certain ways in which this effect 
can be minimized. 

Those of you who are contemplating planting new orchards 
or replanting old orchards, will, I am sure, pay much more at- 
tention in the future than you have in the past to the varieties 
which you plant. This is of vital importance. 

Those of you who have large bearing orchards of varieties 
which conflict with Elbertas, or other more salable varieties, will 
take advantage of all of the information sent out by your experi- 
ment station concerning the methods of regulating the ripening 
period of those varieties by means of varied applications of 
fertilizers. 

And all of you, whether you have just planted your orchard 
or whether it is in full bearing at this time, will, I am sure, pay 
a great deal more attention to your neighbors on the south and the 
east. You will know his varieties, his expected crop, and when 
that crop is to be marketed. Furthermore, you will have a daily 
acquaintance with the market conditions, not only of your local 
market, but in the large city markets as well. 

You have seen how your profits are vitally affected not only 
by what kind of a peach 3'ou grow, and how many of them you 
sell but by what your southern neighbor is growing and selling. 
Your local cooperative association, your state bureau of markets, 
and all of the government agencies, as well as the State College 
and Experiment Station annually publish an immense amount of 

21 



322 

valuable information dealing with this subject, but it remains for 
you to reap full advantages from these faciHties. 

The profit from commercial peach growing is two-thirds 
under your control, and a greater part of the remaining third can 
be secured by facilities already provided, presuming of course 
that you are on the alert. 



MODERN PRUNING METHODS* 

Dr. J. K. Shaw, 
Massachusetts Agricultural College 

I am not going to give you any system of pruning trees, be- 
cause I do not believe there is any definite procedure which may 
be set forth that is not subject to criticism. No one system will 
work for all varieties under all conditions better than any other 
system. 

Before talking about pruning methods, I want to call your at- 
tention to the way the tree grows. You are all familiar with 
trees. You know that the growth in length of the trees is entirely 
near the growing tip. It follows that the head of the tree and 
the branches will never be any further from the ground than they 
are when they come out in the young tree. The growth in diam- 
eter takes place always between the bark and wood. Sometimes 
we get two rings, but usually only one ring during the summer. 

Now the new growth that grows out of the terminal buds 
each year has on it single leaves arranged in regular fashion, and 
in the axil of every one of these leaves is a bud. I want to show 
what becomes of these buds. They will do one of four things. 
They may fail to develop at all, but die and drop off. They may 
make a little rosette of leaves, not growing very much, but make 
a rosette for a year or possibly two, and then die. Some of the 
buds will develop into short or long shoots, according to condi- 
tions, and these leafy shoots repeat this same history. Eourth, 
they may develop into fruit spurs. These make a short growth, 
amounting to a rosette of leaves the first year, and after that they 
form a fruit bud and a spur. 



* Delivered at 30th Annual Meeting Connecticut Pomological So- 
ciety, December 13, 1921. 



- 323 

The buds that fall off are of no use. Those that make leaves 
are of a great deal of use. The presence of these rosettes of 
leaves on the trees help to make the tree stocky. They fatten the 
trunk of the tree. You will find if you cut the rosettes off you 
get a very slender growth. We tried a scheme for getting just 
the kind of tree we wanted by taking a one-year whip, and re- 
moving the buds we did not want to grow, and leaving those we 
did want. When we did that the trunk of the tree was too 
slender. We must have these rosettes to give strength to the stock. 

We certainly would want a few of these buds to develop into 
leafy shoots. I can't see the use for a great many of these 
shoots, — just enough to produce new bearing wood in the future 
years. Of course we want to have all the spur buds we can get 
when the tree comes to bearing age. We want all the buds the 
tree can develop into mature fruits. 

Just a word more about the fruit buds. Not all the fruit 
buds on trees are spur buds. On the Northern Spy only a small 
percentage are spur buds. There are two other kinds of buds. 
One, the terminal shoot bud, from four to six inches long, as on 
the Ben Davis and Mcintosh. A young tree produces more of 
these than old bearing trees. Then on some kinds, as Wealthy 
and Wagener, we have lateral buds. These are where the one- 
year bud instead of developing into a leafy shoot may develop a 
fruit bud, so that the second year after a shoot is produced we 
have lateral buds, particularly in young trees. Our Wealthy crop 
last year in Amherst was due to lateral buds. The spur buds were 
killed, but the lateral buds came out later and escaped the freeze. 

Now with these fundamental facts as to growth and fruit 
bud production, let us proceed to discuss systems of pruning. In 
the first place, I think we have sufffcient evidence to say that 
pruning is always a dwarfing process. The tree that is pruned 
will never be as large in the future as if no branch had been re- 
moved. The diffierence in size is not great. We have an experi- 
mental pruning orchard of 600 trees in Amherst, and there was 
a difference in trunk increase a year ago this summer of .18 
millimeter between the smallest and largest trees, and these trees 
received quite different amounts of pruning. If the practice is 
continued it will make quite a difference in the size of the trees. 
The dwarfing process in itself is not necessarily harmful. 



324 

There are two ways of pruning a tree. One is by heading 
back, — by cutting off a one-year shoot, or by cutting back into 
two or three or four-year wood. The terminal buds have a strong 
tendency to start out when you head back in one-year wood. 

The resuU is that next year you have two or three branches 
instead of one. They shade each other and shoot up for air and 
light. So the process of heading back in one-year wood is liable 
to be unsuccessful in keeping the top low, because this process 
causes them to shoot up perhaps as high as before. 

Another effect of heading back young trees which is quite 
serious is the effect it has on the branch angle, that is the angle at 
which the branch comes out from the trunk. If you cut back a 
main branch, the branches will come out at a sharp angle, which 
will be weaker than a broader angle. This is important with the 
Baldwin and with the Wealthy, and not so important with the Mc- 
intosh, because it is hard to spoil a Mcintosh tree by pruning, but 
you can spoil the Baldwin or Wealthy quite easily. 

The effect of cutting back trees about to come into bearing is 
that it promotes a tendency for the buds either to fall into this 
first class, making litle or no growth, or to grow out into leafy 
shoots ; few of them seem to make fruit spurs. That is apparent- 
ly the reason why heading back delays bearing. Some of the 
buds grow more than they ought to, and others fail to grow at 
all. When you thin out the top of a tree it does not have this 
tendency to make the tree shoot up in the air and make a dense 
top. The branches will be more evenly balanced, and the leaves 
which you have on the trees are better exposed to the light. 

I do not absolutely condemn heading back young trees. I 
think with certain varieties it may be desirable, but I feel that 
there has been a great deal of damage done by too severe heading 
back of young trees by getting weak angles, and we are now reap- 
ing the results by having some breakage in Baldwin trees ten 
years old. We shall have to spend some time and money wiring 
up these trees this winter. 

There are five more or less well recognized types toward 
which a fruit grower may prune a tree. One is the vase form, 
where we try to have the head of the tree in the form of an in- 
verted cone. This ideal has not often been realized because the 
center of the tree tends to fill up. Then we have the globular 
tree, which is what one is likely to get when he starts out for a 



325 

vase-form tree. The strong primary branches come out all at 
about the same point on the trunk, and form a round or globular 
head on the tree. Then we have the modified leader which is 
very much like the globular form except that we try to separate 
the main branches on the trunk and keep the main leader growing 
straight up to perhaps six or eight feet from the ground, the 
branches coming out at intervals. A modification of this is the 
two-story tree. In this we try to get about three branches coming 
out and diverging, each occupying about one-third of the space 
around the tree, and then a foot or two above that three other 
branches coming out. In Virginia I saw an orchard like this, 
the best pruned orchard I ever saw. It had been pruned by the 
hand of an artist. There is also the central leader tree. The 
central leader extends indefinitely into the air, and has a con- 
siderable number of branches coming out at the sides. Eventually 
these side branches will be few. 

I don't like the first two, the vase form and the globular tree, 
very well, because of the danger of breaking down. I presume 
the majority of the best growers will prefer the modified leader, 
which is similar to the globular tree, except that the branches are 
separated more. Not many men advocate a central leader tree, 
and those who do are apt to be rabid about it. I should choose 
one of the last three types, and whichever one I chose I would 
aim to keep the branches well separated and well balanced around 
the tree, and above all try to visualize what that tree will look like 
in ten or fifteen years, — what these little branches will look like 
when they are six inches in diameter. The objection to the cen- 
tral leader tree is that it is said to make a high-headed tree. As a 
matter of fact it will be high-headed for the first ten years, but as 
nearly as I can ascertain, by the time they get to be fifteen or 
twenty years old, a central leader tree is no higher than the vase 
formed tree. Of course when the tree has grown out horizontally 
until it reaches its neighbors it goes up in the air more. We hear 
arguments about the height of head. When you look ahead fif- 
teen or twenty years what difference does it make whether you 
start the branches of your tree at eighteen or twenty-four inches 
from the ground. If I had a high-headed tree like Spy, I would 
head it near the ground. The height of the head of the mature 
tree will depend more upon the variety and later pruning than on 
the height at which the end is started. 



326 

Just a few words about pruning bearing trees. Of course 
everybody could cut out all "dead and diseased wood, and every- 
body would cut out water sprouts. These ought to be cut out as 
soon as they come. Once in a- while you will get a visitation of 
blight, and when it comes it will attack these water sprouts and 
may cause a canker on the tree. After the dead and diseased 
wood is cut out, most any bearing tree will need a certain amount 
of thinning, letting in the light to the top of the tree. Then if 
the trees are getting old I think it is even desirable to do a certain 
amount of spur thinning. Of course you do not want to cut out 
fruit spurs generally. But with old trees do not prune too severe- 
ly at one time. Take out not more than five or ten per cent of 
the top. It is important that you prune trees every year. A light 
pruning every year is a great deal better than letting it go two 
or three years. Many times a man is moved by the spirit, and 
goes out into the orchard and does a thorough job, and does noth- 
ing more for two or three years, when they are just as bad or 
worse than before. If you prune old trees severely, you must 
follow it up the next few years. Keep the head open so that it 
won't shoot out into excessive and high growth. 

We sometimes hear arguments as to the time of year that 
pruning should be done. Usually it is done in the spring. Prob- 
ably that is as good a time as any, but I see no reason why we 
should not prune any time during the winter if we want to. 

Some experiments in Missouri seem to show that a tree wih 
dry out less from the cut of a removed branch than it would from 
the branch itself, that is, pruning, the tree in the fall in these ex- 
periments reduced the loss of moisture in the tree. We think that 
loss of moisture goes with winter-killing. This would seem to in- 
dicate thaf it does not do any harm to prune any time in the fall 
when the wind does not blow to hard. I believe the time for sum- 
mer pruning is in the spring, pinching off the new shoots that 
start out. I am not prepared to advocate any special method of 
doing this. I hope in a few years I may be able to. 

We hear a great deal about wound protection. In sections 
where there is much blister canker this is desirable, but in most 
cases I am inclined to question whether the application of pro- 
tective material over wounds is worth the trouble. I don't know, 
but I am inclined to doubt it. I would rely more on thorough 
spraying to keep the wounds free from disease. At the same time, 



327 

if any one wants to cover the wounds with paint. I would not 
say he should not do it. For that purpose there is nothing better 
than white lead and linseed oil, with color in if you want to make 
it less conspicuous. Beware of ready mixed paints. 

I firmly believe it is important to get good tools. You can 
buy good pruning shears now for $2.00 tO' $2.50. Get them 
heavy, so that they will stand heavy work without bending. Get 
them with a shape of blade that will cut readily, and with the 
least effort. There are two types of pruning saws, the light saw 
and the meat saw type. The meat saw is fine for a lazy man, and 
none of us want to work harder than we have to. They do a good 
job, and I don't know why we shouldn't use them. I don't like 
the two-edged saw. It is almost impossible to keep from raking 
the bark and making a bad wound. 



INTERCOLLEGIATE APPLE JUDGING CONTEST 

The Intercollegiate Apple Judging Contest was won by the 
team from the Massachusetts Agricultural College. But two 
teams were entered. A cup was given the winning team and 
medals were awarded the two highest men, Mr. Wood and Mr. 
Warren. The scores were as follows : 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

C. M. Wood 3260 

E. H. Warren 3180 

W. H. Peck 2906S 



OHIO. 

Earl Prather 27934 

F. F. Smith 2696§ 

Dale Stoltz 2693 

8183 
(328) 



THE AIRPLANE IN FOREST INSECT CONTROL* 

J. S. HOUSER, 

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station 

In its final analysis, the Agricultural Experiment Station 
must be a practical institution, for its mission is the solving of 
problems of the land which contribute to more efficient produc- 
tion, and its workers must in most essentials be practical men 
in order to enjoy the confidence of those whom they attempt to 
serve. 

The present speaker hopes that, he may have merited in 
the past a little of the good opinion, in this respect, of the mem- 
bers of the State Horticultural Society and it is with some 
hesitation that he stands before you today, scheduled to discuss 
a topic which from its very nature is more or less ethereal in 
character — spraying by aeroplane. He hopes that when he 
will have finished he will not be an outcast, for what is to be 
presented is a record of achievement and not a dissertation on 
untried theories. 

In the prehistoric ages in the science of spraying a quarter 
of a century ago many members of this Society still clung to the 
inherited tendencies of their ancestral progenitors and spent the 
spraying season clambering about through the tops of their trees. 
At that time, if one of the members had appeared on the annual 
program of the Society and suggested that we abandon the 
clambering method of spraying and substitute for it the use of a 
thousand dollar power plant, whose fuel was an extract from 
the bowels of the earth and utilizing volts and amperes from 
goodness knows where to give it kick, he surely would have been 
branded as impractical. Or had he asserted that two men might 
apply 5,000 gallons of liquid day after day he would have been 
termed a waster and dreamer. What would we have said if in 
the discussion that followed the reading of such a paper if friend 
Schmitkons had arisen in his characteristically modest way and 
stated that he planned to use a little different method the fol- 
lowing summer ; that he was thinking some of treating his or- 



*Read at meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, Columbus, 
iJan. 31, 1922. 

(329) 



330 

chard at night by blowing a new kind of dust on it ; that he 
would probably be able to do thirty acres or so in one evening, 
and that he would use powerful searchlights to show the way? 
I will answer my own question. We would have looked solemn, 
and tapped our foreheads and said : "Too bad, too bad, hej 
always seemed all right until today." 

The idea of spraying by airplane may seem just as far' 
fetched now as the $i,ooo power plant sprayer or the Schmit- 
kons blow-dust-searchlight-thirty-acre-by-night-business would] 
have seemed at that time. 




The hopper for carrying and distributing the powder. When the gate 
below was opened and the cranio above was turned the powder was re- 
leased as is grain from a grain drill. The violent air current of the 
propeller was sufficient to thoroughly disperse the dust. 

— Photo Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 

To Mr. C. R. Neillie of the Cleveland Park Department is 
due the credit for having first conceived the idea of using an 
airplane in insect control. Upon invitation by Mr. Neillie the 
writer assumed the responsibility of giving the theory a practical 
test. A cooperative project was arranged between the Ohio 
Agric.ultural Experiment Station and the Federal Aviation Ex- 
periment Station at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, and the field 
chosen for experiment was a six-acre grove of catalpas severely 
infested with the catalpa sphinx near Troy, Ohio. 



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332 

The catalpa sphinx in the larval stage is a caterpillar be- 
longing to the group of horn worms, of which the common 
tomato or tobacco horn worm is a familiar example. People 
acquainted with either of these insects will recall that they are 
voracious in their feeding habits, each caterpillar being capable 
of destroying a vast amount of foliage in a single day. The 
trees become infested by the gray mother moths flying to the 
tops and depositing their eggs in pearly white masses on the 
leaves, sometimes as many as 300 eggs being deposited by a 
single individual insect. Hundreds of thousands of the nearly 
full-grown larvae were present in the grove treated and at the 
time the work was done nearly 75% of the foliage had been 
destroyed. 

The trees, 4,815 in number, were from 25 to 30 feet tall and 
had been planted for growing posts and poles. 

The poison used was undiluted arsenate of lead dust. 

The plane was a Curtiss J-N-6 with a hopper, which had 
been made at McCook Field, attached to the side of the fuselage 
for carrying and distributing the powder. It was an irregularly 
shaped flat box with a carrying capacity of a little over 100 
pounds of arsenate of lead. A sliding gate was arranged at the 
bottom operated by a push and pull rod from the observer's seat 
in the plane. A revolving vane was installed in the bottom and 
was geared by means of sprockets and a chain to a crank above, 
also convenient to the observer in the plane. When the gate 
was opened and the vane revolved, the dust was fed out of the 
bottom of the hopper as grain is fed from a grain drill. Upon 
leaving the hopper the dust fell into the "slip stream," the violent 
air current set up by the propeller, and instead of dropping 
to the earth, was throv/n into violent agitation and floated out 
behind the moving plane in a dense white cloud. 

On the day of the trial, the plane flew to Troy and landed 
in a field of wheat stubble a little distance from the grove to be 
treated. Here the hopper was filled and the work of spraying 
began. 

The plane flew at an altitude of from 20 to 35 feet in a 
path parallel to the grove and 53 yards to the windward, liberat- 
ing the dust as it passed. In all, six passages were made past 
the grove and about 175 pounds of arsenate of lead liberated. 
At no time did the machine fly over the trees. As the dust was 



333 

liberated it was thrown out behind the machine in a dense 
whirhng mass for two or three seconds, then its course was 
changed graduahy by the wind and it was floated toward the 
grove. Upon reaching the edge of the grove the dust cloud 
continued its passage, floating through and above the ti;ees cover- 
ing every leaf as it made its leisurely progress. 

After the work of dusting was completed many trees were 
examined and not a leaf could be found which did not bear traces 
of the dust which it was possible to detect with the unaided eye. 

The morning following the application of the dust some 
dead caterpillars could be found but their wholesale destruction 
was not apparent until some 46 hours after the work of dust- 
ing was completed. By that time literally millions of the dead 
insects were to be seen in every conceivable position and place 
in the grove. Many were still hanging to the foliage, branches 
and trunks of the trees and the forest floor was so polluted with 
their dead bodies that not a step could be taken without crushing 
numbers of them. Still others of the caterpillars were to be seen 
writhing in their death agonies. 

The most careful observations possible were taken and to 
the best of our judgment at least 99% of the worms were killed 
by the treatment. 

The outstanding features of this pioneer test of the use 
of the airplane in dusting tall trees were : First, it was demon- 
strated that by properly utilizing wind currents the dust could 
be controlled with remarkable precision and thus deposited 
where desired; second, the great saving of time by the use of 
the process is an important item and, third, the effects on the 
caterpillars were most gratifying since they were fully as good 
as could have been expected from the use of liquid sprays. 



HORTICULTURAL MANUFACTURES* 
W. W. Chenoweth, 
Massachusetts Agricultural College 
The slogan of the manufacturing world for the past decade or 
more has been "Eliminate the waste." So thoroughly is this prac- 
ticed that today many large concerns find their chief profits in 
what was formerly waste material. Efficiency is the watchword 
* Read at meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, Columbus, 
Jan. 31, 1922. 



334 

today and large business concerns are bending every energy to 
raise their standards through the conservation of time, energy and 
materials. 

For ahnost a half century our experiment stations, our agri- 
cultural colleges, our boards of agriculture and many other organ- 
izations have been spending time, energy and money in a concerted 
effort to increase the production of fruits and vegetables. Larger 
acreage and heavier yields have been the goals toward which all 
these agencies have worked. And they have succeeded remarkably 
well. More fruit plantations have been planted during the last two 
decades than in any three or four preceding. Many hitherto 
worthless hillsides and rundown farms of the east have been con- 
verted into flourishing young orchards. Improvement in soil man- 
agement and the care given to growing plants have advanced also 
so that today we are producing fairly large crops of fruits and 
vegetables adapted to our soils and climate. Not only have we 
made these wonderful strides toward greater production but due 
to better methods of pruning, thinning and spraying the quality of 
our fruit is better than ever before. But with all this energy de- 
voted to the greater production there has been a lamentable lack 
of a corresponding advance in methods of marketing and con- 
servation, especially in the latter. 

The farmer and fruit grower have not modeled their business 
after that of the so-called big business. They have been striving 
through greater production and through better cultural methods 
to off-set their losses. This is particularly true of the fruit grower. 
No charge of wanton waste is to be made against the farmer and 
fruit grower although their methods have laid them open to such 
a charge They have not until recent years felt the great need of 
conservation. They have been content to market the best and to 
take their loss on the worst. But the increase of our non-produc- 
ing population with their insistent demands for food is to change 
all this. 

The growing and marketing of perishable foods is always 
attended with some loss. This must of necessity result under the 
common methods of growing and marketing crops of this nature. 
Fruits are highly perishable and must be used when ripe otherwise 
loss results. Because of the ravages of insect and disease pests 
and because of weather conditions and methods of handling, there 
is always a per cent, varying of course with seasons and growers, 



335 

which cannot because of its grade be marketed And this in most 
cases is a loss. In the case of apples and some other fruits there 
is another grade just above the culls which under many, perhaps 
most, conditions would better be left off the ultimate retail mar- 
ket; since any considerable quantity of poor fruit on the market 
seriously affects the selling price of the really good fruit. Also as 
a rule it is an imposition to ask the consumer to buy this grade for 
family use. 

It must not be forgotten that it costs the good orchardist as 
much to grow his culls and "B" grades as it does the "A" grade 
and fancy fruit; since in his case at least they all come from the 
same trees, have had the same care and they were just as expen- 
sive to harvest and handle as the fancy or "A" grade stock. 

While it is practically impossible to eliminate all the waste in 
the fruit growing industry much of it can and will be in years to 
come. And just as the manufacturer has learned to convert his 
piles of waste materials into profit making by-products, so too the 
progressive fruit grower of the future is going to set about con- 
verting his culls, poor grades and surplus fruits into by-products 
which will then represent profits instead of losses and which will 
eventually wipe out the mortgage on the farm or enable him to buy 
the long coveted adjoining farm. 

A few years ago all this was a dream, a beautiful theory 
which a few enthusiasts were urging upon the fruit growers and 
which they received with much doubt and skepticism. But today 
it is an established fact and fruit growers and others are seeking 
information along lines of conservation. 

The home or farm factory as an adjunct to fruit and veg- 
etable growing has been given sufficient trial to demonstrate very 
forcibly that in proper hands it is a good money maker at least 
under New England conditions. These factories as now operated 
are of two distinct types, that is they may function purely as 
a salvage proposition to utilize the producers low grades and ex- 
cess crops or they may be operated as a pure business venture by 
those who produce little or none of the raw materials required 
depending upon their neighbors or upon the open market for their 
supplies. 

The experiences of those who have engaged in this work 
show conclusively that the farm factory has some decided ad- 
vantages among which the following are outstanding: 



336 

1 . The best possible market for culls. 

2. A larger return for the low grades. 

3 . Prevents waste and consequent loss to the grower. 

4. That there is a substantial increase in the supply of good 
wholesome food. 

5 . The tendency is to increase consumption of fruit because 
of the increased supply of high grade products. 

6. That it offers a good business with unlimited possibili- 
ties for development. The initial investment is small, 
the turn over comes quickly and that the season of work 
is short running generally six to eight months. 

The development of farm factories in New England has 
practically all been made within the last half dozen years. And 
the greater number of factories in operation are less than five 
years old. During this brief period of development there has 
been established some twenty-five or thirty plants of various 
kinds and descriptions ranging from the housewife in her kitchen 
selling a few hundred dollars' worth of products each year to the 
real specialized factories having an investment in equipment 
alone of six to eight thousand dollars. All of these are going 
concerns and their business is growing. Even with an unusually 
short fruit crop the past season not one factory suspended opera- 
tion and a half dozen or more new ones were established. 

These factories represent two types viz. : general and special. 
In the general factories both fruits and vegetables are handled 
and a wide range of products is manufactured. These factories 
as a rule cater to the special market, many having the bulk of 
their orders in before the season opens. This is a good business, 
for once the reputation of the product is established each cus- 
tomer becomes a most excellent advertising medium and business 
develops rapidly because the demand always exceeds the supply 
of good "home-made" goods. A few of these factories sell through 
the local retail stores or through chain stores. The great bulk 
of products, however, manufactured in the general farm factory 
is sold direct to the consumer. Some have developed a special 
clientele who look to the factory to supply them with all the 
canned fruits and vegetables . and manufactured products which 
their respective families will consume during the year. A few 
which modern methods of travel have made so popular through- 



337 

of our factories are conducted in connection with tea houses 
out the east. The traveller is refreshed with the tea he drinks, 
and the delicious fruit or vegetable products served him, and he 
is served in a room that is tastefully decorated with such attrac- 
tive packages of canned foods and manufactured products that 
seldom does one escape without leaving an order or carrying a 
few packages away with him. 

Most of our general farm factories are located on well 
traveled highways. These find their market at their door. The 
motoring class are as a rule looking for good things to eat and 
there is nothing that makes a stronger appeal than "home-made" 
foods This is not a theory; it has worked out that way too. 
often. One of our fruit growers sold from his roadside stand 
more than $2,000 worth of home made* fruit products during 
his first year. Another man operating a tea house and factory 
at the roadside sold $7,000 worth of fruit and vegetable products 
during his third season. Others of these general home factories 
located in rather out of the way places have been able to build up 
a reputation for their products through the advertisement given 
by their first few customers so that today the consumers find 
their way to these factories and the business continues to grow. 

Factories of this general type perform a distinct function and 
there is room for them in all our closely settled sections. Where- 
ever there are people with a longing for home-made foods there 
is also a place for a small farm factory. These factories supply 
a large amount of high quality food to a class of trade that is 
willing to pay the price if the quality is right. They offer pleas- 
ant and profitable employment to those who are temperamentally 
adapted to this type of work. They tend to increase the price 
of perishable fruits and vegetables since less of these reach the 
local market. 

The initial investment is small and may be increased as the 
business grows. I know one man who sold twelve thousand 
dollars' worth of products last year and his equipment exclusive 
of the basement room in which he did his work was not worth 
one hundred dollars. I visited a factory this fall and the operator 
told me that the labor income from the business this season 
would be a little above two thousand dollars. Exclusive of the 
regular kitchen utensils the investment in equipment was less 



338 

than fifty dollars. The labor income for this factory was greater 
than for the average New England farm with a cash investment 
of twenty thousand dollars according to the United States Cen- 
sus reports for the labor income on farms of that investment 
was given as being about nineteen hundred dollars. 

I know of no business requiring so little capital nor such a 
small amount of training in which one may engage with greater 
certainty of success than in the business of converting fruits and 
vegetables into good palatable, wholesome foods. The great 
stress and strain comes during the first two years while the repu- 
tation is being established and during this time the operator of 
the factory must have an anchor to windward in order to pull 
through this trying time. The financial strain comes, not through 
purchase of equipment but in securing supplies and containers. 
However, the turn-over is rapid since under average conditions 
sales begin almost as soon as the manufacturing season opens 
and as most factories are operated the season is closed in late 
autumn or early winter, giving an operating season of approxi- 
mately six months. Most of our factories have cleaned out their 
stock before the holidays. This leaves a long period of inactivity 
which is bridged over in various ways by different operators. 

A new development has begun this past season which prom- 
ises great things in the future. In one county about twenty-five 
women formed a cooperative society through which they ex- 
pected to market products of home manufacture. Some made 
fancy articles but many devoted their time and energy to the 
manufacture of fruit and vegetable products. All products of- 
fered for sale must meet requirements set up by the standards' 
committee so that when goods went on sale there was a fairly 
uniform grade. These women had no precedent to guide them, 
they blazed a trail through unknown conditions and as a result 
they demonstrated that fundamentally the scheme was a good 
one. While these women sold only about twenty-five hundred 
dollars' worth of foods this year they have convinced themselves 
that cooperation in work of this kind has great possibilities. 
They have reorganized for next season's work basing their re- 
organization on the experiences of the past season. 

Already this idea of cooperation among farm women is 
spreading to other sections and plans are now underway to or- 
ganize three other groups in various parts of the state. 



339 

The results from this movement cannot be estimated in 
amount of food conserved, the amount of money earned nor in 
its socialogical value. With respect to future development one 
of two things seems inevitable ; either there will be a number of 
large cooperative organizations doing a relatively large business 
in food conservation or else if the spirit of cooperation fails 
these will be a large number of farm factories each doing a 
business sufficient to yield a good living for the entire family. 

The special type of by-products factory limits its activities 
to a special crop or to a few products from that crop. Those de- 
veloped so far are concerned with the apple crop. We hope, 
however, to see within a few years many of these factories as- 
sociated with our market gardening industry. The most im- 
portant products manufactured so far from the apple crop are 
vinegar, cider, cider jelly, apple butter, canned apples and apple 
jelly. 

More capital is required to equip a factory of this type than 
in general type since the manufacture of many of these products 
calls for special machinery. Also the products are as a rule pro- 
duced in such quantities that some system of indirect marketing 
must be used. 

New England has always had her customs' or neighborhood 
cider mill where everyone who could secure the fruit or anything 
closely approximating fruit could have it made into cider or ex- 
changed for cider in various stages of fermentation. The modern 
development of the apple by-products business coupled with the 
Volstead enactment are doing much to put such concerns out of 
business and there is slowly but surely being developed to re- 
place them farm factories that seek to place on the market good, 
clean, wholesome apple products. 

For example — 

A small plant in southern Vermont manufactured and sold 
at the factory more than ten tons of cider jelly last year. A 
cooperative association of apple growers has canned more than 
2,000 barrels of its poor grade fruit this season. Another co- 
operative association marketed its culls from last year's crops as 
bottled cider while another sold its cider to a vinegar plant. An- 
other very significant development is that of the apple butter in- 
dustry. For the first time perhaps in the history of New Eng- 



340 

land real honest to goodness apple butter is being- manufactured 
and sold in Massachusetts elsewhere than on the campus of the 
Agricultural College. Of course we have always had our cider 
apple sauce and shaker apple sauce but these are not apple butter. 

Two of our progressive fruit growers have installed small 
apple butter plants on their farms. These are going to be watched 
with much interest and their success will mark a long step in 
advance for the development of the farm factory in New Eng- 
land To my mind there comes no doubt of the success of this 
venture provided the operators keep their product up to a high 
standard. For although practically unknown through New Eng- 
land, apple butter is appreciated and liked wherever it has been 
introduced. 

It has required several years of patient, persistent argu- 
ments and demonstrations to convince our fruit growers that 
there are great possibilities in the farm factory. The Yankee 
farmer is proverbially conservative, but enthusiasm and argu- 
ments finally prevailed and the theory has become an established 
fact. 

It might not be out of place in a meeting such as this to 
call attention briefly to some of the fruits as materials for man- 
ufacturing purposes. 

All the small fruits offer great possibilities in the way of 
by-products. The experiences of our home manufacturers show 
that next after a few of the cheaper vegetables the small fruits 
yield largest profits. Jams, jellies, preserves, conserves and mar- 
malades are all standard and well-known products and when 
made in a home factory by one who knows and appreciates high 
quality in fruit products they have a market value considerably 
above the commercial factory products. Also most of the fruits 
when canned in glass jars sell readily on the special market and 
the profits are such as to offer satisfactory inducement for doing 
this work. 

Just about the time the small fruits are in the height of 
their season the progressive apple grower is thinning his apples. 
These thinnings are generally considered as so much waste. By 
a judicious use of this waste material the cost of many of the 
small fruits products may be reduced twenty-five per cent or 
more. This is of course an adulteration and must be so labeled 



341 

when offered for sale. But the consumer who once eats rasp- 
berry jam containing three parts raspberries and one part apple 
thinnings is not going to worry any about adulterants. I have 
yet to find any one who having eaten pure raspberry jelly and 
jelly made by using as much juice from apple thinning as from 
raspberrries who did not prefer the compound to the pure rasp- 
berry. The texture, taste and quality are all improved while the 
food value remains practically unchanged. Apple thinnings may 
be used profitably as a base for all small fruit jellies, improving 
their quality and very materially reducing their cost. 

Peaches, plums, pears and grapes offer abundant oppor- 
tunities for the manufacture of by-products. Butter, jams, 
jellies, preserves, pickles and juices will care for tons of these 
fruits at prices which investigation will insure a greater return 
than is generally had from these fruits as fresh stocks. 

No fruit crop entails such heavy annual loss as the apple 
crop. Reports from the Bureau of Markets show that in many 
seasons approximately 25% of the crop makes no impression on 
the market because it is not offered for sale. Ten per cent of 
this amount is either a total loss or fed to stock while the other 
15% is made into cider and vinegar. Our experts have shown 
that apples are worth around 15-20C per bushel for stock feed 
with grain and hay at present prices. Not a very profitable way 
of disposing of the apple crop since Doctor Lindsey has shown 
that the pomace alone represents a little less than half the feed- 
ing value of the whole apple. Judging from this the stock feed- 
ing value of a gallon of cider is less than five cents. It is worth 
far more than this for human food either as a soft drink or in 
some one of its manufactured products. There are few if any 
of the soft drinks that compare favorably with good clean sweet 
cider either fresh or bottled. It is not only refreshing and 
nourishing but also (according to popular belief and not dis- 
credited by the medical fraternity) healthful. Sweet cider has 
many things to recommend it over the artificially colored, 
flavored and sweetened drinks sold today in such enormous 
quantities. 

Sweet cider may be profitably converted into jelly. There 
are thousands of people who have never tasted this delicious 
relish. It is not manufactured in any great quantities because 



34^ 

people say there is no great demand for it. Wherever known it 
is appreciated and is used in considerable cjuantities. I have al- 
ready mentioned the A'ermont man who manufactured ten tons 
of this jelly last year. This output represented approximately 
three thousand bushels of culls. There are scores of communi- 
ties where this business might be duplicated if only some one in 
the community had the vision and the energy necessary to put 
that vision into execution. 

I must not encroach upon your time to enter into any lengthy 
discussion upon the relative values of the long list of apple 
products which might be profitably manufactured in the farm or 
cooperative factory from the surplus and cull apples. Suffice it 
to say that cider vinegar, boiled cider, apple butter, dried apples, 
canned apples and apple jelly are all standard products and ex- 
cepting vinegar and boiled cider are valuable foods. All of these 
are easily and cheaply manufactured and the market possibili- 
ties have scarcely been touched. 

We are going to develop methods of manufacturing and 
marketing within the next decade or two that will go far toward 
eliminating this waste of thousands of barrels of apples that 
occur every year. Economic conditions are going to demand of 
the fruit grower that he market his entire crop at a profit over 
and above the legitimate cost of production and marketing. He 
is no longer going to be satisfied to sell a part of the crop at a 
profit and the balance at a loss. He is going to model his busi- 
ness along lines of the industrial world and like them he is go- 
ing to convert his waste materials into profit returning by- 
products. 

If the far west can ship its train loads of fruit by-products 
into the east and middle west and continue in business year after 
year then the eastern fruit grower and the middle west fruit 
grower can so organize his business that the bulk of fruit 
products can be and will be manufactured at home. It is 
economically wrong for us to allow our own raw materials to 
waste and to ship their manufactured products across the conti- 
nent. I have no complaint nor criticism to lodge against our 
far western fruit growers. I admire their skill and ability to 
accept conditions as they find them and because of those condi- 
tions devise ways and means to market the crops they grow. 



343 

It was the western boxed apple that made a by word of the 
New Eng-land deaconed apple barrel and it was this western 
boxed apple that virtually took the New England fruit growers' 
market away from him and later caused our legislatures to enact 
such stringent packing laws that for the past few years we have 
been able to compete successfully with this energetic fellow in 
the west. And when our large plantations of young trees grown 
by progressive fruit growers come into bearing we are going to 
make him look elsewhere for a large part of the market he has 
enjoyed in our section during the past ten years. 

Also as the farm factory becomes better known and as its 
possibilities are more fully realized by our fruit growers we are 
going to supply our own markets with tons and tons of fruit 
products and our enterprising by-products manufacturers of the 
far west are going to find competition so keen that they will be 
constrained to divert much of their output to Ohio and other 
middle western states. 

\\'e are not going to be satisfied to manufacture our culls 
and occasional surplus we are going to develop plantations of the 
fruits which w^e can most economically grow for the sole pur- 
pose of manufacturing the bulk of it into food to supply the 
cities' teeming millions with good wholesome foods. You call 
this visionary? So did the Massachusetts fruit growers eight 
years ago. But today they are standing solidly back of a ten- 
year program that plans to develop the l^y-products industry as a 
legitimate and essential part of economic fruit growing. 

I do not know to just what extent the farm factory idea 
will apply to the Ohio fruit grower because I do not know your 
conditions well enough ; but I feel sure that there are places for 
scores of small factories within the reach of your larger cities 
where there are hundreds of families that would be glad to buy 
their year's supply of canned fruits and vegetables and fruit and 
vegetable products from a home factory if the price and quality 
were right and being a native born Missourian I have yet to be 
shown that practically every fruit producing section is not a 
suitable location for the establishment of a by-products industry 
of some sort. farm, cooperative or commercial, which will take 
care of the culls, the low grades and the excess crops. 



344 



PROGRESS IN CONTROL OF RASPBERRY DISEASES * 

R. B. Wilcox, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Raspberries are grown for home use over the entire State of 
Ohio, so are of some interest to nearly everyone, but they are 
produced on a large scale in only a few localities. Near the cities 
many acres are grown to supply local markets ; in Cleveland this 
fresh-fruit market is supplemented by commercial use of the fruit 
for jams and preserves; and in a few districts raspberries are 
grown largely for the production of nursery stock. The total 
acreage of this fruit has been gradually reduced during recent 
years, not because of the failure of markets — the demand for 
raspberries is strong and the price has been high — but because 
yields have diminished, crop prospects have become uncertain, 
and the average costs of production have risen until, in many 
places, black raspberries cannot be grown and sold profitably at 
even the high prices prevailing. 

Especially in those sections of the State where the industry 
is- still extensive, diseases have made inroads on production and 
profits, reducing the crops, weakening or killing plants, and short- 
ening the life of plantations, making it necessary to renew the 
fields after a very few years. The more common and serious 
fungus and bacterial diseases are probably familiar to you. 

Anthracnose, which causes small spots on the shoots and 
branches, weakening the canes or tips and reducing the crop, is 
much more serious in some parts of Ohio than in others, and also 
does more damage in certain seasons. In many places it is prob- 
ably not of sufficient importance to make control-spraying profit- 
able. Experiments carried on in Michigan and Wisconsin indi- 
cate that where this disease is severe it can be controlled by spray- 
ing. Late reports from Wisconsin show good results from two 
applications, the first when two or three leaves have unfolded in 
the spring, using lime-sulphur, i :io, or Bordeaux mixture, 6 :6 150, 
to which has been added glue or gelatin as a sticker; the second 
application about a week before the first blossoms open, using 
lime-sulphur, 1 140, or 3 13 150 Bordeaux, with a sticker. 

* Published by permission of the Secretaray of Agriculture. Read at 
meeting of the Ohio State Horticultural Society, Feb. 1, 1922. 



345 

Raspberry cane-blight occurs to some extent in most fields 
but this disease, too, is erratic in its occurrence from season to 
season and is much more serious in some parts of the State than 
in others. Along Lake Erie during the last three seasons the 
cane-blight has not been abundant, but is reported to have caused 
large losses in the southern part of the State. No satisfactory 
means of control for this disease has yet been worked out, but it 
is strongly recommended that plants be secured from sources as 
free as possible from the trouble, and thorough sanitary measures, 
which will be spoken of later, are very helpful in holding it in 
check. 

Crown-gall, a bacterial disease which causes galls or swellings 
on roots, crown and sometimes on the canes, is widely prevalent, 
especially on red raspberries. It gradually multiplies and spreads 
in a plantation but it has seldom been observed to be a limiting 
factor on black raspberries in any part of the State. Here, again, 
no remedy or satisfactory control measure is known once the 
disease has made a start, but it is very important to obtam un- 
infected stock for planting and to set this stock on land which has 
not grown raspberries for a few years. The grains and grasses 
are, in general, less susceptible to crown-gall infection than many 
other crops, and should be included as largely as possible in the 
rotation practiced between crops of raspberries. 

There are other fungus diseases which occur widely and 
which may, under certain conditions, cause considerable damage. 
With most of the troubles mentioned, it is much cheaper to keep 
them out of a young plantation than it is to eradicate them after 
they have once become established. The whole problem may be 
stated in a word : Get good, clean plants to start with, and then 
give those plants a chance. 

It is extremely important that young plants be secured which 
are as free as possible from the diseases which can be carried in 
this way. This applies to the home garden as well as to the ten- 
acre field, for in the small patch the plants will ordinarily receive 
more attention and intensive care, will have a better chance for 
growth and high yield than in the larger field, but if they start 
under the handicap of serious disease they may never be produc- 
tive. It is easier to recommend that clean plants be secured, how- 



346 

ever, than to actually get them. In some sections of the country 
these diseases are less abundant than in others. In certain 
nurseries more care is paid to cleanliness and control than in 
others. From the standpoint of sanitation and disease control 
there seem to be distinct advantages in the method practiced in 
some nurseries of cutting off all canes at the ground each winter, 
sacrificing the fruit crop in favor of plant production, as com- 
pared with the practice of contracting with growers who are 
primarily interested in fruit production. Your county agents, 
your experiment station, and your college of agriculture can un- 
doubtedly give you information on these points. In the larger 
raspberry-growing centers the search for clean plants can be 
carried further by cooperation than is practicable by individual 
growers. It is quite possible that in some cases associations of 
growers may find it to their advantage to develop their own source 
of plants, as vegetable growers in some instances already control 
the production of seeds for their own use. 

After plants have been secured it is equally important that they 
be given a chance to develop nonnally, to make vigorous growth 
in preparation for fruiting, without interference through starva- 
tion, improper moisture relations, or serious disease. They should 
be set in soil of suitable kind and fertility; well drained, since 
raspberries are intolerant of excess moisture; and which has not 
been planted to raspberries for at least three or four years past. 
They should not be set close to old, badly diseased fields, or it will 
be very difficult to keep them healthy. They should be cultivated 
and fertilized as necessary to keep them growing vigorously ; it is 
unfortunate that we have so little accurate information on the 
food requirements of raspberries, but a number of fertilizing 
system are in use which seem to be giving satisfactory results 
under their particular conditions. Finally, dead or badly diseased 
bushes, which might serve as centers for infection of surrounding 
plants, should be removed. Mature canes should be cut out as 
soon as they have borne their crop of fruit, and removed and de- 
stroyed. There is nothing new about these recommendations for 
sanitation, or cleaning up, but it is felt that they cannot be re- 
peated too often or their importance over-emphasized. They are 
necessary particularly in districts where raspberry growing as- 
sumes large proportions. 



347 

It was mentioned before that one handicap under which black 
raspberry growers, especially the larger producers, work is the 
short life of their bushes and plantations. In many cases fields 
are cultivated for four seasons : the second summer they produce 
a few berries of good quality; the third season a large crop is 
picked ; the fourth summer, diseases have made such inroads that 
the crop is cut, perhaps one-half, and after this harvest the bushes 
are destroyed. Obviously, such a program makes necessary a very 
high price for the few bushels which are picked from the field, 
and makes future prospects uncertain. Associated closely with 
this short productive life of the fields is a disease of quite another 
type from those described, one for which no fungus or bacterial 
cause has been found, one which is often not recognized as a 
disease because its symptoms are different from those previ- 
ously looked for. It belongs to the group spoken of as "mosaic" 

You are familiar with the "yellows" or "leaf-curl" of red 
raspberries, in which the bushes are stunted, fruit small and dry, 
and leaves curled, margins turned downward and veins of the 
leaves sunken. This trouble also occurs on purple-canes and on 
at least two varieties of blackcaps, where it is occasionally very 
destructive, but it is primarily a disease of the reds. However, 
the blackcaps have a disease of the same general type, yet dis- 
tinguished without difficulty, which is widespread and causes 
large losses in many sections. It has sometimes beeen called by 
the growers "leaf-curl", but this name is more commonly applied 
to the "yellows", which also occurs at times on blackcaps, so it is 
not suitable. In northern Ohio the term "bluestem" has been ap- 
plied most often to this trouble; but this name is not descriptive 
of the disease as it occurs in all places; and, furthermore, it has 
already been applied to another, different disease of the black 
raspberry which occurs in the State of Washington. Since the 
disease which we are discussing afifects mainly black raspberries 
it may well be called simply "black raspberry mosaic", or if de- 
sired, for greater clearness, "bluestem mosaic". 

On entering in midsummer a field where this mosaic is 
abundant the first observation will be that some plants or groups 
of plants are shorter than the others in the field. One of the ef- 
fects of the mosaic is to stunt the bushes, to check their growth. 
Closer examination of the diseased plants will show that their 



348 

leaves are curled, not by a rolling down of the margins and de- 
pression of the veins, but by a hooking or curling downward of 
the midribs. This character, noticed particularly on the younger 
leaves, is the most common and often the earliest symptom of the 
disease, and when once learned can be distinguished readily from 
the shape of healthy leaves, or from the curling characteristic of 
other diseases. At a later stage, or later in the season, the leaves 
are often mottled with patches of lighter green, from which we 
get the name of mosaic. This mottling is not always pronounced. 
There is another symptom which occurs very constantly in cer- 
tain sections ; in the district just west of Cleveland it can be used 
as a means of identifying the trouble; it is a discoloration of the 
stems of shoots which has given rise to the name of bluestem. 
The color, a very dark shade of blue, appears in the form of dots, 
or short streaks like broad pencil marks, running lengthwise on 
the shoots, near the ground or upward to the bases of the lateral 
branches; these spots may be very few and scattered, or in later 
stages they may be numerous and crowded, occasionally giving 
the entire stem a dark blue color. This color will be found to be 
only skin-deep, the wood underneath seeming not to be injured. 
Unfortunately, this discoloration of the stems does not always ac- 
company other symptoms of the disease in all sections of the 
country, or even in all parts of Ohio, so in some places it is with- 
out value in detecting the malady. On laterals of the fruiting 
canes very narrow, purplish-brown streaks can often be found. 
Investigation has shown that the mosaic is a systemic dis- 
ease ; that is, is not confined to the curled leaves, or to the spots 
in the stems, but is spread generally throughout the plant as soon 
as these symptoms can be seen. In some cases where slightly 
curled leaves could be found on the tip of only one shoot, this 
shoot has been removed at once; nevertheless, during the next 
season the whole plant has developed symptoms of the disease. It 
has been the practice among certain growers to cut off at the 
ground all diseased plants when pruning the bushes just after 
harvest ; but before winter these crowns would throw up a num- 
ber of shoots with curly, mottled leaves. And, as would be ex- 
pected, the rooted tips of plants affected with mosaic always 
produce similarly diseased bushes, so that the trouble can be 
carried in nursery stock. When a tip affected with mosaic is 



349 

planted it makes little growth and by August or September can 
nearly always be detected as "sickly", and the characteristic 
symptoms can be found. 

An affected raspberry bush does not recover. The disease 
develops slowly, requiring from two to three years to kill a plant 
which has become infected in the field. It weakens the entire 
bush and consequently reduces the quality and quantity of the 
fruit. A plant in the early stages of mosaic will often ripen 
practically a full crop, but the berries will usually be slightly 
smaller and more inclined to crumble. The shoots may be normal 
in number but will be shorter, lacking in strength, and less food 
will be stored for the next spring's growth, so that the second 
season the plant will be smaller, the crop much reduced both in 
quantity and quality, and the shoots produced will be few and 
weak. These shoots may die during the following winter, having 
been apparently winter-killed, or they may put out leaves in the 
spring and make a feeble growth, but the end will soon come. 
Meanwhile, the disease will have been carried to healthy plants 
in this or nearby fields ; insects are strongly suspected of being 
the carriers, but their guilt has not been proved. 

Several consecutive plants in a row are often found showing 
mosaic symptoms. This seems to be due not so much to the 
disease having been carried from one plant to the next in the 
field as to the manner of planting: the man who set or dropped 
the plants picked up a handful of tips, several of which came 
from one diseased mother-plant, and he dropped or planted these 
one after the other in the row. 

The blackraspberry mosaic is not confined to any one local- 
ity, but covers a wide territory. We know that it is very general 
throughout three counties in the State, and it has been reported 
this year from three other counties. Since much infected nursery 
stock has been distributed it is probably scattered generally 
throughout the State. It is very desirable to get more complete 
information as to its occurrence. Frequently a statement some- 
thing like this is heard: 'T can't grow black raspberries any 
more. I have planted them several times but they will not live 
more than two or three years. Of course, I only set a few 
bushes, but I took good care of them. We always used to grow 



350 

them without any trouble. I bought plants from the 

nursery; do you think anything could have been wrong with 
them?" And, of course, no one knows what the trouble was in 
any particular ease ; it may have been one of a dozen things ; but 
the plaint is becoming so frequent that it is significant. 

As to the damage caused by the disease, it may be said that 
in one district, comprising about four townships, west of Cleve- 
land, the annual loss through reduction of crop alone is probably 
$15,000 or $20,000. The loss through shortening of the life of 
plantations, necessitating frequent replanting, is evidently much 
greater than this. The failure of new plantations because of the 
distribution and planting of diseased stock is another source of 
loss. Large fields have been seen in which three-fourths of the 
plants showed signs of mosaic. The total damage throughout 
the State cannot be estimated, but it must be very large. Some 
districts have quite abandoned the commercial culture of black- 
caps. 

The question is frequently asked as to whether we cannot 
grow varieties of berries which are resistant or immune to the 
mosaic. There are not many varieties of black raspberries in 
commercial use. Not all of these have been seen. But no variety 
has yet been found which shows any great degree of resistance 
to mosaic. Of those tested, the Hoosier, of rather recent origin, 
appears to be the most susceptible, and Kansas, a standard in some 
sections for many years, to show the greatest resistance, although 
exceptional field of Kansas have been found in which the infec- 
tion was as hio-li as twenty v^r cent. Cumberland, Gregg, 
Munger, Ohio and Plum Farmer are all subject to the disease; 
until extensive tests have been made it cannot be said that any 
other variety is highly resistant. There are practical objections to 
a general change of varieties, or to growing only one or two sorts, 
because no one variety is adapted to all conditions of soil, mois- 
ture and market. Often two sorts, an early and a late fruiting, 
are grown on the same farm in order to extend the harvest season 
and to use labor to greater advantage. A fresh-fruit market is 
more exacting in its demands for quality of fruit than a canning 
or preserving factory. It is well to have a number of varieties 
from which to select. It would be a very great advantage if one 
could obtain resistant strains of these diflferent varieties. A small 



351 

number of selections have already been made with this end in 
view. The results of some of these selections at present are en- 
couraging, but they have not gone far enough to be definite. This 
work is important but it necessarily requires a long time, and 
whatever its future results may be it cannot give immediate re- 
lief in districts where the mosaic has already become established. 

If we cannot buy plants resistant to the disease, is it possible 
to get stock not infected — that comes from districts, or at least 
from fields, where mosaic does not occur? Here, again, as with 
the other diseases, the need for clean plants is emphasized. And 
here, again, it has been very difficult to find a satisfactory source. 
It was finally decided to develop our own stock if possible. Fairly 
clean fields were selected; the tips produced in these fields and 
set out in the spring were watched, and any specimens of mosaic 
were removed. It was found possible to keep the disease out of 
new fields which were distant from old, diseased patches, but when 
the latter were very close the mosaic would appear repeatedly in 
the young fields, and could not be kept out. This brought up the 
necessity, for the production of clean plants, of eradicating the 
disease over a considerable area, enlisting the cooperation of a 
number of farmers. During the summer of 192 1 a territory, ap- 
proximately square and containing about four square miles, was 
selected in the village of Avon Lake, Lorain County. A survey 
showed nearly 150 acres of black raspberries in this territory, 
with a relatively low percentage of mosaic infection. All fields 
were examined carefully just after the pruning which followed 
harvest, and all cases of mosaic and yellows (curly-leaf) found 
were marked. In most instances these affected plants were dug 
out immediately. In a few isolated fields, which were to be de- 
stroyed after the next crop, the diseased plants were left stand- 
ing. In a few other fields, unfortunately, the affected plants were 
not removed until some weeks after the inspection. In some, 
though not all of the fields, second inspections and roguings were 
made. Other diseases were not controlled, although their severity 
or prevalence was noted ; and it may be said that most fields in 
the territory showed only slight infections of cane-blight, an- 
thracnose or crown gall in 1921. 

The results of the experiment at present are that on more 
than 130 acres of blackcaps the mosaic is, for all practical pur- 



352 

poses of fruit production, under control ; and that, if all past ob- 
servations and experiments are an indication, a large proportion 
of the fields will produce plants this coming spring which will be 
free from the disease. This has not been in the past an intensive 
plant-producing district, and only a small proportion of the pos- 
sible crop of plants was provided for. Several hundred thousand 
tips are in the ground, however, many of which will be reset in 
the same area or in adjoining townships. The varieties included 
are the Cumberland, Hoosier, Kansas and particularly the Plum 
Farmer. This experiment is neither complete nor perfect; but 
it is felt that, everything considered, the inspected territory offers 
a source of plants with greater probability of freedom from 
mosaic than had been available, or at least than any that had been 
located, during the two preceding years Active cooperation of 
the growers has now been secured, and it is hoped that the work 
will be carried on more thoroughly and completely during the 
coming year. 

Experiments have indicated, as mentioned before, that if 
mosaic-free tips are set in a field which is not near any infected 
patch they will remain clean ; also that if infected tips are planted 
under similar conditions the disease can be detected by the fol- 
lowing fall, by one familiar with it, and by two or three careful 
roguings it can be eliminated. Where old, infected fields are 
close the problem is more difficult. Apparently, under these cir- 
cumstances, careful and repeated inspection and roguingof the old 
fields will keep the disease under such close control there that the 
young fields can still be kept clean. With proper care, therefore, 
new fields can be developed in which the mosaic will be under 
control, or will be eliminated altogether. 

Where the percentage of infection of old fields i's very low, 
little difficulty has been experienced in getting rid of it entirely by 
roguing. But, though all indications thus far are encouraging, 
the method has not yet been tested out under conditions of such 
severe and general infection as to establish whether or not 
mature, very badly diseased fields can be attacked and, by thor- 
ough inspection and roguing, be rid of the mosaic. The town- 
ships near Avon Lake ofifer the possibility of such a test under 
severe conditions, for the fields are not widely separated, prac- 
tically all fields in one particular district contain more or less 



353 

mosaic, while in some patches more than two-thirds of the plants 
are diseased. The growers of this district wish to attempt during 
1922 to control the mosaic disease by inspection and roguing, but 
because of the size of the undertaking and the expense involved, 
no decision has yet been made. The success of the work would 
require the cooperation of all growers; the prompt removal of all 
diseased plants as soon as found ! and would depend upon the 
ability to recognize the disease at a very early stage. Two or 
more inspections during the summer would be necessary. The 
method also needs thorough trial in a section where discoloration 
of the stems does not occur, and where early detection of the 
disease must be based upon curling of the leaves. 

It is important to know the time of year at which roguing 
can best be done. Present experience indicates that "creepers", 
or plants in their first year of growth, can be rogued most ef- 
fectively during August and September, following this with an 
inspection early in the following year — probably about June. 
During this second year of growth the work can best be done be- 
fore harvest time because later in the season the plants make 
such rank growth that inspection is very difficult. In fields of 
mature plants the inspection is much easier and more rapid (at 
least in districts where the stems are discolored) just after the 
old wood has been removed after picking, for the symptoms of 
mosaic appear most prominently on the young shoots. A roguing 
soon after picking, followed by another a month or so later, is 
desirable. In all cases, of course, the work should be followed up 
later as necessary. After a grower learns to recognize the disease 
he can detect and remove affected plants with little loss of time 
whenever he is working in the field. 

Experiments thus far have not shown any bad effects from 
setting a healthy tip in the place from which a plant affected with 
mosaic has been removed, and at present this practice is being 
followed by many growers, bringing back the capacity of their 
fields toward normal. Nothing has indicated that anything lives 
over in the soil that can cause the disease in a healthy raspberry. 

Since the mosaic disease can be distributed by means of 
nursery stock it is particularly important that the nurseries rid 
themselves of all infection. The State Department of Agricul- 

23 



354 

ture, through its force of nursery inspectors, is undertaking this 
work. The task, however, is very difficult, particularly in the 
many cases where nurseries do not grow their own plants, but 
buy them from numerous scattered growers who are equally in- 
terested in the production of fruit. Under these conditions, al- 
though those men growing plants for the nursery may clean up 
their fields, their neighbors may not be so careful, and sources 
of infection are left in the neighborhood. As has been said be- 
fore, this is a problem requiring united community action. 

The study of the bluestem-mosaic disease and of measures 
for its control is still very incomplete. This paper is merely 
a report of progress. And this disease is only one of the factors 
which have united to make raspberry growing so often unprofit- 
able. Other troubles, including anthracnose, cane-blight, crown- 
gall and yellows (leaf-curl), as well as methods of culture, are 
receiving attention at various experiment stations. It is to be 
hoped that the final result will be to take away from the rasp- 
berry industry some of its present dangers and uncertainties and 
to place it on a more secure and profitable basis. 

A Member : What strength of lime sulphur would you use 
for dormant spray for anthracnose? 

R. B. Wilcox : One to ten, adding one pound of glue. 

A Member: What is the insect that makes the stems break 
off? 

R. B. Wilcox : That is the tree cricket. It does a certain 
amount of damage, but in most cases they do nothing for them. 
I believe you should cut ofif these branches showing the rows of 
holes in the latter part of May. 



355 




Monument to Johnny Appleseed at Ashland, Ohio 



PRODUCTION OF APPLES AND PEACHES IN THE 
UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES 

The Bureau of the Census of the Department of Commerce 
announces, subject to correction, the following preliminary- 
figures from the 1920 census of agriculture for the United States, 
with comparative figures for 1910: 

APPLES AND PEACHES PRODUCTION AND NUMBER OF TREES IN 

THE UNITED STATES: I919 AND I909 

Apples : 

Production (bushels) — 

1919 136,746,154 

1909 145,412,318 

Decrease (bushels) 8,666,164 

Per cent of decrease 6.0 

Trees of bearing age — 

1920 115,265,029 

1910 151,822,840 

Decrease 36,057,811 

Per cent of decrease 23.8 

Trees not of bearing age — 

195fO 36,171,604 

1910 65,791,848 

Decrease 29,620,244 

Per cent of decrease 45.0 

Peaches : 
Production (bushels) — 

1919 ^ 51,551,251 

1909 35,470,276 

Increase (bushels) 16,080,975 

Per cent of increase 45-3 

Trees of bearing age — 

1920 65,654,921 

1910 94,506,657 

Decrease 28,851,736 

Per cent of decrease 30.5 

Trees not of bearing age — 

1920 21,623,657 

1910 42,266,243 

Decrease 20,642,586 

Per cent of decrease 4^-8 

(356) 



2S7 



APPLES — PRODUCTION 



The production of apples in the United States in 1919, ac- 
cording to the Fourteenth Census, was 136,746,154 bushels, as 
compared with 145,412,318 bushels in 1909, representing a de- 
crease of 8,666,164 bushels, or 6 per cent. The average produc- 
tion per tree was 1.2 bushels in 1919, as compared with i bushel 
in 1909. The states reporting the largest production of apples 
in 1919 were Washington, with 21,568,691 bushels; New York, 
with 14.350,317 bushels; Virginia, with 8,942,520 bushels; Cali- 
fornia, with 7,842,017 bushels; Arkansas, with 7,163,619 bushels; 
and Oregon, with 6,921,284 bushels. 

APPLE TREES 

The number of trees which have reached bearing age indi- 
cates the present status of any orchard fruit. The number of 
such apple trees in 1920 (including all trees which were old 
enough to bear fruit at the time of the enumeration, even though 
they may not have borne any fruit in 1919) was 115,265,029, as 
compared with 151,322,840 in 1910, representing a decrease of 
36,057,811 trees, or 23.8 per cent. 

One of the most significant indications of the progress or 
tendency in the growing of any orchard crop is the number of 
young trees in the orchards which have not yet reached bearing 
age. The number of apple trees not of bearing age (excluding 
nursery stock, not yet set out in orchard locations) reported for 
1920 was 36,171,604, as compared with 65,791,848 in 1910. These 
figures indicate a decrease of 29,620,244 trees, or 45 per cent. 
This decrease in the number of young trees results partly from 
the fact that the years just preceding 19 10 were years of especial 
activity in the planting of orchards in several states. Thus in 
most of the states of the Mountain Division the number of apple 
trees of bearing age has increased substantially, while the number 
of young trees shows an enormous decrease. 

PEACHES PRODUCTION, 

The production of peaches in 1919 was 51,551,251 bushels, 
as against 35,470,276 bushels in 1909. The increase in produc- 
tion between 1909 and 1919 amounted to 16,080,975 bushels, or 
45.3 per cent. The average production per tree in 1919 was 



358 

0.8 bushel, as compared with 0.4 bushel in 1909, The states re- 
porting the largest production of peaches in 1919 were Cali- 
fornia, with 15, 969,073 bushels; Texas, with 4,842,129 bushels; 
Georgia, with 4,788,718 bushels; Arkansas, with 3,340,823 
bushels; and Oklahoma, with 2,947,973 bushels. 

PEACH TREES 

The number of peach trees of bearing age in 1920 was 65,- 
654,921, as compared with 94,506,657 in 19 10, representing a de- 
crease of 28,851,736 trees, or 30.5 per cent. 

The number of peach trees not of bearing age in 1920 was 
21,623,657, as compared with 42,266,243 in 1910, a decrease of 20, 
642,586 trees, or 48.8 per cent. 



36o 



PRODUCTION OF APPLES AND PEACHES IN THE UNITED 

STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY GEOGRAPHIC 

DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1919 AND 1909 



Division or State 



Apples 



Production (bushels) 



1919 



1909 



Trees of bearing age 



1920 



1910 



UNITED STATES 

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 

NEW ENGLAND: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont , 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania , 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan , 

Wisconsin 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

SOUTH ATLANTIC: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas ^ , 



136,746,154 



145,412,318 



115,265,029 



151,322,840 



12,070,259 
21,572,855 
15,829,484 
10,821,075 
17,829,422 
3,334,668 
9,317,180 
9,639,219 
36,331,992 



10,508,457 
37,864,532 
25,080,615 
21,923,470 
18,375,485 
13,163,180 
3,240,108 
5,718,372 
9,638,099 



6,351,577 
17,767,602 
22,416,278 
12,502,542 
20,777,405 
8,238,854 
6,008,390 
6,794,675 
14,407,646 



4,829,346 
1,364,001 

960,252 
3,187,211 

334,308 
1,395,141 

14,350,317 
1,666,400 
5,556,138 

2,976,436 
925,624 
4,787,373 
5,834,067 
1,305,984 

1,028,478 

1,810,443 

5,132,109 

14,358 

169,170 

917,224 

1,749,293 

606,286 

1,518,884 

1,832 

8,942,520 

4,189,162 

1,938,038 

215,659 

416,902 

139 

1,280,549 

1,258,878 

577,356 

217,885 

7,163,619 

43,910 

1,616,933 

492,718 



3,636,181 
1,108,424 
1,459,689 
2,550,259 
212,908 
1,540,996 

25,409,324 
1,406,778 
11,048,430 

4,663,752 
2,759,134 
3,093,321 
12,332,296 
2,232,112 

1,044,156 
6,746,668 
9,258,977 
4,374 
191,784 
3,321,073 
1,356,438 

183,094 

1,822,824 

2,952 

6,103,941 

4,225,163 

4,775,693 

362,800 

895,613 

3,405 

7,368,499 

4,640,444 

888,396 

265,^1 

2,296,043 

33,875 

742,182 

168,008 



2,833,304 
721,130 
712,594 

1,218,870 
173,110 
692,569 

9,636,698 
1,149,776 
6,981,128 

5,970,410 
3, '427, 816 
5,112,866 
5,583,326 
2,321,860 

1,596,2M 

2,996,469 

5,162,859 

26,157 

255,638 

957,113 

1,508,042 

816,109 

1,651,936 

1,036 

7,385,277 

5,554,731 

3,474,821 

377,557 

1,515,505 

493 

3,742,936 

3,181,659 

1,044,397 

269,862 

4,074,870 

47,037 

1,417.741 

468,742 



8,219,152 
20,302,285 
31,134,909 
31,744,757 
20,673,712 
12,273,277 
11,838,069 
4,614,667 
7,522,012 



3,476,616 
1,240,885 
1,183,529 
1,367,379 
152,009 
798,734 

11,248,203 
1,053,626 
8,000,456 

8,504,886 
5,764,821 
9,900,627 
7,534,343 
2,430,232 

1,380,396 

5,847,034 
14,359,673 
15,941 
274,862 
2,937,178 
6,929,673 

429,753 

1,288,482 

1,654 

7,004,548 

4,570,948 

4,910,171 

681,767 

1,878,209 

8,180 

5,538,267 

4,838,922 

1,468,436 

427,652 

7,650,103 

93,304 

2,955,810 

1,138,852 



36 1 



PRODUCTION OF APPLES AND PEACHES IN THE UNITED 

STATE, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY GEOGRAPHIC 

DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1919 AND 1909 



Apples 


Peaches 


Trees not o 
age 


f bearing 


Production (bushels) 


Trees of bearing age 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


1920 


1910 


1919 


1909 


1920 


1910 


1920 


1910 


36,171,6(M 


65,791,848 


51,551,251 


35,470,276 


65,654,921 


94,506,657 


21,623,657 


42,266,243 


2,123,730 


2,094,512 


479,000 


406,903 


993,003 723,810 


324,117 


572,237 


6,347,053 


5,819,449 


4,165,302 


3,201,493 


8,531,072 


6,056,690 


2,774,568 


5,759,925 


7,679,120 


10,610,319 


2,068,604 


5,120,841 


6,822,476 


11,035,119 


3,152,383 


6,972,375 


4,166,067 


9,724,993 


1,490,078 


1,643,257 


3,430,106 


13,265,526 


1,097,175 


2,582,028 


8,051,972 


10.06-4,819 


7,985,330 


5,571,028 


16,800,861 


20,583,445 


6,752,891 


6,137,901 


3,093,230 


5,386,555 


3,604,149 


5,775,799 


6,420,558 


10,312,768 


2,420,517 


3,865,232 


1,586,694 


7,224,590 


11,512,788 


3,279,545 


11,092,849 


22,284,966 


3,499,730 


8,734,552 


723,571 


6,679,166 


2,227,627 


940,168 


1,444,215 


1,605,285 


155,170 


1,696,111 


2,400,167 


8,157,445 


18,018,373 


9,530,642 


10,119,781 


8,639,048 


1,447,106 


5,945,882 


512,217 


1,045,123 


2.177 


2,014 


5,666 


5,102 


2,570 


3,320 


227,933 


207,289 


39,019 


23,218 


81,287 


57,571 


23,200 


35,213 


254,029 


219,833 


904 


2,221 


2,915 


5,492 


3,978 


2,187 


791,771 


355,868 


213,139 


91 ,756 


346,260 


154,592 


135,426 


162,114 


71,375 


54,560 


28,771 


17,704 


61,125 


39,342 


25,366 


30,795 


266,405 


211,839 

2,828,515 


194,990 


269,990 


495,750 


461,711 


133,577 


338,608 


2,932,281 


1,262,480 


1,736,483 


3,038,023 


2,457,187 


658,868 


2,216,907 


811,256 


519,749 


1,653,223 


441,440 


1,936,632 


1,216,476 


884,067 


1,363,632 


2,603,516 


2,501,185 


1,249,599 


1,023,570 


3,556,417 


2,383,027 


1,231,633 


2,179,386 


2,047,687 


2,438,246 


617,53'' 


1,036,340 


2,924,177 


3,133,368 


970,183 


2,092,300 


929,160 


1,961,974 


82,266 


1,174,389 


860,024 


2,130,298 


568,046 


1,145,479 


1,825,886 


2,548,301 


456,651 


1,222,570 


1,006,914 


2,860,120 


840,900 


739,358 


2,051,129 


2,253,072 


911,798 


1,686,586 


2,029,839 


2,907,170 


772,101 


991,090 


825,258 


1,408,726 


352 


956 


1,522 


4,163 


1,153 


4,148 


637,187 


1,571,816 


370 


599 


890 


1,571 


427 


3,837 


767,351 


1,914,325 


1,891 


23,180 


129,939 


1,090,749 


61,043 


283,308 


1,585,823 


3,624,833 


1,252,723 


1,484,548 


2,358,925 


6,588,034 


716,325 


1,404,429 


19,694 


70,023 


3 


35 


38 


90 


32 


604 


136,082 


460,547 


56 


148 


187 


1,815 


316 


5,259 


401,788 


967,133 


11,471 


110,180 


95,629 


1,188,373 


40,118 


263,882 


618,142 


1,116,316 


213,564 


24,567 


844,498 


4,394,894 


278,914 


620,709 


308,487 


263,813 


227,375 


16,722 


464,514 


1,177,402 


93,336 


212,117 


766,264 


660,685 


564,111 


324,609 


997,086 


1,497,724 


285,486 


805,068 


1,178 


29 


229 


3 


1,208 


330 


238 


1 


2,857,007 


3,435,591 


681,528 


243,446 


1,578,253 


1,585,505 


783,733 


780,551 


1,735,126 


2,772,025 


706,411 


328,901 


2,049,862 


1,424,582 


651,742 


1,441,188 


1,394,588 


1,835,337 


479,218 


1,344,410 1 1,976,756 


2,661,791 


1,093,993 


861,042 


181,101 


269,044 


389,734 


643,040 


871,976 


1,336,142 


335,599 


349,790 


806,731 


822,327 


4,788,718 


2,555,499 


8,655,051 


10,609,119 


3,391,851 


1,531,367 


1,490 


5,968 


148,006 
1 

459,681 


114,998 


206,155 


290,850 


116,913 


156,782 


1,427,408 


2,106,297 


1,623,379 


1,671,044 


2,245,402 


690,483 


1,110,744 


1,032,490 


2,117,246 


1,285,441 


1,579,019 


2,349,656 


3,163,737 


690,359 


1,190,727 


422,646 


737,689 


1,083,142 


1,416,584 


1,544,700 


3,177,331 


546,024 


838,866 


210,686 


425,323 


775,885 
3,340,823 


1,156,817 


855,158 


1,726,298 


493,651 


724,895 


877,376 


3,940,089 


1,901,647 


3,342,387 


6,859,962 


988,966 


2,884,927 


44,175 


96,544 


381,863 


290,623 


408,178 


903,352 


231,909 


316,132 


428,497 


2,060,384 


2,947,973 


357,644 


2,881,073 


4,783,825 


637,664 


2,574,680 


236,646 


1,127,573 


4,842,129 


729,631 


( 4,461,211 


9,737,827 


1,641,191 


2,958,813 



362 



PRODUCTION OF APPLES AND PEACHES IN THE UNITED 

STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY GEOGRAPHIC 

DIVISIONS AND STATES : 1919 AND 1909— Concluded 



Division or State 



Apples 



Production (bushels) 



1919 



1909 



Trees of bearing age 



1920 



1910 



MOUNTAIN: 
Montana ... 

Idaho _ 

Wyoming . . 
Colorado ... 
New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

PACIFIC: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California . . 



673,716 

3,645,640 

29,999 

3,417,682 

939,102 

120,766 

759,696 

52,619 

21,568,691 
6,921,284 
7,842,017 



567,054 
659,959 

17,836 

3,559,094 

417,143 

72,814 
350,023 

74,449 

2,672,100 
1,930,926 
4,935,073 



1,059,198 

2,380,523 

50,062 

1,777,737 

687,799 

70,273 

726,471 

42,612 

7,964,167 
3,315,093 
3,128,386 



696,753 

1,005,668 

27,773 

1,688,425 

542,528 

62,027 

517,039 

74,454 

3,009,337 
2,029,913 
2,482,762 



363 



PRODUCTION OF APPLES AND PEACHES IN THE UNITED 

STATE, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY GEOGRAPHIC 

DIVISIONS AD STATES : 1919 AND 1909— Concluded 



Apples 


Peaches 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


Production (bushels) 


Trees of bearing age 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


1920 


1910 


1919 


1909 


1920 


1910 


1920 


1910 


69,328 


1,308,066 


509 


128 


1,831 


538 


420 


3,386 


144,088 


1,539,896 


279,101 


18,734 


178,434 


73,080 


26,648 


212,995 


34,197 


84,024 


12 


5 


42 


46 


68 


419 


183,315 


1,972,914 


721,480 


692,258 


446,943 


793,372 


32,158 


606,001 


167,097 


914,254 


198,346 


32,533 


154,968 


136,191 


36,923 


184,466 


35,977 


53,884 


138,361 


50,102 


101,855 


51,415 


26,681 


32,562 


80,304 


789,260 


883,950 


143,237 


554,202 


544,314 


28,551 


651,233 


9,265 


16,868 


5,868 


3,171 


5,940 


6,329 


3,721 


5,049 


755,898 


4,862,702 


1,544,859 


84,494 


649,085 


536,875 


50,254 


1,028,141 


500,322 


2,240,636 


504,441 


179,030 


412,936 


273,162 


29,911 


508,179 


1,143,947 


1,054,107 


15,969,073 


9,267,118 


9,057,760 


7,829,011 


1,366,941 


4,409,562 



PRODUCTION OF PEARS AND .PLUMS AND PRUNES 

IN THE UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES 

The Bureau of the Census, of the Department of Commerce, 
announces, subject to correction, the following preliminary figures 
from the 1920 census of agriculture for the United States, with 
comparative figures for the preceding census. 

PEARS AND PLUMS AND PRUNES PRODUCTION AND NUMBER OF 

TREES IN THE UNITED STATES: I919 AND I9O9 

Pears : 
Production (bushels) — • 

1919 14,204,265 

1909 8,840,733 

Increase (bushels) 5,363,532 

Per cent of increase 60.7 

Trees of bearing age — 

1920 14,647,412 

1910 15,171,524 

Decrease 524,112 

Per cent of decrease 3.5 

Trees not of bearing age — 

1920 6,052,247 

1910 8,803,885 

Decrease 2,751,638 

Per cent of decrease J/.J 

Plums and Prunes : 

Production (bushels) — 

1919 19,083,942 

1909 15,480,170 

Increase (bushels) 3,603,772 

Per cent of increase 23.3 

Trees of bearing age — 

1920 20,452,293 

1910" 23,445,009 

Decrease 2,992,716 

Per cent of decrease 12.8 

Trees not of bearing age — 

1920 9,375,268 

1910 6,923,581 

Increase 2,451,687 

Per cent of increase 35.4 

(364) 



365 



PEARS PRODUCTION 

The production of pears in the United States in 1919, accord- 
ing to the Fourteenth Census, was 14,204,265 bushels, as com- 
pared with 8,840,733 bushels in 1909, representing an increase of 
5,363,532 bushels, or 60.7 per cent. 

The states reporting the largest production of pears in 1919 
were California, with 3,952,923 bushels; New York, with 1,830,- 
237 bushels; Washington with 1,728,759 bushels; Oregon, with 
761,063 bushels; and Texas, with 637,400 bushels. 

PEAR TREES 

The number of trees which have reached bearing age indi- 
cates the present status of any orchard fruit. The number of 
such pear trees in 1920 (including all trees which werfe old enough 
to bear fruit at the time of the enumeration, even though they 
may not have borne any fruit in 1919) was 14,647,412, as com- 
pared with 15,171,524 in 1910, representing a decrease of 524,112 
trees, or 3.5 per cent. 

The states which showed increases between 1910 and 1920 
in the number of pear trees of bearing age were California, New 
York, Washington, Oregon, Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico, 
Idaho, Connecticut, and North Dakota. 

One of the most significant indications of the progress or 
tendency in the growing of any orchard crop is the number of 
young trees in the orchards which have not yet reached bearing 
age. The number of pear trees not of bearing age (excluding 
nursery stock, not yet set out in orchard locations) reported for 
1920 was 6,052.247, as compared with 8,803,885 in 1910. These 
figures represent a decrease of 2,751,638 trees, or 31.3 per cent. 

PLUMS AND PRUNES PRODUCTION 

The production of plums and prunes in 1919 was 19,083,942 
bushels, as against 15,480,170 bushels in 1909. The increase in 
production between 1909 and 1919 amounted to 3,603,772 
bushels, or 23.3 per cent. 

The states reporting the largest production of plums and 
prunes in 1919 were California, with 13,200,805 bushels; Oregon, 
with 2,151,864 bushels; Washington, with 785,920 bushels; and 
Idaho, with 485,325 bushel<;. These four states produced nearly 



366 

seven-eighths (87.1 per cent) of the total production of plums 
and prunes in the United States in 1919. 

No separate figures can be given for plums and prunes, but 
the commercial production of prunes is practically confined to 
the four states just mentioned. 

PLUM AND PRUNE TREES 

The number of plum and prune trees of bearing age in 1920 
was 20,452,293, as compared with 23,z^45,oo9 in 1910, represent- 
ing a decrease of 2,992,716 trees, or 12.8 per cent. 

The number of plum and prune trees not of bearing age in 
1920 was 9,375,268, as compared with 6,923,581 in 1910, an in- 
crease of 2,451,687 trees, o-r 35.4 per cent. 



368 



PRODUCTION OF PEARS AND PLUMS AND PRUNES IN 
UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY 
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES: 
1919 AND 1909 



THE 



Division and State 



Pears 



Production (bushels) 



1919 



1909 



Trees of bearing age 



1920 



1910 



UNITED STATES 14,204,265 



8,840,733 



14,647,412 



15,171,524 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 



NEW ENGLAND: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC: 

New York 

New Jersey ' 

Pennsylvania 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan , 

Wisconsin , 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

SOUTH ATLANTIC: 

Delaware 

Maryland •_ 

Dist. of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

■ Georgia 

Florida 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

AI abam.a _. 

Mississippi 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



194,286 
2,652,903 
1,060,522 

707,359 
1,139,048 

452,980 
1,069,231 

485,191 
6,442,745 



233,845 

2,185,204 

1,623,176 

213,678 

975,162 

536,422 

191,518 

268,205 

2,613,523 



14,291 
17,274 
10,360 
84,486 
10,713 
57,162 

1,830,237 
401,706 
420,960 

157,492 
109,463 
374,925 
405,189 
13,453 

265 

30,036 

430,828 

83 

43 

24,617 

221,487 

97,703 

287,199 

919 

287,927 

33,364 
111,548 

98,975 
178,181 

43,232 

54,764 
114,963 
162,509 
120,744 

123,605 

58,640 

249,586 

637,400 



38,964 
24,224 
20,763 
96,071 
12,501 
41,322 

1,343,089 
463,290 
378,825 

374,871 
319,925 
249,365 
666,023 
12,992 

40O 

44,449 

142,547 

8 

162 

6,700 

19,412 

105,357 

367,359 

455 

74,486 

29,916 

84,019 

65,680 

149,667 

98,223 

251,536 

83,557 

100,041 

101,288 

37,547 

35,554 

7,450 

110,967 



220,433 

4,012,994 

2,443,010 

724,393 

1,506,279 

651,824 

849,737 

339,018 

3,899,724 



22,525 
21,506 
14,352 
88,630 
13,435 
59,985 

2,778,761 
480,601 
753,632 

616,416 

337,515 

435,707 

1,029,735 

23,637 

1,626 

100,582 

376,208 

486 

711 

36,926 

207,854 

249,375 
305,510 
517 
311,199 
116,685 
219,725 

78,999 
178,070 

46,199 

238,007 

223,556 

115,082 

75,179 

145,789 

38,796 

229,468 

435,684 



296,874 
3,670,094 
3,560,083 
1,154,426 
2,325,714 

831,618 
1,045,143 

312,449 
1,975,123 



46,683 
36,816 
26,315 
113,365 
16,907 
56,788 

2,141,596 
731,616 
796,882 

899,019 

708,723 

786,349 

1,136,151 

29,841 

2,792 

191,125 

606,973 

24 

1,844 

59,285 

292,383 

449,692 
540,583 
1,045 
457,177 
154,908 
243,367 
105,251 
262,982 
110,709 

337,355 
233,407 
142,300 
118,556 

221,764 

57,630 

207,271 

658,478 



369 



PRODUCTION OF PEARS AND PLUMS AND PRUNES IN THE 

UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES BY 

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES: 

1919 AND 1909 — Continued 



Pears 


Plums and Prunes 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


Production (bushels) 


Trees of bearing age 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


1920 


1910 


1919 


1909 


1920 


1910 


1920 


1910 


6,052,247 


8,803,885 


19,083,942 


15,480,170 


20,452,293 


23,445,009 


9,375,268 


6,923,581 


115,924 


97,650 


1 47,838 


62,733 


125,988 


176,038 


53,570 


90,498 


1,282,242 


2,123,212 


337,274 


858,274 


1,543,663 


1,709,712 


450,858 


845,001 


676,117 


1,441,505 


425,600 


568,383 


1,441,988 


2,739,635 


466,989 


976,854 


249,021 


589,140 


316,695 


499,784 


1,424,673 


3,570,012 


553,807 


1,114,862 


4&1,903 


880,461 


274,560 


257,912 


674,440 


1,152,080 


209,401 


363,099 


252,689 


506,959 


235,188 


442,125 


735,670 


1,324,616 


152,787 


372,010 


333,086 


936,230 


626,335 


327,260 


1,066,706 


2,337,965 


453,582 


744,987 


101,870 


417,182 


651,863 


366,056 


795,886 


678,268 


156,293 


265,810 


2,576,395 


1,811.516 


16,138,589 


12,097,643 


12,643,279 


9,756,683 


6,877,981 


2,150,460 


7,120 


13,013 


20,043 


14,637 


37,529 


43,576 


9,395 


22,491 


7,753 


9,397 


8,429 


7,542 


18,335 


23,152 


6,454 


12,562 


8,484 


7,726 


2,062 


7,205 


19,647 


32,920 


10,756 


15,818 


52,745 


38,378 


13,152 


17,814 


32,764 


41,345 


16,553 


23,871 


7,955 


5,405 


465 


1,872 


1,964 


4,836 


1,347 


2,556 


31,867 


23,731 
1,502,661 


3,687 


13,663 


15,749 


30,209 


9,065 


13,200 


967,573 


244,294 


553,522 


745,889 


919,017 


205,702 


328,329 


77,026 


238,401 


8,526 


9,594 


30,128 


46,547 


11,772 


23,071 


237,643 


382,180 


84,454 


295,158 


767,616 


744,148 


233,384 


493,601 


147,892 


333,739 


84,602 


215,667 


459,265 


1,001,734 


129,713 


332,811 


68,150 


229,548 


33,536 


77,065 


214,202 


566,988 


53,178 


177,931 


148,810 


234,037 


83,017 


78,566 


273,554 


600,087 


79,615 


141,480 


302,734 


623,931 


203,091 


181-,188 


377.123 


464,917 


142,657 


253,479 


8,531 


20,250 


21,354 


15,907 


117,844 


105,909 


61,826 


71,153 


882 


4,135 


24,337 


19,920 


193,668 


233,736 


102,929 


167,926 


34,985 


123,262 


27,929 


158,036 


313,769 


1,155,041 


95,356 


245,281 


101,994 


272,213 


232,025 


234,872 


528,649 


917,851 


144,651 


183,828 


148 


327 


5,660 


1,048 


41,254 


19,147 


19,852 


35,459 


2,044 


5,087 


11,861 


31,748 


117,677 


268,268 


59,793 


172,186 


29,011 


51,443 


11,537 


41,910 


86,183 


351,321 


62,786 


184,066 


79,957 


132,673 


53,346 


12,250 


143,473 


624,648 


68,440 


126,116 


26,575 


90,917 


1,613 


657 


5,100 


27,115 


1,595 


3,872 


48,918 


138,152 


18,540 


13,526 


41,435 


69,996 


11,479 


29,478 


152 


32 


72 


10 


128 


104 


100 


8 


79,561 


255,083 


59,561 


22,597 


118,938 


171,667 


35,189 


59,127 


43,357 


102,826 


37,099 


32,948 


180,758 


234,859 


58,547 


125,078 


129,104 


150,368 


37,415 


61,406 


110,577 


168,883 


35,820 


45,503 


33,188 


5i,732 


35,891 


48,754 


49,736 


82,212 


15,488 


21,657 


83,474 


69,534 


64,053 


60,845 


135,453 


357,323 


38,198 


62,126 


20,574 


18,817 
131,905 


20,316 


17,169 


32,315 


39,921 


12,985 


16,250 


76,505 


68,317 


139,346 


282,831 


355,858 


57,470 


128,367 


73,679 


174,675 


70,103 


139,093 


281,127 


499,627 


47,930 


108,510 


51,411 


99,170 


54,073 


61,712 


96,922 


211,991 


23,654 


51,979 


51,094 


101,209 
196.753 


42,695 


101,974 


74,790 


257,140 


23,733 


83,154 


49,412 


161,906 


194,649 


292,323 


731,276 


70,264 


179,967 


27,336 


38,242 


41,683 


31,473 


87,471 


149,929 


36,10$ 


41,419 


73,944 


252,336 


127, 8U 


25,916 


200,102 


436.421 


104,416 


195,836 


182,394 


448,899 


294,935 


1B.22Z 


480, Sid 


1,020,^9 


242,800 


82r,765 



24 



370 



PRODUCTION OF PEARS AND PLUMS AND PRUNES IN THE 

UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES BY 

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES: 

1919 AND 1909 — Continued 





Pears 


Division and State 


Production (bushels) 


Trees of bearing age 




1919 


1909 


1920 


1910 


MOUNTAIN: 


3,960 

47,847 

64 

269,465 

65,542 

18,201 

76,008 

4,104 

1,728,759 

761,063 

3,952,923 


7,543 

42,649 

16 

132,536 

29,435 

13,289 

38,654 

4,083 

310,804 

374,622 

1,928,097 


10,278 

75,452 

116 

136,117 

49,315 

12,359 

51,812 

3,569 

866,634 

727,444 

2,305,646 


10,297 




65,113 




178 




99,989 




37,220 




16,351 


Utah 


79,355 




3,946 


PACIFIC: 


290,676 




273,542 




1,410,905 







2>7^ 



PRODUCTION OF PEARS AND PLUMS AND PRUNES IN THE 

UNITED STATES, AND NUMBER OF TREES, BY 

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND STATES: 

1919 AND 1909 — Concluded 



Pears 


Plums and Prunes 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


Production (busiiels) 


Trees of b 


earing age 


Trees not of bearing 
age 


1920 


1910 


1919 


1909 


1920 


1910 


1920 


1910 


1,386 


12,806 


9,575 


8,777 


24,501 


21,140 


4,598 


15,001 


20,539 


76,939 


485,325 


179,027 


552,595 


302,855 


80,485 


98,017 


239 


901 


3,091 


659 


6,827 


4,564 


9,091 


7,475 


39,979 


171,367 


44,944 


81,539 


80,027 


143,921 


28,055 


68,525 


19,423 


100,201 


30,047 


15,528 


43,766 


51,257 


18,042 


42,351 


7,716 


12,852 


23,786 


8,420 


15,713 


12,196 


6,795 


7,898 


8,479 


39,901 


50,677 


68,249 


66,914 


135,619 


7,508 


23,388 


4,109 


2,215 
617,754 


4,418 


3,857 


5,543 


6,716 


1,719 


3,155 


183,346 


785,920 


1,032,077 


875,363 


823,082 


309,230 


122,912 


214,523 


795,669 


2,151,864 


1,747,587 


2,999,480 


1,764,896 


1,331,606 


427,609 


2,178,526 


398,093 

1 


13,200,805 


9,317,979 


8,768,436 


7,168,705 


5,237,145 


1,599,924 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

The Bureau of the Census, of the Department of Commerce, 
announces, subject to correction, the following preliminary 
figures from the 1920 census of agriculture for the United States, 
with comparative figures for the preceding census. 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN THE UNITED 
STATES : I919 AND I909 



(Acres). 



Production 
(quarts). 



Total 1919.. 

1909. . 

Strawberries 1919. . 

1909.. 

Raspberries 1919 . . 

Loganberries 1919 . . 

Raspberries and loganberries 1909 . . 

Blackberries and dewberries 1919. . 

1909.. 

Cranberries 1919 . . 

1909. . 

Currants 1919.. 

1909.. 

Other berries 1919. . 

1909.. 



249,084 
272,460 



325,096,968 
426,565,863 



119,395 
143.045 

50,278 

8,978 

48,668 

46,165 
49,004 

16,804 
18,431 

7,379 

7,862 

5,085 
5,450 



176,931,550 
255,702.035 

49,210.447 
12,123,062 
60,918,196 

39,945,078 
55,343,570 

35,260,291 
38,243,060 

7.722,817 
10,448,532 

3,903.723 
5.910,470 



The total acreage of small fruits harvested in the United 
States in 1919, according to the Fourteenth Census, was 249,084, 
as compared with 272,460 in 1909, representing a decrease of 23,- 
376 acres, or 8.6 per cent. 

The states reporting the largest acreage in small fruits in 
1919 were Michigan, with 21,021 acres; Sew York, with 20,412 
acres; Missouri, with 16,768 acres; and New Jersey, with 15,374 
acres. 

(372) 



373 

The production of small fruits in 1919 was 325,096,968 
quarts, as compared with 426,565,863 quarts in 1909, a decrease 
of 101,468,895 quarts, or 23.8 per cent. 

STRAWBERRIES 

The acreage of strawberries harvested in 1919 was 119,395, 
as compared with 143,045 in 1909, representing a decrease of 
23,650 acres, or 16.5 per cent. The states reporting the largest 
acreage in strawberries in 1919 were as follows: Tennessee, 10,- 
876 acres ; Missouri, 8,645 acres ; Arkansas, 8,324 acres ; and 
Michigan, 8.048 acres. 

The production of strawberries in 1919 was 176,931,550 
quarts, as against 255,702,035 quarts in 1909. These figures 
represent a decrease of 78,770,485 quarts, or 30.8 per cent. 

RASPBERRIES AND LOGANBERRIES 

The acreage in raspberries and loganberries in 1919 was 54,- 
256, as compared with 48,668 in 1909. The production of rasp- 
berries and loganberrries in 1919 was 61,333,509 quarts, as com- 
pared with a production of 60,918,196 quarts in 1909. 

Raspberries and loganberries were not reported separately in 
1909. The acreage of raspberries harvested in 1919 was 50,278 
and the production was 49,210,447 quarts. The acreage of logan- 
berries harvested in 1919 was 3,978 and the production was 12,- 
123,062 quarts. 

The leading states in the production of raspberries in 1919 
were New York, Michigan, and Washington. Practically all of 
the loganberries produced in the United States in 1919 were re- 
ported from three states, as follows: Oregon, 10,198,011 quarts; 
Washington, 1,157,778 quarts; and Cahfornia, 655,592 quarts. 

BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 

There were 46,165 acres in blackberries and dewberries in 
1919, as compared with 49,004 acres in 1909. The production 
was 39,945,078 quarts in 1919 and 55,343,570 quarts in 1909. 

The states reporting the largest production of blackberries 
and dewberries in 1919 were as follows : Texas, 6,287,333 
quarts; Washington, 3,691,065 quarts; Missouri, 2,958,006 
quarts; Cahfornia, 2,549,082 quarts; Michigan, 2,452,909 quarts; 
and Oregon, 2,139,110 quarts. 



374 



CRANBERRIES, CURRANTS, AND OTHER BERRIES 

The total acreage in cranberries in 1919 was 16,804, as com- 
pared with 18,431 in 1909. The production in 1919 was 35,260,- 
291 quarts, while the production in 1909 was 38,243,060 quarts. 
The states reporting the largest acreage in cranberries in 1919 
were Massachusetts, with 7,096 acres; New Jersey, with 6,583 
acres; and Wisconsin, with 1,805 acres. These three states pro- 
duced 33,852,310 quarts of cranberries in 1919. 

There were 7,379 acres in currants in 1919, as against 7,862 
acres in 1909. The production in 1919 was 7,722,817 quarts, 
while the production in 1909 was 10,448,532 quarts. The state 
of New York in 1919 produced 3,321,583 quarts of currants. 

The acreage in "other berries" (mostly gooseberries) in 
1919 was 5,085, as compared with 5,450 acres in 1909. The pro- 
duction in 1919 was 3.903, 723 quarts, as against 5,910,470 quarts 
in 1909. 



376 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN THE 

UNITED STATES, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND 

STATES : 1919 AND 1909 



Division and State 



Total 1 



Acres 



1919 



1909 



Production (quarts) 



1919 



1909 



UNITED STATES 

GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 

NEW ENGLAND: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

EAST NOlRTH CENTRAL: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota ; . . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

SOUTH ATLANTIC: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

'District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

^ Includes strawberries, raspberries 
cranberries, currants, and other berries. 



249,084 



14,6-25 
44,466 
57,239 
35,322 
25,319 
20,943 
22,713 
4,624 
23,833 



1,573 

1,071 
694 

9,628 
246 

1,413 

20,412 

15,374 

8,680 

9,447 

7,565 

11,215 

21,021 

7,991 

5,008 

7,885 

16,768 

524 

412 

1,147 

3,578 

3,915 

8,360 

21 

3,518 

3,162 

4,099 

498 

842 

904 

6,163 

12,544 

1,477 

759 



272,460 



325,096,968 



426,565,863 



13,777 
55,243 
56,957 

35,587 
45,403 
18,994 
19,417 
6,765 
20,317 



32,406,719 

56,924,436 
63,702,944 
37,368,041 
28,198,785 
23,457,806 
26,666,084 
5,050,860 
51,321,293 



1,260 
618 
469 

9,552 
281 

1,597 

22,496 
24,069 



11,591 
5,919 
11,723 
21,419 
6,305 

3,738 

7,211 

17,009 

399 

419 

1,411 

5,400 

8,687 

16,595 

12 

7,295 

2,913 

6,701 

856 

988 

1,356 

4,387 

12,539 

1,232 

836 



1,561,647 

753,969 

749,032 

27,099,119 

339,064 

1,903,888 

25,713,901 
20,148,717 
11,061,818 

11,963,128 
6,812,972 
10,591,818 
23,946,801 
10,388,225 

6,165,120 

8,837,293 

17,769,936 

170,771 

224,398 

647,321 

3,553,202 

4,362,473 

10,278,972 

25,789 

4,439,964 

2,092,376 

4,776,710 

269,248 

625,783 

1,327,470 

5,323,010 

14,620,175 

2,125,418 

1,389,203 



37,631,006 
90,300,863 
73,745,968 
46,275,534 
72,300,168 
22,182,689 
23,878,888 
10,587,207 
49,663,540 



2,285,415 

998,244 

836,122 

29,260,143 

437,560 

3,823,522 

37,857,829 
38,822,987 
13,620,047 

15,721,023 
7,424,831 
13,602,676 
27,214,659 
9,782,779 

4,476,575 

10,344,052 

23,696,221 

285,696 

401,295 

1,594,421 

5,477,274 

14,425,209 

26,277,054 
24,109 

11,342,980 
2,336,562 

12,827,427 
1,408,099 
1,262,155 
2,396,573 

4,972,702 
13,895,498 
1,907,193 
1,407,301 



loganberries, black berries, dewberries, 



377 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN THE 

UNITED STATES, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND 

STATES: 1919 AND 1909— Continued 











Raspberries and 


Blackberries and 




StrawDernes 




loganberries 


dewb 


erries 


Acres 


Production (quarts) 


Production (quarts) 


Production (quarts) 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


119,395 


143,045 


176,931,550 


255,702,035 


61,333,509 


60,918,196 


39,946,078 


66,343,570 


3,353 


4,432 


6,319,419 


11,741,829 


1,374,601 


1,119,007 


790,102 


804,595 


13,909 


19,202 


24,065,552 


43,747,240 


16,328,692 |19,802,119 


4,608,673 


9,029,897 


24,258 


23,604 


36,133,472 


39,698,906 


14,714,507 


16,895,570 


6,721,886 


10,437,862 


18,147 


16,433 


26,048,603 


26.308,539 


5,616,192 


5,634,788 


4,422,115 


12,311,930 


18,058 


37,280 


23,497,227 


63,124,937 


1,694,922 


2,218,296 


2,829,944 


6,463,811 


16,038 


14,253 


]9, 673, 040 


17,648,063 


599,320 


799,212 


3,128,749 


3,680,336 


13,136 


13,917 


17,690,967 


19,701,936 


191,458 


268,809 


8,722,827 


3,836,925 


1,623 


3,115 


2,158,6.34 


5,030,445 


1,495,425 


3,194,610 


341,525 


723,167 


10,873 


10,809 


21,344,616 


28,700,140 


19,318,392 


10,985,785 


8,379,257 


8,155,047 


555 


698 


893,740 


1,626,250 


279,254 


154,121 


242,478 


153,816 


366 


310 


489,774 


638,057 


131,145 


86,558 


90,666 


75,913 


275 


276 


428,335 


615,820 


177,575 


85,065 


113,210 


56,252 


1,431 


2,015 


3,151,371 


5,518,867 


468,715 


376,136 


251,951 


307,987 


90 


140 


116,646 


326,540 


47,345 


32,871 


6,428 


17,875 


636 


993 


1,239,553 


3,016,295 


270,567 


384,256 


85,369 


192,752 


4,872 


6,382 


8,579,563 


15,945,863 


11,674,978 


14,751,940 


1,711,546 


2,509,851 


5,029 


8,684 


8,301,893 


18,767,473 


2,083,925 


2,143,877 


2,045,521 


5,456,789 


4,008 


4,136 


7,184,096 


9,033,904 


2,569,789 


2,906,302 


861,606 


1,063,257 


4,172 


4,706 


7,165,957 


8,501,065 


2,773,819 


4,029,480 


1,481,447 


2,466,407 


3,401 


2,574 


4,277,646 


3.759,132 


1,251,652 


1,595,921 


1,087,317 


1,482,909 


4,985 


5,410 


6,901,199 


8,031,824 


1,945,336 


1,834,337 


1,365,223 


2,915,473 


8,048 


8,051 


12,585,543 


14,218,768 


7,657,819 


8,381,943 


2,452,909 


3,075,954 


3,652 


2,863 


5,203,127 


5,188,117 


1,085,881 


1,053,889 


334,990 


498,119 


2,768 


1,873 


4,111,969 


2,730,099 


1,516,147 


1,340,469 


181,183 


139,741 


4,472 


2,917 


6,606,592 


5,330,105 


1,428,396 


1,728,547 


597,449 


2,733,728 


8,645 


9,048 


12,861,820 


15,171,034 


1,592,556 


1,563,527 


2,958,006 


6,391,209 


93 


88 


47,157 


66,028 


39,173 


60,742 


2,486 


3,404 


227 


226 


141,163 


238,164 


30,368 


60,285 


1,811 


6,058 


754 


562 


451,798 


664,061 


89,672 


265,183 


35,433 


501,872 


1,188 


1,719 


1,828,104 


2,119,048 


919,880 


616,035 


646,748 


2,535,918 


3,503 


7,194 


4,056,028 


12,730,265 


26,801 


275,871 


270,560 


1,403,977 


7,096 


14,292 


8,976,057 


23,611,095 


723,738 


959,369 


517,525 


1,372,164 


10 


11 


16,882 


18,709 


933 


700 


7,097 


1,700 


2,446 


6,606 


3,803,278 


10,761,381 


280,228 


257,322 


313,873 


273,551 


1,006 


709 


840,273 


812,049 


607,495 


648,174 


594,833 


803,498 


2,186 


5,420 


3,807,598 


10,313,361 


29,073 


37,764 


936,251 


2,464,065 


312 


815 


223,745 


1,337,208 


4,111 


4,955 


40,187 


64,754 


665 


890 


505,693 


1,157,472 


19,479 


33,928 


96,852 


67,285 


834 


1,343 


1,267,673 


2,383,397 


3,064 


213 


52,766 


12,817 


3,112 


1,553 


3,194,624 


2,114,929 


308,406 


558,529 


1.778,468 


2,165,547 


10,876 


10,761 


13,130,904 


12,339,584 


277,344 


222,331 


1,200,981 


1,316,100 


1,359 


1,167 


2,024,051 


1,848,537 


9,833 


10,546 


87,696 


44,954 


691 


772 


1,323,461 


1,345,013 


3,737 


7,806 


61,605 


53,735 



378 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN THE 

UNITED STATES, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND 

STATES: 1919 AND 1909 — Continued 



Division and State 



Total 1 



Acres 



1909 



Production (quarts) 



1919 



1909 



WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Arkansas 

Louisiana , 

Oklahoma 

MOUNTAIN: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming , 

Colorado , 

New Mexico 

Arizona , 

Utah 

Nevada 

PACIFIC: 

Washington 

Oregon , 

California 



9,873 
4,052 
2,6i9 
6,139 

386 

1,240 

87 

1,798 

120 

58 

910 

25 

7,434 
8,463 
7,936 



8,032 
3,587 
2,745 
5,053 

562 
1,673 

106 
2,829 
66 
76 
1,416 
37 

5,508 
5,122 
9,687 



12,538,205 
5,342,180 
1,899,073 



338,087 
1,106,208 

56,824 
2,213,619 

53,750 

62,467 
1,198,200 

21,705 

16,884,745 
18,977,822 
15,458,726 



8,965,572 
6,420,207 
2,310,367 
6,182,742 

766,791 

2,071,141 

96,883 

4,294,988 

76,532 

112,190 

3,118,395 

50,287 

13,490,930 

9,348,490 

26,824,120 



* Includes strawberries, raspberries, 
cranberries, currants, and other berries. 



loganberries, black berries, dewberries, 



379 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF SMALL FRUITS IN THE 

UNITED STATES, BY GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS AND 

STATES: 1919 AND 1909 — Concluded 



Strawberries 


Raspberries and 
loganberries 


Blackberries and 
dewberries 


Acres 


Productic 


n (quarts) 


Production (quarts) 


Production (quarts) 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


1919 


1909 


8,324 

4,007 

302 

503 

155 

469 

39 


7,361 

3,570 

825 

2,161 

265 

698 

24 

1,326 

20 

58 

719 

5 

3,283 
2,941 
4,585 


11,463,971 

5,323,890 

311,630 

591,476 

171,150 

494,818 
27,061 

944,276 
14,363 
17,058 

484,792 
5,136 

6,377,368 
4,159,200 
10,808,048 


8,259,240 

0,405,236 

830,404 

4,207,056 

406,038 

953,723 

20,895 

1,674,923 

35,634 

95,247 

1,832,796 

11,189 

7,683,774 
5,322,040 
15,694,326 


154,351 

145 

30,234 

6,728 

80,875 

385,510 

10,979 

643,678 

6,202 

677 

364,061 

3,443 

5,757,456 

12,022,912 

1,538,024 


96,414 

639 

74,104 

97,652 

165,473 

575,209 

15,213 

1,650,785 

10,222 

1,550 

758,317 

17,841 

3,118,720 
2,644,948 
5,222,117 


885,539 

18,145 

1,531,810 

6,287,333 

13,128 
91,056 


587,977 

14,332 

1,366,497 

1,868,119 

36,321 

249,984 
149 


■ 653 1 

28 

20 

254 

5 

3,087 
2,812 1 
4,974 1 


76,234 

8,233 

37,040 

115,437 

397 

3,691,065 
2,139,110 
2,549,082 


227,598 
10,089 
13,808 

184,140 

1,078 

2,340,779 

915,744 

4,898,524 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS IN THE UNITED 

STATES 

The Department of Commerce, through the Bureau of the 
Census, announces the following figures from the 1920 census of 
agriculture for the United States, with comparative figures for 
the preceding census. 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS IN THE UNITED^STATES I I919 AND I909 



Product 



1919 



1909 



rider made on farms gallons.. 13,365,805 32,583,99? 

Cider made, or to be made, into vinegar gallons.. 6,470,060 ^ 7,246,632 

Grape juice made on farms gallons.. 2,202,848 ^jg 53^225 

Dried fruits, total pounds.. 612,700,626 385,039,552 

Raisins and dried grapes pounds..] 301,035,519 | 169,245,101 

Other dried fruits pounds..) 311,665,107 1 215,794,451 



1 Vinegar made on farms. 



^ Wine and grape juice. 



CIDER AND VINEGAR 

The number of gallons of cider rnade on farms in the United 
States in 1919, according to the Fourteenth Census, was 13,365,- 
805, as compared with 32,583,998 in 1909, representing a decrease 
of 19,218,193 gallons, or 59 per cent. The production of cider 
reported for 1899 was 55,280,199 gallons, and the decrease be- 
tween 1899 and 1909 amounted to 22,696,201 gallons, or 41. i 
per cent. 

The number of farms reporting cider produced in 1919 was 
216,617, as compared with 332,810 in 1909. 

The leading states in the production of cider on farms in 
1919 were Pennsylvania, with 2,532,044 gallons; New York, 
with 2,144,848 gallons; Maine, with 933,440 gallons; Connect- 
icut, with 883,937 gallons; Virginia, with 804,405 gallons; and 
Ohio, with 708,563 gallons. 

The number of gallons of cider made into vinegar in 1919, 
or to be made into vinegar, was 6,470,060, while the quantity of 
vinegar made on farms in 1909 (including some vinegar other 
than cider vinegar) was 7,246,632 gallons. 

(380) 



38i 

The only states in 19 19 that reported over 500,000 gallons 
of cider vinegar made on farms were New York, with 1,109,- 
794 gallons; Pennsylvania, with 948,480. gallons; and Maine, 
with 594.739 gallons. 

GRAPE JUICE 

The quantity of grape juice made on farms in 1919 was 
2,202,848 gallons. There is no comparison between this quan- 
tity and the quantity of wine and grape juice (18,636,225 gal- 
lons) which was reported for 1909. The number of farms re- 
porting grape juice made in 19 19 was 30,993. 

California reported 1,820,895 gallons, or 82.7 per cent of 
the grape juice produced on farms in 1919. Among the other 
states, New York produced 45,320 gallons; Illinois, 38,746 gal- 
lons; Ohio, 36,071 gallons; and Missouri, 33,671 gallons. 

DRIED FRUITS 

The total production of dried fruits in 1919 was 612,700,- 
626 pounds, as compared with 385,039,552 pounds in 1909, 
representing an increase of 227,661,074 pounds, or 59.1 per cent. 
The total for 1919 included 301,035,519 pounds of raisins and 
dried grapes. 

The number of farms reporting dried fruits in 1919 was 
252,289, as compared with 137,041 in 1909. 

California produced 577,041,118 pounds, or 94.2 per cent 
of the total production of dried fruits in 1919, and all except 
35,288 pounds of the total production of raisins. Other states 
reporting over 1,000,000 pounds of dried fruits in 1919 were as 
follows: Oregon, 17,470,568; Washington, 5,378,989; Ar- 
kansas, 3,724,743; Virginia, 1,818,481; and North Carolina, 
1,065,302. 



382 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 

1919 AND 1909 



Division and State 



UNITED STATES 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 



NEW ENGLAND: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska / 

Kansas 

SOUTH ATLANTIC: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL: 

Arkansas , 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma ■ 

Texas 



Cider 



6,448,313 



1.56,564 

425,147 

1,084,744 

1,096.951 

1.158,976 

1,051,600 

996,088 

244,109 

2.34,164 






216,617 



38,840 

72,331 

39,377 

13,716 

30,323 

4,187 

3,152 

2,537 

12,154 



48,227 
20,523 
29,075 
32,001 
4,083 
22,655 

193,195 

29,702 
202,250 

256,695 
205,126 
237,181 
196,447 
189,295 

178,478 
213,439 
263,004 
77,690 
74,637 
124,417 
165,286 

10,140 

47,908 

204 

186,242 

87,289 
269,763 
192,693 
310,732 

54,005 

270,626 
252,774 
256,099 
272,101 

232,604 
136,463 
191,988 
436,033 



11,417 
5,822 
6,574 
6,653 
926 
7,448 

32,835 
2,415 
37,081 

12,751 
2,650 
10,215 
11,231 
2,530 

585 
2,648 
7,S56 



73 

979 

1,575 

1,178 

5,960 

4 

12,680 

3,500 

6,616 

123 

262 



2,311 

1,525 

330 

21 

1,590 

6 

1,408 

148 



Production (gallons) 



1919 



13,365,805 



3,274,452 

4,827,773 

2,133,353 

566,303 

1,760,076 

114,835 

138,841 

191,269 

3.58,903 



933,440 
420,794 
394,770 
537,386 
104,125 
883,937 

2,144,818 

150,881 

2,532,014 

708,563 

126,878 

672,868 

541,458 

83,586 

21,143 

78,930 
339,794 



3,047 
36,169 

87,220 

66,190 

438,877 

93 

804,405 

194,630 

250,517 

1,518 

3,846 



1909 



32,583,998 



4,705,949 

13,510,722 

8,614,873 

2,053,882 

2,394,776 

692,131 

72,145 

203,095 

306,425 



939,085 
671 ,684 
651,159 

1,004,392 
147,645 

1,291,984 

5,191,221 

288,587 
8,060,914 

2,889,237 
1,491,911 

678,437 
3,386,138 

169,150 

9,044 

590,352 

1,065,881 



4,103 
255,886 
128,616 

36,145 
970,705 



72,068 

38,954 

3,539 

274 

50,394 

81 

82,449 

5,917 



469,651 

248,543 

647,152 

6,692 

14,970 

918 

464,321 

213,916 

12,557 

1,337 

36,825 

436 

30,081 

4,803 



383 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES 
1919 AND 1909 — Continued 



ade Into 


1 


Grape J 


uice, 1919 


i & 




Dried Fruits 


r, 1919 


ade on 

W9 






■3 ».7 










C 


s 




Production (pounds) 


c 






a 


c 



c be i 



a 
u 












o^^ 


■ ;3S° : 




0.—, 


«--' » 


u 






a in 

•a.c 

O O 


Vineg 
Fart 
(gal 


i 

Pi 


3 tn 

T3 C 


«>2 




1919 


1909 


6,470,060 


7,246,632 


30,993 


2,202,848 


18,636,225 


252,^ 


612,700,626 


J8§.,0S9,552 


1,583,157 


710,412 


1,622 


27,638 


50,738 


1,250 


1 

36,815 


23,644 


2,131,261 


1,994,295 


4,448 


74,271 


687,609 


13,591 


760,021 


4,677,598 


957,461 


1,741,506 


8,783 


115,441 


875,955 


10,343 


351,696 


312,976 


334,215 


821,849 


6,377 


63,887 


410,867 


24,126 


939,242 


1,217,194 


845,574 


836,450 


4,640 


42,677 


323,801 


54,085 


3,429,824 


3,106,883 


67,646 


526,311 


1,889 


9,813 


82,520 


47,734 


1,674,085 


2,705,816 


83,527 


89,217 


1,400 


33,380 


135,310 


66,228 


5,066,575 


1,268,210 


105,324 


158,820 


201 


4,344 


26,783 


3,038 


552,693 


273,828 


361,895 


367,772 


1,633 


1,831,397 


16,042,642 


31,894 


599,890,675 


371,453,403 


594,739 


197,996 


31 


250 


328 


649 


16,347 


15,034 


260,214 


115,894 


137 


368 


2,846 


118 


3,295 


1,768 


180,533 


96,520 


80 


217 


1,199 


348 


8,406 


5,828 


210,496 


133,653 


627 


5,591 


12,937 


51 


5,59t 


465 


36,408 
300,767 


19,003 


104 


2,591 


2,856 


16 


307 




147', 346 


613 


18^621 


30,572 


68 


1,866 


549 


1,109,794 


703,384 


1,524 


45,320 


346,973 


971 


374,317 


4,385,978 


72,987 


48,665 


444 


17,148 


233,880 


54 


2,132 


6,323 


948,480 


1,242,246 


2,480 


11,803 


106,756 


12,566 


383,572 


285,297 


279,603 


483,908 


2,268 


36,071 


264,213 


2,156 


46,319 


65,432 


54,576 


431,187 


1,167 


9,778 


130,976 


894 


24,409 


62,196 


314,592 


207,242 


3,025 


38,746 


247,951 


5,030 


236,830 


128,376 


278,752 


602,697 


2,117 


29,205 


199,030 


1,098 


22,250 


48,328 


29,938 


16,472 


206 


1,641 


33,785 


1,166 


21,888 


8,644 


11,835 


5,778 


40 


214 


4,567 


566 


11,675 


2,853 


49,270 


244,473 


2,757 


23,334 


76,092 


1,652 


35,189 


87,421 


200,321 


402,518 

44 

2,823 


2,968 


33,671 


245,656 

128 

10,096 


20,793 


861,912 


1,102,274 
106 


i,m 


5" 


26' 


29" 


i',4i2" 


1,247 


23,343 


109,593 


224 


2,449 


47,703 


262 


5,910 


17,793 


48,107 


56,620 


383 


4,199 


26,625 


824 


23,144 


5,500 


37,531 


9,481 


37 


120 


1,379 


74 


2,088 


370 


177,083 


226,460 


885 


4,869 


20,783 


2,395 


60,152 


39,292 






5 
1,799 


59 
10,455 




1 
22,966 


5 
1,818,481 




'"395 ',755' 


'"268',457" 


49',609' 


929 ',546 


96,176 


122,592 


500 


2,409 


15,449 


7,053 


329,329 


396,927 


136,323 


188,610 


984 


22,501 


205,152 


17,023 


1,065,302 


1,500,681 


792 


3,599 


139 


719 


12,371 


1,351 


46,878 


26,758 


1,914 


14,232 


248 


1,259 


2,665 


3,192 


106,724 


212,570 




3,019 


43 


296 


16,393 


30 


865 


739 


41,997 


309,562 


827 


4,008 


45,138 


12,979 


467,882 


1,593,727 


23,613 


191,915 


727 


2,924 


16,576 


21,222 


782,603 


857,903 


1,895 


18,217 


255 


2,346 


12,820 


7,674 


231,978 


201,797 


141 


6,617 


80 


535 


7,986 


5,859 


191,622 


52,389 


30,727 


42,770 


502 


8,752 


75,070 


38,352 


3,724,743 


1,193,139 


20 


3,521 


4 


14 


1,205 


1,495 


41,497 


3,198 


50,275 


32,887 


489 


9,697 


16,999 


8,454 


460,195 


45,684 


2,506 


10,039 


405 


14,917 


42,036 


17,927 


840,140 


26,189 



3^4 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES; 
1919 AND 1909 — Continued 



Division and State 



Cider 



Eft 
I.'-' 



Production (gallons) 



1919 1909 



Cider M 
Vinega 



MOUNTAIN: 

Montana .., 

-Idaho 

Wyoming . . 
Colorado 
New Mexico 
Arizona .... 

Utah 

Nevada 

PACIFIC: 

Washington 

Oregon _ 

California . 



57,677 
42,106 
15,748 
59,934 
29,844 

9,975 
25,662 

3,163 

66,288 

50,206 

117,670 



376 
714 

26 
862 
271 

39 
192 

57 

5,771, 
5,121 
1,262 



27,771 
45,062 
998 
66,852 
25,369 

2,437 
18,033 

4,727 

223,314 

35,169 

100,420 



22,314 

10,562 

612 

138,091 

12,788 

2,771 

5,347 

10,610 

98,050 
89,919 
118,456 



258 
505 

15 
633 
206 

29 

111 

, 48 

3,162 

4,013 

819 



385 



FRUIT PRODUCTS OF FARMS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 
1919 AND 1909— Concluded 



ade Into 




Grape J 


uice, 1919 


_o 




Dried Fruits 


r, 1919 


ade on 

909 






'5 

a in 








i 






Q. 

u 


Production (pounds) 






o 
a 


C 


13 oj 
CM 


o 

G 














u (« 5 














0/-V 


rt B° 














Produ 
Ions 


Qj 2 ra 
10,108 


£ 

1 


Produ 
Ions 


Si 


eg 

•-2 


1919 


1909 


13,689 


3 


368 


71 


2,912 


435 


22,197 


J 1,762 


■ 53 


421 


3,452 


460 


256,010 


21,280 


683 


239 
121,428 






197 
1,116 


16 

282 


755 
11,444 


110 


43,96(J 


60' 


, 505 


59,286 


13,999 


5,880 


23 


757 


1,684 


1,305 


160,315 


16,506 


1,085 


3,504 




32 


5,100 


176 


23,422 


7,932 


6,891 


2,689 


19 


S71 


12,173 


663 


78,830 


103,743 


2,820 


3,210 


S 


1,755 


2,693 


65 


19,005 


64,536 


112,264 


62,446 


235 


1,777 


5,891 


2,225 


5,378,989 


1,842,306 


201, 5i6 


60,643 


361 


8,725 


31,232 


4,320 


17,470,568 


10,904,713 


. 48,086 


244,683 


1,037 


1,820,895 


16,005,519 


25,349 


577,041,118 


358,706,384 



25 



THE FIFTY LEADING AGRICULTURAL COUNTIES IN 
THE UNITED STATES 

The Department of Commerce, through the Bureau of the 
Census, announces the following data from the 1920 census of 
agriculture for the United States. 

The Census Bureau has determined the rank of the 50 
counties in the United States leading in the combined value of 
farm crops and live-stock products in 1919. The live-stock 
products include dairy products, chickens and eggs, honey and 
wax, and wool and mohair, but not domestic animals sold and 
slaughtered. There is some duplication, to be sure, when the 
value of crops and the value of live-stock products are included 
in the same total, by reason of the fact that a large part of the 
live-stock products are derived from the feeding of farm crops 
to farm live stock. This combined value, however, appears to 
offer the best available index of the counties' agricultural pro- 
duction. 

The 50 leading agricultural counties were distributed among 
the several states as follows: California, 13; New York, 7; 
Illinois, 5; Texas, 4; Pennsylvania, 4; South Carolina, 4; North 
Carolina, 3 ; Washington, 2 ; Wisconsin, 2 ; and i each for 
Arizona, Colorado; Connecticut, Maine, Minnesota, and Missis- 
sippi. 

RANK OF SOME INDIVIDUAL COUNTIES 

Los Angeles County, Calif., ranked first among all counties 
in the United States in the combined value of crops and live- 
stock products in 1919, the total value amounting to $71,579,899. 
The value of crops in this country was $61,864,479, which was 
greater than the combined value of crops and live-stock products 
in any other county. Oranges contributed slightly more than 
one-third of the combined value of crops and live-stock products 
in this county. Other important items were lemons, walnuts, 
and hay and forage. 

Fresno County, Calif., ranked second among all counties, 
with a value of $55,110,101 for crops and live-stock products, 
and stood third in the value of crops alone, with $51,861,252. 

(386) 



387 

Grapes made up a little more than one-half of the combined 
value of crops and live-stock products, with peaches, and hay and 
forage following- in order. 

Aroostook County, Me., stood third in the combined value 
of crops and live-stock products, with $54,376,256, and was 
second in value of crops, with $52,541,205. Potatoes comprised 
about four-fifths of. the combined value in this county, while hay 
and forage was the next item in importance as regards value. 

San Joaquin County, Calif, ranked fourth, with a combined 
value of $41,191,240, for crops and live-stock products, and also 
stood fourth in the value of crops, with $37,956,866. Potatoes, 
grapes, barley, and hay and forage were the leading items from 
the standpoint of value. 

Lancaster County, Pa., was fifth in rank, with $40,776,212 
representing the value of crops and live-stock products. To- 
bacco, corn, hay and forage, and wheat were the most important 
items, in the order named. 

Yakima County, Wash., stood sixth in value of crop and 
live-stock products, with $34,741,710. Apples, and hay and 
forage were the leading items as regards value. 

Other counties, with their rank according to the combined 
value of crops and live-stock products in 1919, were as follows: 
Tulare County, Calif., seventh, with $34,036,167; Sonoma 
County. Calif., eighth, with $32,300,623 ; Whitman County, 
Wash., ninth, with $31,921,047; and Dane County, Wis., tenth, 
with $29,395,753. 

The 50 counties whose rank in the combined value of crops 
and live-stock products has been determined, are shown in the 
following table : 



388 



< 

in 
Pm 
O 

u 

o 

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Q 

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1—4 



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C/5 

w 

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"T; 1- >^ nJ *j 

o !; n! >,5f 

'*-' ° O rt n! 

-n .-So 



"! ?; « ^'-o 






1^ •/ " " s 

t- ;- o o o 



nl i- .- 



'i it ^C 
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>>« -^ '^'^ rt 
o 2 -o >> 






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rt 2 O t^ 
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u _, o &-" 



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C S ° C- 
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UOUGO 






o J-' o 



o c 
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uqhUUu u;.^ouu 



le of Crops 


Amount 


$61,864,479 
51,861,2.52 
.'52,541.205 
37,956,866. 
32,191,536 

32,458,658 
30,547,341 
17,477,370 
30,824,407 
20,978.957 ' 

26,938,018 
26.517,455 
24,054,416 
13,582,476 
25,572.032 

20,9.33,838 
23,792.084 
23,604,661 
23,800,535 
22,199,150 

■23,114,901 
21,474,008 
22,012,165 
22,904.976 
22,055,9.50 


'a 
> 


Rank 


,-1^5<M-!t.lO ^SOOMl-lO OJOC-lOOrH O-t<lHM03 » (N O 00 W 


Value of Crops 

and Live-Stock 

Products 


Amount 


$71,579,899 
55,110,101 
54,376,256 
41,191,240 

40,776,212 

34,741,710 
34,036,167 
32,300,623 
31,921,047 
29,395,753 

29,161,454 
27,957,448 
26,819,662 
26,809,540 
26,635,748 

26,600,746 
26,135,980 
25,828,420 
25,619,290 
24,153,905 

23,703,571 
23,627,284 
23,528,158 
23,427,879 
23,389,828 


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" b ° E 



THE TWENTY LEADING CROPS IN THE UNITED 

STATES 

The Department of Commerce, through the Bureau of the 
Census, announces the following data from the 1920 census of 
agriculture for the United States. 

The 20 leading crops of the United States in 1919, arranged 
in order of value, were corn, hay and forage, cotton, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, apples, barley, sweet potatoes, rye, rough rice, 
grapes, peaches, kafir and milo, oranges, sugar beets, peanuts, 
dry edible beans, and sugar cane. The total value of these 20 
crops was $13,754,290,926, which represents more than nine- 
tenths of the total value of crops shown by the Fourteenth 
Census. 

Corn heads the list, with a value of $3,507,797,102, or 
almost $1,000,000 more than hay and forage, which stands 
second on the list with a value of $2,523,050,224. Cotton ranked 
third, with a value (including cottonseed) of $2,355,169,365, and 
wheat ranked fourth, with a value of $2,074,078,801. These 
four crops combined represented a value amounting to $10,- 
460,095,492, or 70.9 per cent of the total value of all crops 
harvested in 1919. 

The next four crops in order were oats, with a value of 
$855,255,468; potatoes (white), with a value of $639,440,521; 
tobacco, with a value of $444,047,481 ; and apples, the leading 
fruit crop, with a value of $241,573,577. 

The following table shows for the 20 leading crops both the 
value and the acreage — or in case of fruit crops the number of 
trees or vines : 

VALUE AND ACREAGE OF TWENTY LEADING CROPS IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1919 

Crop Value Acreage 

1. Corn 13,507,797,102 87,771,600 

2. Hay and forage 2,523,050,224 96,121,228 

3. Cotton and cottonseed 2,355,169,36-5 33,740,106 

4. Wheat 2,074,078,801 73,099,421 

5. Oats 855,255,468 37,991,002 

(390) 



391 

6. Potatoes (white) 639,440,521 3,251,703 

7. Tobacco 444,047,481 1,864,080 

8. Apples 241,573,577 *115,309,165 

9. Barley 160,427,255 6,472,888 

10. Sweet potatoes 124,844,475 803,727 

11. Rye 116,537,965 7,679,005 

12. Rough rice 97,194,481 911,272 

13. Grapes 95,586,021 *225,754,285 

14. Peaches 95,569,868 *65,646,101 

15. Kafir, milo, etc 90,221,046 3,619,034 

16. Oranges 83,398,894 n4, 397, 836 

17. Sugar beets 66,051,989 636,434 

18. Peanuts 62,751,701 1,125,100 

19. Dry edible beans 61,795,225 1,161,682 

20. Sugar cane 59,499,467 372,938 



* Number of trees or vines of bearing age. 



392 



FRUIT CROPS, NUMBER OF TREES AND VINES, 

(U. S. Census) 



1919 



Counties 



Allen 

Defiance 

Fulton 

Hancock . 
Henry 
Lucas . . . . 
Paulding . 
Putnam 
Van Wert 
Williams . 
Wood .... 



Ashland 
Crawford 

Erie 

Huron . . 
Lorain . . 
Ottawa . . 
Richland 
Sandusky 
Seneca . . 
Wyandot 



Ashtabula . 
Columbiana 
Cuyahoga . 
Geauga ... 

Lake 

Mahoning 
Medina . . . 
Portage ... 

Stark 

Summit 
Trumbull 
Wavne . . . . 



Auglaize . 
Champaign 

aark 

Darke 

Hardin ... 
Logan . . . . 
Mercer 

Miami 

Shelby ... 



Delaware 

Fairfield 

Fayette 

Franklin 

Knox 

Licking . 

Madison 

Marion 

Morrow . 

Pickaway 

Ross 

LTnioTi ., 



Apple Trees 



Peach Trees 



13,629 
6,1.54 

11,298 
8.63+ 
7,127 

23,09:3 
2,716 
6,692 
5,S.52 
8.420 
6,779 

8,811 
10,836 
27,704 
10,185 
37,887 
41,937 
10,613 
20,200 
10,380 

6,197 

52,654 
70,590 
44,487 
41,716 
47,541 
28,606 
21,567 
22,ftJ5 
32,454 
29,439 
15,104 
22,421 

20 
3,386 
4,174 
10.225 
4.919 
7,9.59 
8,923 
4.527 
5,774 

19,808 

31,3.38 

1,782 

21,661 

13.084 

29,209 

4,383 

0,3.34 

7,181 

3,456 

.35,849 

8,375 



57 


1 

187 1 


26 


323 


60 


m-2. 


40« 


579 


47 


747 


48 


452 


24 


748 1 


49 


316 


.59 


790 


44 


019 


53 


136 


44 


291 


51 


1.38 


60 


327 


48 


304 


75 


867 


63 


70S 


.57 


2)0 


49 


737 


52 


842 


31 


021 


93 


125 


137 


393 


83 


297 


52 


2.55 


53 


573 


75 


550 


62 


553 


80 


482 


101 


346 


59 


501 


94 


204 


98 


560 


44 


553 


31 


963 


37 


51.3 ! 


66 


803 


39 


303 


42 


633 


.51 


093 


46 


358 


51 


525 


53 


623 


81 


007 


17 


464 


69 


.528 


57 


922 


87 


344 


11 


363 


25 


464 


43 


454 


26 


082 


104 


8-12 


23 


720 



3,458 
4,065 
6,545 
2,196 
3,163 
19,942 
669 
2,071 
1,626 
2,07^ 
6,193 

5.6S3 

2,747 

27,492 

4,858 

20,2.50 

66,413 

7,437 

9,691 

3,638 

2,929 

13,002 
45,975 
22,397 
11,551 
19,591 I 
19,184 
10,000 
10,858 
26,652 
30,923 
9,547 
10,699 

1,225 
2,185 
2,411 
3,591 
1,849 
3,162 
2,323 
2,568 
2,022 

6,778 

16,390 

680 

8,6-16 

8,. 553 

18,517 

572 

1.160 

3,717 

1,263 

15,691 

1,016 



«-M 

o 

5,446 
. 6,232 

14,447 
5,589 
3,357 

49,536 

t)74 

3,204 

2,471 

3,256 

10,633 

13,067 
4,788 

97,060 
7,1.31 

66.840 
548,737 

13,656 

23,286 
6,908 
4,9S3 

130,606 
110,234 
42,317 
24,073 
97,163 
45,094 
19,935 
18,712 
57,623 
31,727 
37,683 
33,498 

1,522 
3,834 

n ,715 

3,904 
2.686 
6,267 
3,407 
2,346 
1,952 

5.320 

25.700 

2,748 

6,688 

14,465 

44,070 

1,131 

1,917 

4.295 

3,067 I 

35.306 I 

1,280 I 



Pear 


Irees 








he 


T 


-t; 


n! 






M 


P 




U-i 


n! 










bn 












y. 





1,112 


4,218 


641 


2,782 


1,173 


43,016 


783 


3,939 


726 


3,924 


4,789 


10,672 


236 


1,637 


600 


3,097 


342 


2,697 


944 


4,455 


1,356 


6,445 


759 


3,069 


979 


4,295 


3,M6 


16,697 


704 


2,973 


3,262 


9,475 


7,764 


22,825 


1,190 


6,214 


2,0.59 


6,453 


7.31 


4,797 


489 


2,632 


4,465 


8,946 


5,267 


12,439 


7,915 


19,978 


6,7(:9 


21,057 


8,006 


26,641 


3,795 


8,920 


1,919 


6,456 


2,322 


7,131 


3,938 


9,733 


5,259 


6,644 


1,484 


7,456 


1,596 


7,890 


611 


3,3.53 


640 


3,469 


894 


5,624 


1,1.38 


6,234 


487 


3,146 


761 


4,104 


675 


3,535 


625 


7,868 


659 


4,997 


798 


3,6.58 


1,869 


5,1J9 


284 


2,977 


1 ,998 


6,678 


1 ,9.35 


7,322 


1,368 


5.670 


643 


1,095 


471 


2,803 


6.52 


4,&55 


369 


1,963 


1,128 


4,017 


656 


2,545 



Grape Vines 



2,591 

946 

1,361 

1,926 

1,236 

9,233 

596 

1,132 

907 

1,175 

1,660 

538 

1,160 

20,696 

676 

54,602 

23,731 

1,707 

850 

953 

533 

128,203 

4,562 

64,159 

13,708 

93,388 

3,823 

12,425 

4,393 

2,096 

6,323 

1,330 

3,338 

647 
670 
473 

1,095 
559 
900 

2,631 
917 
402 

566 

1,574 

245 

2,120 

963 

1,142 

2)5 

503 

009 

418 

403 

395 



393 



FRUIT CROPS, NUMBER OF TREES AND VINES, 1919 — Concluded 



< 






►J 



Counties 



Belmont .. 
Carroll 
Coshocton 
Harrison 
Holmes . . . 

I Jefferson . . 

I Tuscarawas 



Butler 

Clermont . . 
Clinton .... 

Greene 

Hamilton . . 
Montgomery 
Preble 



Warren . 

Adams . . 
Brown . . 
Gallia . . . 
Highland 
Jackson 
Lawrence 

Pike 

Scioto ... 



Apple Trees 



33,697 
19,7ST 
17,639 
10,126 
9,663 
25,214 
29,242 

5.453 
31,337 
12,330 

8,451 
24,397 
10,639 

6,283 



15,666 I 
11,612 

109.228 I 
11, .386 I 
74,291 I 

278,352 I 
21,765 I 
43,377 

39,394 I 
19,915 I 
15,. 515 I 
43,901 ] 
8,987 ( 
10,828 I 
35,399 I 
10,489 I 
12,698 I 
24,662 I 
62,194 I 



Peach Trees 



107,339 ! 
71,340 I 
96,485 1 
54,539 I 
64,. 524 I 11,147 
60,629 f 12,260 
92,176 I 17,718 



21,541 
16,394 
15,545 
6,913 



25,409 
114,099 
27,2.35 
33,712 
61,100 
5] ,.561 
39,861 



4,976 
15,937 
4,487 
3,384 
26,786 
4,782 
3,741 



6,631 I 27,924 3,460 



68,973 9,428 

55,933 I 6,468 

175,953 I 12,401 

46,895 I 5,584 



Athens . . . . 
Guernsey 
Hocking .. 

Meigs 

Monroe . . . 
Morgan . . . 
Muskingum 

Noble 

Perry 

\'inton . . . . 
Washington 



State 2,047,687 5,970,410 1970,183 



2,113 

377,654 
71,980 
72,719 

126,050 
94,786 
51,557 

U6,318 
83,695 
68,768 

114,316 
72,516 
62,7.55 
60,0.53 

194,, 573 



24,668 
54,537 
8,183 
16,711 



756 
297 
967 
373 
902 
667 
092 
868 
537 
492 
423 



Pear Trees 



Grape Vines 



K 
O 

72,802 
49,4-12 
48,500 
37,148 
31,313 
53,621 
61,126 I 

6,562 I 
44,620 I 
2,055 I 
3,693 ' 
82,308 I 
5,684 I 
6,968 
7,188 I 

23,446 

S,090 
43,629 
13,802 
40,294 
125,001 
24,027 
23,538 

68,417 
52,052 
27,346 
30,816 
17,769 
22,419 
58,883 
20,929 
26,525 
28.404 
32,174 



2,924,177 



2,439 
1,060 
1,178 
751 
886 
1,440 
2,089 

856 

2,035 

377 

772 

6,106 

3,161 

981 

524 

1,040 

1,524 
798 
665 
292 

1,7«1 
539 

1,224 

1,119 
1.485 

602 
1.184 

308 

570 
1,182 

540 
1,054 

661 
1,228 



147,892 



o 

9,707 
2,897 
7,. 371 
3,2Sr 
4,237 
2,9' :J 
6,727 

4,285 
27,036 
2,306 
3,8.51 
47,307 
17,352 
4,915 
2,873 

6,560 
3,635 
4,285 
2,633 
499 
5,826 
1,346 
2,671 

5,389 
3,727 
1,462 
6,395 
1,701 
2,320 
10,616 
2,309 
3,533 
1,111 
3,680 



616,416 



5,557 
390 
485 
327 
661 
1,416 
1,306 



1,253 
527 
197 
148 
198 
180 

1,036 
281 

2,429 
204 
995 



38,274 
3,071 
5,774 
1,791 
5,548 
5,939 
9,589 



1,007 


8,200 


1,179 


20,497 


277 


2,216 


975 


4,667 


7,644 


79,016 


4,663 


12,721 


1,520 


3,593 


349 


3,0f,9 


400 


3,499 


492 


6,658 


603 


2,156 


302 


4,472 


105 


1,537 


366 


1,867 


393 


3,957 


1,111 


5,770 



5,811 
3,984 
4,041 
3,765 
8,542 
2,479 
10,973 
4,156 
4,710 
l,58l 
4,413 

6,553,904 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



CONSTITUTION 
ARTICLE I NAME 

The name of this Association shall be the American Pomo- 
logical Society. 

ARTICLE II OBJECT 

Its object shall be the advancement of the science and art 
of Pomology. 

ARTICLE III MEMBERSHIP 

The regular membership of this Society shall consist of 
Collegiate, Annual, Society, Life, and Institutional members. 

The special membership shall consist of Honorary members, 
Subscribers, Contributors, Junior and Senior Patrons. 

ARTICLE IV MEETINGS 

The regular meetings of this Society shall be held annually 
at such time and place as the Executive Committee may decide. 

Special meetings may be convened upon the call of the 
President or by the Executive Committee on petition signed by 
a majority of its members. 

ARTICLE V ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

Students shall be eligible for Collegiate membership on 
recommendation of the professor of pomology in the faculty of 
the institution whence the applicant registers. 

' Any person shall be eligible for Annual membership on pay- 
ment of membership fee. 

Any society of established standing shall be eligible for 
Society membership and may become such member on its own 
election. 

Libraries and educational institutions may become members 
on their own election ; such memberships shall be limited to thirty 
years. 

(394) 



395 . 

Any person shall be eligible to Life membership on recom- 
mendation of a special committee appointed by the president to 
determine the applicant's qualifications ; and may be elected to 
such membership on approval by two-thirds of the Executive 
Committee. 

Honorary membership, in recognition of eminent or dis- 
tinguished services to pomology, may be conferred upon any 
person nominated by not less than a two-thirds vote of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, and who receives not less than a two-thirds 
vote of the membership present at a regular annual meeting. 

The designation of Subscriber may be conferred by vote of 
the Executive Committee upon any person, firm or corporation 
that may have contributed valuable services toward the ac- 
complishment of a definite periodical purpose. 

The designation of Contributor may be conferred, as above, 
upon any person, firm or corporation that may have contributed 
means, material or special services of notable permanent value 
for the advancement of the work being carried on by the Society. 

The title of Junior Patron may be conferred in similar man- 
ner upon any person — otherwise eligible to regular membership, 
who may contribute at any one time to any of the permanent 
funds of the Society the sum of $500. 

The title of Senior Patron may likewise be conferred upon 
any person similarly eligible, who has contributed, for a like 
purpose, the sum of $1,000. 

ARTICLE VI DUES AND FEES * 

The dues for Collegiate membership shall be one dollar for 
the calendar year ; for Annual membership shall be five dollars 
for the calendar year ; for Society membership shall be ten dol- 
lars, the calendar year; the fee for Institutional membership 
shall be fifty dollars; the fee for Life membership shall be fifty 
dollars. 

ARTICLE VII OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

The officers of this organization shall consist of a president ; 
first and second vice-presidents, one of whom shall be from 
Canada; a secretary-treasurer; and an executive committee 
which shall consist of eleven members and the officers ex-officio. 
The executive committee as soon as possible after election shall 



396 

choose from among themselves a Board of Managers of three 
who shall conduct in the absence of the executive committee the 
ad interim business of the Society. Six shall constitute a quorum 
of the executive committee and two of the Board of Managers. 

BY-LAWS 

1. The President shall preside at all meetings of the So- 
ciety ; he shall exercise a general supervision and control of the 
business and affairs of the Society, and appoint all committees 
unless otherwise directed. 

2. In case of death, sickness or inability of the President, 
his official duties shall devolve on the Vice-President. 

3. The Secretary-Treasurer shall receive all moneys be- 
longing to the Society, and pay over the same on the written 
orders of the President ; he shall, with the assistance of a re- 
porter appointed by him, keep a record of the transactions of 
the Society for publication; he shall furnish such bond as may 
be required by the Executive Committee. 

4. There shall be an Auditing Committee of three members 
appointed by the President at each annual meeting. 

5. A Standing Committee on New Fruits of American 
Origin consisting of three members, shall be appointed by the 
President, immediately after his election. It shall be the duty of 
this Committee to report annually on new fruits of American 
origin, and also to examine, and before the close of the session 
report on, all new seedling varieties that may be exhibited and 
to make an ad interim report on those that wer-e exhibited in an 
unripe condition at the meeting of the Society, but had subse- 
quently attained a state of maturity; and on such other seedlings 
as may have been submitted to their inspection during the 
Society's vacation. 

6. A Standing Committee on Foreign Fruits, consisting of 
three members, shall be appointed, whose duties shall be similar 
to those of the committee in By-Law Five. 

7. A Standing Committee on Tropical and Sub-Tropical 
Fruits, consisting of three members, shall be appointed, whose 
duties shall be similar to those of the committee in By-Law Five. 

8. A Standing Committee on Nomenclature, consisting of 
three members, shall be appointed annually. 



397 

9- A'acancies occurring in committees shall be filled by the 
chairman of each, and in case of his death or inability to serve, 
his place shall be supplied by the President of the Society. 

10. The order of business for each meetitig- shall be ar- 
ranged by the Executive Committee. 

11. The Constitution or By-Laws may be altered or amend- 
ed, at any regular annual meeting, by a vote of two-thirds of the 
members present. 

12. That there be hereby established a membership in this 
body to be known as Society Membership, which shall be open 
to state. Provincial and district organizations. The fee for such 
membership shall be, for a State or Provincial Society, ten dol- 
lars, and for a district society five dollars, the year. This mem- 
bership carries with it the right and duty to appoint delegates, 
one for each hundred members, or major fraction thereof, and 
one delegate-at-large, of the delegating body, to attend and par- 
ticipate in the meetings of this Society. 

Delegates from the above Society Members shall be en- 
titled to all the privileges of other members of this Society ; but 
in the case of the appointment of alternates, no alternate shall 
have a right to vote except in the absence of his principal, or 
in the event his principal elects to divide his privilege, thereby 
casting a one-half vote for principal and alternate. 

13. There is hereby established a membership in this So- 
ciety known as the Collegiate Membership which shall be open 
to students in Pomology in any agricultural school, college or 
university. 

14. The voting privilege of this organization shall be ex- 
ercised by these annual, society and life members in good stand- 
ing, and whose dues are paid for the current year. 



MEMBERSHIP LIST OF THE AMERICAN POMOLOG- 
ICAL SOCIETY . 



LIFE 



Allen, Alexander, M. D. 
Alwood, Wm. B., Greenwood, Va. 
Ash, John, Pomfret Center, Ct. 
Atkins, Chas. G., Bucksport, Me. 
Austin, C. F., Herradura, Cuba. 

Babcock, J. L., Norfolk, Va. 

Bailey, L. H., Ithaca, N. Y. 

BerryhiU, J. G., 304 New Call Bldg., 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Black, Chas., Hightstown, N. J. 

Blackmore, John C, Christ Church, 
Canterbury, New Zealand. 

Blair, J. C, Urbana, 111. 

Briggs, G. R., Plymouth, Mass. 

Bunyard, E. A., AUington, Maid- 
stone, Eng. 

Chase, Howard A., Commonwealth 
Bldg., Mount Pocono, Pa. 

Cane, Mrs. Moses H., Blowing 
Rock, N. C. 

Cook, David C, Elgin, 111. 

Crandall, C. S., Urbana, 111. 

Coe, Asher M., North Olmstead, 
Ohio. 

Chase Bros. Co., The Rochester 
Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y. 

Cruickshank, R. B., O. S. U., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

Darrow, Geo. M., U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Dean, M. L., Wenatchee, Wash. 

Dearing, Chas., U. S. D. A., Wash- 
mgton, D. C. 

Devitt, Wm., Georgetown, Del. 

Devol, Wm. Stowe, Santa Monica, 
Calif. 

Dewey, Geo. W., Jerome, Idaho. 

Dreer, W. F., 714 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dumas, J. L., Pomona Ranch, Day- 
ton, Wash. 

Durell, E. H., Woodbury, N. J. 

De Cou, Howard F., Moorestown, 
N.J. 



Egbert, Knott C, Rt. 7, Tiffin, Ohio. 

Fay, Jesse B., 10"21 Society for Sav- 
ings Bldg., Cleveland, O. 
Fletcher, W. F., Woodward Okla. 
Eraser, Samuel, Geneseo, N. Y. 
Fugazzi, John F., Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Gammon, C. W., 67 7th Ave., New 

York City. 
Gardiner, Robt. H.. Gardiner, Me. 
Garfield, Chas. W., Grand Rapids, 

Mich. 
Gay, Leslie F., Sta. A, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
Gerrish, O. K., Lakeville, Mass. 
Gillett, M. E., Tampa, Fla. 
Greening, Chas. E., Monroe, Mich. 
Green, E. C, 1101 W. Green St., 

Urbana, 111. 
Guilford, W. S., Orland, Calif. 

Hansen, N. E.,- Brookings, S. D. 

Harrison, Orlando, Berlin, Md. 

Hart. W. S., Hawk's Park, Fla. 

Hartevelt, A., Ryswiik, by den 
Haag, Holland. 

Hodge, C. F., Clark Univ., Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

Hume, H. Harold, Glen St. Mary, 
Fla. 

Hunnewell, Walter, 87 Milk St., 
Boston, Mass. 

Husmann, Fred L., 2nd and Sem- 
inary Sts., Napa, Calif. 

Husmann, Geo. C, U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Herf¥, B. Von, Berlin, Postlagernd, 
Germany. 

Ilgenfritz, Chas. A., Monroe, Mich. 
Irish. H. C. R. 6, Webster Groves, 
Mo. 



Kains, M. G., Pomona, N. Y. 
Kidder. N. T.. Milton, Mass. 



(398) 



399 



Kirkpatrick, T. J., 1603 High St., 
Springfield, Ohio. 

Lake, E. R., 2033 Park Rd., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 
Lauman, G. N., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Lehenbauer, P. A., University of 

Nevada, Reno, Nevada. 
Leslie, W. R., Dominion Exp. Farm, 

Morden, Manitoba, Can. 
Lewis, K. B., Red Hook, N. Y. 
Lovett, J. T., Little Silver, N. J. 
Lysle, Addison, Fillmore, Calif. 

McAfee, H. B., Indiana Ave. and 

oOth St., Chicago, 111. 
McLaughlin, Henry, Bangor, Me. 

Magid, Louis B., Tallulah Park, Ga. 

Mann, Chas. W., U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Marshall, Geo. A., Arlington, Nebr. 

Mayer, Dr. I. H., Willowstreet, Pa. 

Meneray, F. W.. 71-5 1st St., Coun- 
cil Bluffs, la. 

Miller, H. W., Paw Paw, W. Va. 

Minott, C. W., 964 Main St., Mel- 
rose Highlands, Mass. 

Morris, O. M., Pullman, Wash. 

Munson, D. O., Falls Church, Va. 

Myers, Wm. S., 25 Madison St., 
New York City. 

Neame, F. Ivo, Macknade, Faver- 

sham, Eng. 
Niagara Sprayer Co., Gasport, 

N. Y. 

Perrine, W. S., Centralia, 111. 
Phillips. J. L., Linden, Va. 
Price, H. L., Blacksburg, Va. 
Purington, E. F., East Wilton, Me. 
Pershing, Thed., Pineville, Pa. 
Pease, J. L., Apartado Postal No. 

2843, Mexico City, Mexico. 
Pratt, B. G. Co., 50 Church St., 

New York City. 

Quaintance, A. L., U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Reom, J. A., Paradise, Butte Co., 

Calif. 
Richardson, Chas. E., Brookline, 

Mass. 
Roeding, Geo. C, Fresno, Calif. 
Rogers, A. J., Beulah, Mich. 
Rowe, George E., Grand Rapids, 

Mich. 



Rumph, Samuel H., Marshallville 

Ga. 
Rust, David, 606 Finance BIdg. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Riehl. E. A., Godfrey,^ III. 
Reed, W. C. & Son, Vincennes, Ind 

Sadler, Dr. O. W., Mount Dora 

Fla. 
Sampson, F. G., Quincy, Fla. 
Schenck, A. A., Brookfield Centre 

Conn. 
Smith, Wm. Elliot, Alton, 111. 
Smith, George W., Hartford, Conn 
Smith, Erwin F., 1457 Stoughton 

St., Washington, D.' C. 
Smith, John D., Jr., Tipton, Ind. 
Smjth, Wing. R., 226 Wieting Bldg. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Stark, Wm. H., 30 Wayne Ave. 

White Plains, N. Y. 
Starr, Robt. W., Wolfville, Nova 

Scotia, Can. 
Streator, Geo. J., 854 Seaside x\ve., 

Santa Cruz, Calif. 
Swineford, Howard, 617 Mutual 

Bldg., Richmond, Va. 
Swingle, W. T., U. S. D. A., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Smith, J. E.. Wvsor Bldg., Muncie, 

Ind. 

Taber. G. L., Glen St., Mary, Fla. 

Taylor, F. W., 3939 W. 7th St., 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Taylor, Wm. A., 55 Q. St., N. E., 
Washington, D. C. 

Temple, W. C, Winter Park, Fla. 

Thomas, Mrs. Anna V. G., King- 
ston, R. I. 

Thompson, J. B., Guam, Guam. 

Trelease, Wm., Univ. of 111., 
Urbana. 111. 

Templin, M. B.. Canfield, Ohio. 

Toledo Rex Sprav Co., Toledo, 
Ohio. 

Underwood, J. M., Lake City, Minn. 

Ward, C. W., Box 48, Eureka, 
Calif. 

Warren, J. R., Marathon. 23 Sey- 
mour Gr., Camberwell, Victoria, 
Australia. 

Watson, B. M.. Plymouth, Mass. 

Weber, Frank A., Nursery, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Wester, P. J.. Manila, Philippine 
Islands. 



400 



Whitworth, J. A., 527 Crescent 
Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Wickersham, R. A., Benderville, 
Pa. 

Wilder, Ed. B., Dorchester, Mass. 



Wilder, H. J., U. S. D. A., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Williams, J. L., Kansas City, Kans. 
Wilson, Silas, Nampa, Idaho. 
Wister, J. C., Germantown, Pa. 



ANNUAL 



Abbott, Gail T., Medina, Ohio. 

.\nderson, Robt., Covert, Mich. 

Albyn, H. A., The Orchards, Ben- 
nington, Vt. 

Archbold & Co., Waterport, N. Y. 

.Anderson, E. H., 54 Buena PI., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Adams, Chas. H., New Waterford, 
Ohio. 

Albertson, H. H., Burlington, N. J. 

Bayer, Coony, 8'25 Edgewater Ave., 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Barry, Frederic G.. T06 Mt. Hope 
Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Bentley, Arthur F., Paoli, Ind. 

Buchanan, H. L., Rt. 10, Logans- 
port, Ind. 

Baker, Wm. A., Rt. 2, Wolcott, 
N. Y. 

Brennan, F. H., Fennville, Mich. 

Bullard, T. E., Schuylerville, N. Y. 

Bowker Insecticide Co., 49 Cham- 
bers St., New York City. 

Bailev, E. W.. Naches, Wash. 

Burkholder, H., Clyde, Ohio. 

Ballon, F. H., Newark, Ohio. 

Bingham. C A., 404 Erie Bldg., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Brock, W. S., Univ. of Illinois. 
Urbana, 111. 

Baird, W. C, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

Bowman, M. L., North Baltimore, 
Ohio. 

Berckmans, L. A., Herald Bldg., 
Augusta, Ga. 

Bureau of Plant Industry, Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Blessing, David S., B. 1175, Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Byers, E. E., Flora. 111. 

Browne, Milton W., 3103 Coleman 
Rd., Kansas City, Mo. 

Brown, C. H., Swedesboro; N. J. 

Blakeslee, E. B.. Medina. Ohio. 

Babcock, E. B., College of Ayr.. 
Berkeley, Calif. 

Bioletti. F. F._, Univ. of Calif., 
Berkeley, Calif. 

Clarke, W. R., Milton, N. Y 



Cross, T. E., Lagrangeville, N. Y. 

Chandler, Dr. W. H., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Crawford, Chas., Rt. 2, Sta. B, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Cranefield, F., Madison, Wis. 

Cofifing, J. D., Silverwood, Ind. 

Coffing, Homer, Silverwood, Ind. 

Cecil, M. A., 8018 Grace Ave., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cleveland Public Library, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Conklin, R., Smithfield, Va. 

Coit, J. Eliot, 1880 Linda Vista 
Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 

Cole, W. R., Mass. Agricultural 
College, Amherst, Mass. 

Clifton, L. J.. Clifton Fruit Farm, 
Memphis, N. Y. 

Chilcott, A. H., Vienna, Va. 

Close, C. P., College Park, Md. 

Caha, Wm., Wahoo, Nebr. 

Cannadav. Dr. J. E., 407 Kanawha 
Banking & Trust Bldg., Charles- 
tori, W. Va. 

Dav, L. O., Olney, 111. 

Demorest, H. P., Warwick, N. Y. 

De Cou. Benj. S., Rt. 1, Norris- 

town. Pa.' 
Downing, F. P., Package Sales 

Corp.. South Bend, Ind. 
Dickinson, Dr. B. M., 5711 Elgin 

Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Doud, L. v., Denver, Ind. 
Davis, M. B., Central Experimental 

Farms, Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 
Davis, V. H., Port Clinton, Ohio. 
Dominion Exp. Farms, c/o W. W. 

Baird, Nappan, N. S., Canada. 
Dow. Herbert H.. Midland, Mich. 
Dickson, W. M., Woodside. Del. 
Dencer, Ed., R. 3, Salem. Ore. 
Dunlap. H. ^I., Savoy, III. 

Eagles. Albert E., Wolcottville, Ind. 
Everhart. G. W., York, Pa. 
Emerson, Dr. J. B., 40 E. 40th St., 

New York City. 
Evarts, R. L., 622 Pine St., Owasso, 

Mich. 
Etter, Albert F., Ettersburg, Calif. 



401 



Estes, J. L., Gay, Ga. 

Inillerton, H. B., Medford, Long- 
Island, N. Y. 

I^'arnsworth, P". W., Waterville, O. 

■ •"arnsworth, VY. G., Waterville, O. 

I'arnsworth, Willard, Waterville, 
Ohio. 

l-arnsworth, \Y. W., Waterville, O. 

Kaxon, Richard, Elyria, O. 

Flonrnoy, W. T., Marionville, Mo. 

Fiebing, J. H., 238 Reed St., Mil- 
waukee. Wis. 

Ferguson, T: L., Farms, Dyers- 
burg, Tenn. 

Finley, Milton A., R. 1, Portchester, 
N. Y. 

Forkert, C, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Graham, Gordon, Rochester. Ind. 

Greene, Frank \L, Brockport, N. Y. 

Green. Howard A., Walled Lake, 
Mich. 

Gill, John, VII, Haddon Farms, 
Haddonfield, N. J. ' 

Graves, Henry B., 2134 Dime Bank 
Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

Greene, Laurenz, Purdue Univ., La- 
fayette. Ind. 

Gould, H. P., U. S. D. A., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Garrett, F. B., Burns City, Ind. 

Gourlev, J. H., Wooster, O. 

Gill. R. A., Port Clinton, O. 

Gall Co., B. L., Wilson, N. Y. 

Gray, J. P., 721 5th St., Nampa. 
Idaho. 

Green's N^ursery Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

Gage, J. P., Vineland, N. J. 

Gilmer, R. T. H.. 500 E. Burlington 
St.. Fairfield, la. 

Gordon, Silvanus, Sergeantsville, 
N. J. 

Hoffman. Max, Rt. 2, St. Joseph, 

Mich. 
Hayes, A. C, Muir, Mich, 
liunter, D. W., Chattanooga, H. P. 

Sta., Tenn. 
Hill, Arthur W., Isle La Motte, Vt. 
Holmes, H. B., Mitchell, Ind. 
Haines, Robt. B., TIT. 130 E. Main 

St., Moorestown, N. J. 
Hull Bros., Wvmart. Pa. 
Huey, H. E., Rt. 2. Shelby. Mich. 
Havman, Guv L., Northbronk, Pa. 
Hall, H. G., "Mitchell. Ind. 
Henkle, S. G., Staunton. Va. 



Harrington, Chas. O., Warsaw, 
N. Y. 

Hubbell, Julius, EUensburg, Wash. 

Haines, Lafayette, 63 Thompson 
St., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Harrington, F. M., Bozeman, Mont. 

Hommel, R. S., 504 Randolph St., 
Knoxville. Tenn. 

Huckins, F. O., c/o Rex Spray Co., 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Holstein, Geo., Amherst, Ohio. 

Hoddy, E. J., L. & N. R. R., Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 

Horticultural Exp. Station, Vine- 
land Sta., Ontario, Canada. 

Hatch, L. M., Alderton, Wash. 

Harris, Walter B., Worton, Md. 

Hines, W. F., Gilmore, Ohio. 

Flay ward, Thos. B., Harmony 
Grove, Md. 

Higgins, Corwin W., 181P E. (ith 
St.,'Duluth, Minn. 

Hovt, E. C, Brentwood, Long 
Island, N. Y. 

Higgins, J. E., Los Banos College, 
Laguma, Phil. Is. 

Hutchinson, I. H., Jobstown, N. J. 

ITubbard, T. S., Co., Fredonia, 
N. Y. 

Harris, W. B., Chestertown, Md. 

Universitv of 111. Library, LIrbana, 
111. 

James, Carl B., Horticulturist, L. & 

N. R. R., Athens, Ala. 
Johnson, Fred, Westfield, N. Y. 

Kirby, Clarence J., 914 East Front 

St., Monroe. Mich. 
Kuchler, Geo. W., Jr., Lagrange- 

ville, N. Y. 
Ketchum, C. S., Middlefield, O. 
Kennish, V. W., 304 Dwight St., 

Kewanee. 111. 
Kinsella, Arthur J., 2613 Ashland 

St., Cincinnati, O. 
Kelley, F. H., Albion, 111. 

Ledoux, Wm. H., Grand Isle, Vt. 
Lamoreux. Paul, Kettle Falls. 

Wash. 
Liddell, M. L.. Burt, X. Y. 
Lavvlor. F. J.. Box F27, Pitts ford, 

N. Y. 
Lachman. John, 4100 Brownsville 

Rd., Mt. Oliver Sta., Pittsburgh. 

Pa. 



402 



Lewis, S. R., Mountainville, Orange 

Co., N. Y. 
Locklin, H. D., Grand Junction, 

Colo., Box 637. 
Lewis, L P., Fleming, Ohio. 
Logan, Paul, Camden, O. 
Launder, C. H. & Son, Wabash, 

Ind., Box 393. 
Lewis, C. B., Riverton, N. J. 
LaMont, Geo. B., Maple Grove 

Fruit and Stock Farm, Albion, 

N. Y. 
Longanecker, E. L., Canfield, O. 
Livezey. A. J., Barnesville, O. 
Latimer-Goodwin Chem. Co., Grand 

Junction, Colo. 
Leeson, J. P., 91 South St., Boston. 

Mass. 

McLane, F. W., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
McFarland, J. Horace, Harrisburg, 
Pa. 

Myers, Hosea P., 30 North Dear- 
born St., Chicago, 111. 

Murray, H. D., Box 515, Staunton, 
Va. 

Morse, Geo. A., Williamson, N. Y. 

Maney, T. J., Iowa Agricultural 
College, Ames, la. 

Meissner, Henry, Leighton, la. 

Marsh, Herbert V., Kingston, R. I. 

Massey, Wm. P., Winchester, Va. 

Magid, L. B., New Orleans, La. 

Mam, E. L., 126 W. Winter St., 
Delaware, O. 

Mount Arbor Nurseries, Shenan- 
doah, la. 

Mason, A. F., Exp. Sta., New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Maver, Guy S., Willow Street, Pa. 

Meder, O. F.. B 8, R 1, Westwood, 
N. J. 

Newberry, W. F., 233 Broadway. 

New York City. 
Noble, S. G.. Peach, Wash. 
Nichols, H. E., Iowa State College 

of Agriculture, Ames, la. 

O'Brien, P. J., Kettle Falls. Wash. 

Odell & Weiderhold, Box 201. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y. 

Oldfield, E., P. O. Drawer 578, Vic- 
toria, B. C, Canada. 

Otis, Geo. T., 1213 Astor St., 
Chicago, 111. 

Odell, F. I., Cannelton, Ind. 

Ordway, C. D.. 207 S. Union St., 
Burlington, Vt. 



Pickford, I. T., Hart, Mich. 

Piatt, Norman S., 395 Whalley 
Ave., New Haven, Conn. 

Popenoe, Wilson, U. S. D. A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Phillips, A. D., North East, Pa. 

Pickett, Harold. Clyde, Ohio. 

Paddock, W., O. S. U., Columbus. 
Ohio. 

Patton, W. Z., Catlettsburg, Ky. 

Parker, H. B., Fiskdale, Mass. 

Peters, R. B., Devore, Calif. 

Patterson, C. F., Univ. of Sas- 
katchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatch- 
ewan. 

Poff, Wilmer H., 333 N. Elliott St., 
Olney, 111. 

Quak-Al-Nunk Orchards, Delta, 
Pa., Rt. 3. 

Ryan, John C, The Orchards, Ben- 
nington, Vt. 

Reist, John G., Mt. Joy, Pa. 

Rick, John, 438-444 Penn St., Read- 
ing, Pa. 

Rittenhouse, Dr. J. S., Lorane, Pa. 

Robertson, J. B., Box 165, Kettle 
Falls, Wash. 

Reasoner, J. R., Urbana, 111. 

Reed, Noble, Rt. 1, Hanover, Ind. 

Ring, M. A., Conneaut, Ohio. 

Rubicon Realty Co., 221 S. Ludlow 
St., Dayton, Ohio. 

Repp, Chas. F., Glassboro, N. J. 

Rodgers, R. W., Dockland, Ohio. ' 

Romans, W. P., Chamber of Com- 
merce, Spokane, Wash. 

Root, W. A., Easthampton, Mass. 

Reasoner, E. N., Oneco, Fla. 

Riggs, E. J., Raccoon Island, Ohio. 

Reed. W. C. & Sons, Vincennes, 
Ind. 

Roesch, Lewis, Fredonia, N. Y. 

Rich. Wm. P., Sec'y-, Mass. Hort. 
Society. 300 Mass. Ave., Boston. 
Mass. 

Spargar Orchard Co., Mt. Airy, N. 

Carolina. 
Strohle, George, Clinton Corner, 

Dutchess Co., N. Y. 
Smith, Geo. E., Albion, N. Y. 
Stafford, Irving B., 848 Ackerman 

Ave., Syracuse, N. Y. 
Stear, J. R., 431 Philadelphia Ave.. 

Chambersburg, Pa. 
Smith Co., W. & T., Geneva, N. Y. 
Shipert. Dr. H. L., Alpena, Mich. 



403 



Simpson Orchard Co., Vincennes, 

Ind. 
Scranton, A. V., 1334 Lakeview Rd., 

Cleveland, O. 
Sweet, Wm., Chesterland, O. 
Scott. F. W., 634 River St., Ypsi- 

lanti, Mich. 
Storrs-Harrison Co., Painesville, O. 
Schroeder, Henry J., Barclay Hts., 

Saugerties, N. Y. 
Shaw, P. J., Truro, N. S., Canada. 
Shattuck, F. E., Princeton, Ky. 
Schauber, Geo. R., Ballston Lake, 

N. Y. 
Simpson, F. H., Flora, 111. 
Scarfif, H. F., New Carlisle, O. 
Schultze, E. B., Laurel, Ind. 
Stephens. E. F., Nampa, Ind. 
Sharp, M., Vacaville, Calif. 

Tyson, C. J., Flora Dale, Pa. 
Trisler, G. E., c/o The Deming Co., 

Salem, Ohio. 
Thayer, Paul, Wooster, O. 
Taft, L. R., Lansing, Mich. 
Tyler, W. D., Dante, Russell Co., 

W. Va. 
Thatcher, C. W., Martinsburg, W. 

Va. 
Thornburg, Thos. E., Ashland, O. 

Undershill Bros., Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. 

Ueland, L. A., Roseburg, Oregon. 

Underdown, W. E., Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

United Paper Co., Box 888, At- 
lanta, Ga. 



Underwood, D. B., Harveysburg, O. 

Vonnegut, Walter, Culver, Ind. ; 71 
55th St., New York City (win- 
ter). 

Whitney, Granger, Williamsburg, 

Mich. 
Wine, V. W., R. F. D. 1, Cashmere, 

Wash. 
Warner, James H., Hampton 

Farms. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Wood, Jay, Knowlesville, N. Y. 
Waid, C. W., Ohio Farm Bureau 

Federation, Columbus. O. 
West, T. B., Perry, Ohio. 
Whitney, O. F., Topeka, Kans. 
Weed, Addison, North Rose, N. Y. 
Wood, Allen L., 891 Garson Ave., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Washington Nursery Co., Top- 

penish. Wash. 
Wile-Adler Fruit Farms, 955 Har- 
vard St., Rochester, N. Y. 
Whitten, Ralph C, Bridgman, 

Mich. 
White, Elizabeth C., New Lisbon, 

N.J. 
Wight, J. B., Cairo, Ga. 
Wood, E. M., North Madison, Ind. 
Waite, J. W., Box 307, Normandy, 

Tenn. 
Willis, A. & Co., Ottawa, Kans. 
Whisker, A. L., Grass Valley, Calif. 
Westcourt, F. W., John Tarleton 

Agr. College, Stephenville, Tex. 

Zimmerman, F. S., Brewster. Wash. 



COLLEGIATE 



Cornell 



Adams, Geo. O., Rt. -22, Ransom- 

ville, N. Y. 
Black, Clifford M.. 214 Thurston 

Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Boyd, Stephen, 433 Park St., Ithaca, 

N. Y. 
Cubbon, M. H., 134 College Ave., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Dikeman, R. C. 105 Dewitt Place, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Foster, S. M.. 233 Thurston Ave., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Hewlett, F. S., Dept. of Pomologv, 

Ithaca. N. Y. 



Jenkins, E. W., Sidney Center, 

N. Y. 
Knapp, L. B., 214Thurston Ave., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Perrine, S. A., Phi Delta Sigma. 

The Knoll, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Phelps, L. S.. 220 University Ave., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Prentiss, Earl A., 134 College St., 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Rupert, P. v.. Phi Delta Sigma, 

The Knoll, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Smith, J. E., North Rose, N. Y. 
Van Patten, E. F., Walcott, N. Y. 



404 



Van de Water, C, Hyde Park. 

N. Y. 
Wilkin. G. A.. 102 West Ave, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Wincliester, M. F., 300 Highland 

Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 



MacGillivray, J. H., Dept. of Veg- 
etable Gardening. N. Y. State 
College of Agriculture, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 



Iowa 

Simons. H. C, 216 Stanton Ave.,. Kahac, V. O., 125 Hyland Ave., 

Ames, la. Ames. Ta. 

Klopp. R. I., 81 Stanton Ave., Tucker. D. A., 237 North Lincoln- 
Ames, la. wav, Ames, la. 

Reyschlag, F., ' 131 Hyland Ave.. Peterson. H. W., Y. M. C. A.. 

Ames, la. Pavette, la. 

Porter, D. R., 2.^18 West St.. Ames, Hahn. H.A., Y. M. C. A.. Chicago, 

Towa. III. 

Simon. C. M., 515 6th St., Ames, la. 



Ohio 



French, A. P., M. A. C, Amherst. 
Mass. 

Gordon, E. W., Beech Bottom, W. 
Va. 

Scott. H. F., Cumberland. Ohio. 

Stacy. D. D., Marietta, Ohio. 

Ink, James, Campus, O. S. U., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 



Richardson, H. C, Campus, O. S. 

U.. Columbus. Ohio. 
Rofkar, W. F., Campus, O. S. U., 

Columbus. Ohio. 
Wells, H. M., Campus, O. S. U., 

Columbus. Ohio. 



Oregon 



Bean, Bruce C. San Fernando, 

Calif. 

Baker, Rufus W., Oregon City, 
Oregon. 

Chapman, Paul J.. Santa Rosa. 
Calif. 

Chu. John S., Corvallis, Ore. 

Cusack, Mary, 1005 Missouri Ave., 
Portland, Ore. 

Davis, L. C, Corvallis. Ore. 

De Macedo. Wm., Corvallis, Ore. 

Fendall, Kenneth D.. Newberg, Ore. 

Green, Ferris M., Hood River, Ore. 

Garst, Clyde W., P. S. K., Corval- 
lis, Ore. 

Macpherson. D. F. 

Moreland. H. M.. !)57 Jefferson St.. 

Corvallis, Ore. 

Norris, R. K.. Modford. Ore. 

Parker, J. R. 

Patchett. W. C, Corvallis, Ore. 

Palmer, D. F.. Upland, Calif. 



Perkins. A. B., .Santa Anaa, Calif. 

Pentzer, W. P., Poling Hall, Cor- 
vallis, Ore. 

Storz, C. W.. Theta Chi. Corvallis, 
Ore. 

Shade. Jack. Riveria. Calif. 

Sawver, M. F., Whittier, Calif. 

Scott, M.L.. Whittier. Calif. 

Teevin, J. F., Corvallis, Ore. 

Waldo, Geo. F., Dayton, Ore. 

Wharton, M. F.. Garden City, Calif. 

Waterman, E. Y., Corvallis, Ore. 

Willuir, R. F., Poling Hall. Cor- 
vallis, Ore. 

Weller. J. B.. Mosier, Ore. 

Piurtncr, J. C. Dufur, Ore. 

Coe. Francis, 632 Rex Ave., San 
Bernardino, Calif. 

Dawson, F. W.. 220 N. 15tli St.. 
Corvallis, Ore. 

Paddock. H. L.. 1944 Lincoln St., 
Eugene, Ore. 



405 



SOCIETY 

Ohio State Horticultural Society, O. S. U., Columbus, Ohio. 

New York State Horticultural Society, Leroy, N." Y. 

Pomologic'al and Fruit Growing Society of Quebec, Chateauguay, Quebec, 

Canada. 
Fruit Growers' Association, Parliament Bldg., Toronto, Canada. 
Illinois State Horticultural Society, Urbana, 111. 

Northumberland & Durham Apple Association, Brighton, Ontario, Can. 
Wisconsin State Hort. Society, Madison, Wis. 
Michigan State Horticultural Society, East Lansing, Mich. 
New Jersey State Horticultural Society, Burlington, N. J. 

THIRTY YEAR INSTITUTIONAL 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Library, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 

Luther Burbank Press, Santa Rosa, Calif. 

California State University Library, Berkeley, Calif. 

Central Experiment Farms, Ottawa, Canada. 

Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Calif. 

Colorado State Agricultural Library, Fort Collins, Colo. 

Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Crerar Library, The John, Chicago, III. 

Detroit Public Library, Detroit, Mich. 

Georgia State College of Agricultural Library, Athens, Ga. 

Georgia State University Library, Athens, Ga. 

Illinois State University Hort. Dept., Urbana, 111. 

Iowa State College Library, Ames, la. 

Iowa State Hort. Library, Des Moines, la. 

Kansas State Hort. Society, Topeka, Kans. 

Maine State Experiment Sta. Library, Orono, Me. 

Maine State Univ. Library, Orono, Me. 

Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Library, College Park, Md. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College Library, Amherst, Mass. 

Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Ass'n., Library, Marlboro, Mass. 

Michigan Agricultural College Library, East Lansing, Mich. 

Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Sta. Library, St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

Mississippi State Agriculttfral College Library, Agricultural College, Miss. 

Missouri Fruit Experiment Station, Mountain Grove, Mo. 

Missouri State Hort. Society, Columbia, Mo. 

Missouri State University Library, Columbia, Mo. 

Montana State Board of Horticulture, Missoula, Mont. 

Montana Experiment Station Library, Bozeman, Mont. 

Nebraska State University Library, Lincoln, Nebr. 

New Hampshire State Agricultural Experiment Sta., Durham, N. H. 

New Hampshire State Library, Concord, N. H. 

New Mexico A. & M. College Library, Mesilla Park, N. M. 

New York State Experiment Station Library, Geneva, N. Y. 

New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

North Carolina College of Agricultural, West Raleigh, N. C. 

North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

Ohio State University Library, Columbus, Ohio. 

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Sta., Wooster, Ohio. 

Ontario Agricultural College Library, Guelph, Ontario, Can. 

Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, Ore. 

Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station, Talent, Oregon. 



40b 

Purdue University Library, Lafayette, Ind. 

Purdue University Experiment Station, Lafayette, Ind. 

Rhode Island Experiment Station Library, Kingston, R. I. 

Riverside Public Library, Riverside, Calif. 

Sapporo Agricultural College, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Y..Hoshino, Japan. 

Texas Agricultural College Library, College Station, Texas. 

University of California Agricultural Library, Berkeley, Calif. 

Vermont Agricultural Experiment Station, Burlington, Vt. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va. 

Washington Agricultural College Library, Pullman, Wash. 

West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, W. Va. 

West Virginia .University Library, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Wild & Bros., James B., Sarcoxie, Mo. 

Wisconsin State University Library, Madison, Wis. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, Worcester, Mass. 

Wyoming State University Library, Laramie, Wyoming. 

H. H. Hardie Co., Hudson, Mich. 

Stark Bros. Orchards and Nursery Co., Louisiana, Mo. 

Library, University of State of New York, Albany, N. Y. 

Library, Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kans. 

Package- Sales Corporation, South Bend, Ind. 

Toledo Rex Spray Co., Toledo, Ohio. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

PAGE 

Proclamation 3 

Addresses and Reports — 

President's Address — Dr. L. H. Bailey 5 

Report of the Secretary-Treasurer — R. B. Cruickshank 16 

Pure Fruit Juices — Clark Allis 23 

Economic Work of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture in Connection with Pomology — Dr. H. C. Taylor 2!) 

Trip to Plant of the Toledo Rex Spray Company .3!) 

An Analysis of Some of the Census Figures on Fruit Trees — 

H. P. Gould 43 

" Fruit Conditions in New England — F. C. Sears 53 

Report of Committee on President's Address 59 

Fruit for the Future — Chas. J. Brand 66' 

Fruit Growing in the East North Central Group of States — 

Laurenz Greene 77 

United States Apple Production in 1930 — -H. G. Ingerson 79 

Some Lessons From the 1920 Census Report — B. G. Pratt 85 

Analysis of Census Figures for Fruit Trees — D. C. Babcock.. SO 
Report on Fruit Conditions for New Jersey, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, Maryland and Delaware — A. Freeman 

Mason and Arthur J. Farley 92 

Fruit Conditions in the Pacific Northwest — C. T. Lewis 98 

Montana Horticulture — F. M. Harrington 101 

Conditions in the Southeastern States — N. D. Peacock. 105 

Fruit in New Mexico — Fabian Garcia Ill 

Fruit Production in Porto Rico — T. B. McClelland 112 

Alaska — C. C. Georgeson 115 

The Relationship Between the American Pomological Society 

and Allied Industries — F. P. Downing IJfi 

How Can the American Pomological Society be of Interest and 
Benefit to the Fertilizer Industry so Far as it is Concerned 

with Orchards ? — Gail T. Abbott 124 

Cooperation Between the American Pomological Societ}- and the 

Nurserymen — M. R. Cashman 128 

Commercial Fruit Growing in Canada — C. W. Baxter 131 

The Trend 'of Research on Pomology — W. H. Chandler 146 

Informal Discussion — Dr. L. H. Bailey Presiding 156 

Canadian Efforts to Improve the Apple for the More Severe 

Districts — M. B. Davis 190 

The Prospect for Teaching in Pomology — Prof. J. C. Blair... 197 

(407) 



4o8 



PAGE 

Report from American Farm Bureau Federation Fruit Commit- 
tee — W. G. Farnsworth 201 

Water Transportation for Apples — M. L. Dean 215 

Report of Committee to Award Wilder Medals 222 

Report of Committee on Resolutions 223 

Report of Nominating Committee 224 

SECOND POMOLOGICAL ANNUAL 



1921 

PAGE 

Code of Fruit Nomenclature American Pomological Society 229 

Report of Committee on New Fruits for 1921 - — C. P. Close 232 

The Avocado Industr}^ in Southern California — Dr. W. L. Hardin.. 303 

The Facts Concerning Calcium Arsenate — J. H. Reedy 307 

Production of Apple and Pear Seedlings — I. M. Orner 314 

Commercial Peach Growing — J. E. Khlore 317 

Modern Pruning Methods — Dr. J. K. Shaw 322 

Intercollegiate Apple Judging Contest — Massachusetts — Ohio 328 

The Airplane in Forest Insect Control — J. S. Houser 329 

Horticultural Manufactures — W. W. Chenoweth 333 1 

Progress in Control of Raspberry Diseases — R. B. Wilcox 344 

Production of Apples and Peaches in the United States, and Number 

of Trees 356 

Production of Apples and Peaches in the United States, and Number 

of Trees, by Geographic Divisions and States: 1919 and 1909.... 36li 
Production of Pears and Plums and Prunes in the United States, and 

Number of Tre^s 364 

Production of Pears and Plums and Prunes in the United States, and 

Number of Trees, by Geographic Divisions and States : 1919 and 

1909 368 

Acreage and Production of Small Fruits in United States 372 

Acreage and Production of Small Fruits in the United States by 

Geographic Divisions and States : 1919 and 1909 376 

Fruit Products of Farms in the United States 380 

Fruit Products of Farms, by Divisions and States: 1919 and 1909. . . 382 

The Fifty Leading Agricultural Counties in the United States 386 1 

The Fifty Counties in U. S. Leading 'in the Combined Value of Crops 

and Live-Stock Products : 1919 ' 3881 

The Twenty Leading Crops in the United States 390| 

Fruit Crops, Number of Trees and Vines: 1919 (U. S. Census) .... 392 

Constitution and By-Laws of American Pomological Society 39^^ 

Membership 39f